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Full text of "The red network; a "who's who" and handbook of radicalism for patriots"

THE RED 
NETWORK 



ELIZABETH DILLJNC 



A "WHO'S WHO" AND HANDBOOK 
OF RADICALISM FOR PATRIOTS 



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STRAND PRICE 

$ 6QQ2 



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THE RED NETWORK 



A "Who's Who" and Handbook 
of Radicalism for Patriots 



by 

ELIZABETH DILLING 

(Mrs. Albert W. Dilling) 




13 



Published by the Author 

545 ESSEX ROAD . . KENILWORTH, ILLINOIS 
53 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD, CHICAGO 



COPYRIGHT 1934 

BY 
ELIZABETH DILLING 



Printed in the United States of America 

First Printing April 1934 
Second Printing May 1934 
Third Printing July 1934 



DEDICATED TO THE "PROFESSIONAL PATRIOTS" 

Without committing them to its statements, this book is admiringly dedi- 
cated to all those sincere fighters for American liberty and Christian principles 
who, because of their opposition to Red propaganda and the "new social 
order" of Marx and Lenin, are denounced as "professional patriots", super- 
patriots", "100 per centers", "patrioteers", and "Tories" by their Red oppo- 
nents. Particular mention is gratefully made of those "patrioteers" who have 
aided and encouraged the author in her effort to bring to the sound but still 
sleeping portion of the American public the truth about the Communist- 
Socialist world conspiracy which, with its four horsemen, Atheism, Immorality, 
Class Hatred, and Pacifism-for-the-sake-of-Red-revolution, is boring within 
our churches, schools and government and is undermining America like a 
cancerous growth. Among these are: 

The national headquarters of the staunch D. A. R. (of which the author, 
unfortunately, is not a member), which reprinted each article in her former 
pamphlet "Red Revolution" and sent copies to each chapter in the U. S. A. 
The D. A. R. members are the best informed body of women in America on 
this subject and are correspondingly detested by the Reds. 

Senator Clayton R. Lusk, whose gift of the most valuable and complete 
4,450-page four-volume Report of the Joint Legislative Committee of the 
State of New York Investigating Seditious Activities, a report based upon 
indisputable documentary evidence made by the committee which he headed, 
has made available the background and information concerning the Red move- 
ment up to the year 1920, when it was issued, which is incorporated within 
this book. 

Lt. Nelson E. Hewitt, a super-expert-patriot who has devoted twelve years 
of his life to active statistical work and study on Red subversive activities, 
who edits the Advisory Associates weekly Bulletins which every "super- 
patriot" needs (P. O. Box. 403, Chicago) and who has given the greatest 
personal aid of all, having devoted a number of full days of his time to check- 
ing and supplying information used in this book. 

Francis Ralston Welsh, Philadelphia attorney and research expert on sub- 
versive activities a real "super-patriot" who has sent many excellent 
reports. 

Miss Margaret Kerr, executive secretary of the "professional patriots' " 
Better America Federation, which placed and has kept the Criminal Syn- 
dicalism Law on the statute books of California despite the frantic efforts of 
the Reds to repeal it who has sent valuable data. 

Mr. Walter Steele, manager of the "100 per centers' " National Republic 
magazine (511 llth St. N. W., Wash., D. C.) and author of its articles on 
subversive activities which are unsurpassed, who has sent excellent special 
information. All "patrioteers" need the "National Republic" (price $2.00 
yearly) . 

Mr. Harry Jung, a "professional patriot", of the American Vigilant Intelli- 
gence Federation, sufficiently annoying in his anti-Red "free speech" to be 



Dedication 



honored by intimidating libel suits filed by the notorious "free-speech-for- 
Reds-only" A. C. L. U. (whose Chicago office is the office of its member, Carl 
Haessler of the Communist school of Red revolution and the Reds' Federated 
Press). Mr. Jung kindly loaned the author some documents. 

Mr. John B. Chappie, editor of the Ashland (Wis.) Press, author of 
"La Follette-Socialism," etc., whose courageous exposure in the face of death 
threats of the Socialist-Communist network in Wisconsin defeated the La Fol- 
lette dynasty in the 1932 election for the first time in forty years, who sent 
his helpful book and pamphlets to the author. 

Those who have assembled large and distinctive audiences to hear the 
author's lectures, among them: Paul G. Armstrong, Vice Commander Dept. 
of 111., American Legion, and many other valiant Legion Commanders; U. S. 
Army and Navy Officers Club; the men of the Chicago Military Intelligence; 
leaders of: the Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs; Moody Church and 
Bible Institute; Women's Patriotic League; Catholic organizations; Funda- 
mentalist and other anti-Bolshevik, anti-Atheist Churches; Clubs; Community 
mass meetings; etc., etc. 

Col. Sidney Story, lecturer and fiery patriot; W. H. Chesbrough, Wis- 
consin Commander of the G. A. R. ; Maude Howe of the Canadian Christian 
Crusade (against atheism) ; Nesta Webster, world famous English historian 
and author of "Surrender of an Empire", "World Revolution", "French 
Revolution", etc.; my friends Mr. and Mrs. George Cretors, residents of 
Soviet Russia while Mr. Cretors was employed there as an engineer; Mr. 
John E. Waters, also a former engineer for the Soviet Government, whose 
true story entitled "Red Justice" is available at 50c (P. O. Box 242, Madison, 
Wis.) ; Mr. Carveth Wells, famous lecturer and author of "Kapoot", a graphic 
account of his Russian experiences; Mrs. C. D. Shipley, tireless patriotic 
worker in Waukegan, 111., a Red stronghold. 

After reading the author's pamphlet "Red Revolution", David Kinley, 
the brilliant and loyal-American president-emeritus of the University of Illi- 
nois, wrote in part: "I congratulate you on your clear and earnest exposition 
of the situation, and I quite agree with you that it is time something were 
done to prevent the evil influence of the advocates of Communism and their 
allies. The allies include a good many people who would refuse to be called 
Communists, but whose influence, through various associations, tends to 
strengthen the work and claims of that group. I agree with you that it is 
time that parents should look more closely into the influence of the teachers 
of the schools and colleges which their children attend." 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Watt of Chicago declare: "From a viewpoint 
gained through our recent residence of fifteen months in an American engi- 
neering colony in Soviet Russia, the statements of Mrs. Albert W. Billing 
concerning conditions prevalent in that country are found to be absolutely 
authentic and of invaluable import." 

May "professional patriots" increase and multiply; may they cease to be 
lone voices crying in the wilderness; may their number and activities grow 
strong enough to avert now threatening Socialism or Fascism, and to pre- 
serve for America, Christianity, the American Constitution, and American 
liberty. (See "Professional Patriots" under Organizations herein.) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Dedication (To "Professional Patriots") 5 



PART I 

Miscellaneous Articles 

Russian Revolution Do we want it here? 9 

Have We Recognized Russia? 14 

"O! Let Them Blow Off Steam As They Do in England!" 16 

Communist Organization in the U.S.A 17 

Red Army in the U.S.A 21 

Communist Party and Religion 22 

Socialist Party and Religion 23 

Women and Socialism 27 

"Christian" Socialism 28 

"Methodists Turn Socialistic" 33 

"News" 38 

Jail or Asylum for Me Suggests "Liberal" Mondale 41 

Who Are They? 45 

Gandhi 45 

Glenn Frank 46 

Einstein 48 

Jane Addams 51 

G. Bromley Oxnam 53 

Carl Haessler "Red Ravinia" 54 

"I Am Not Interested" 59 

1. So-Called "Pacifism" Is It Christian or Red? 61 

2. Pacifism and Its Red Aids 65 

Socialist Party (and the New Deal) 69 

The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 74 

Capitalism, Hewer and "Chiseler" of American Greatness 91 

Fascism . 99 



PART II 

Organizations, Etc. 

Descriptive data concerning more than 460 Communist, Radical Paci- 
fist, Anarchist, Socialist, I.W.W. controlled organizations and 
agencies. The names are alphabetically arranged. See Index for 

list 101 

Abbreviations of Words 253 

Explaining some "Red" Terms 254 



Contents 



PART III 

"Who's Who" 

PAGE 

Who Is Who in Radicalism? 257 

This "Who's Who" 258 

Listing about 1,300 persons who are leading members of the organiza- 
tions listed in Part II. Most of the organizations referred to in the 
"Who's Who" are described and discussed in Part II and the 
abbreviations used are listed along with the full organization names 
in the Index. 

INDEX 

Part I Miscellaneous Articles 337 

Part II Organizations, Etc 338 

Part III "Who's Who" . 352 



Facsimile Illustrations 

Showing Soviet Anti-religious Cartoon in "Economic Justice," 

Bulletin of National Religion and Labor Foundation 100 

A.C.L.U. Letter in Behalf of Radical Legislation Lists 

National Committee and Officers 110 

Another Similar A.C.L.U. Letter Scoffs at "Patriots" 122 

Letter of Chicago Committee for Struggle Against War 

Lists Intl., Am. and Chgo. Committees 174 

Letter of Labor Defense Council, Formed for Defense of 

Bridgman Communists Reveals Interlocking of Reds 182 

Showing Communist Cartoon of Jesus Reproduced in "Economic 

Justice" with Editorial Comment and List of Editors 202 

Pro-Soviet Letter of National Religion and Labor Foundation 

Lists Its Leaders 205 

Significant Letter Sent Out by Socialist Public Ownership League 

Revealing Its Close Ties with Secretary Ickes 256 



PART I 
MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES 



RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 
Do We Want It Here? 

To one who has seen Russia, unblinded by the propaganda of a few 
"model" institutions shown to tourists and built by foreign brains and capital, 
this talk of "revolution" here to better economic conditions strikes terror to 
the heart. One recalls those great civilizations in history which were laid to 
waste and were then for centuries unable to rise again. 

In the Moscow "Museum of the Revolution'', I saw racks and racks of 
photographs taken during the Russian Revolution and its attendant famine. 
These pictures of people who starved to death lying in the streets where they 
fell, cannibalistic views of dead mothers and babies with half-eaten bodies, 
and revolutionary scenes of stark horror and misery, were revolting past 
description. 

The Soviet government woman-guide showing us these said she had lost 
two members of her own family in this famine and had seen worse scenes 
herself around Odessa. Later I shuddered as I heard her announce: "There 
is no use to waste time here in the Foreign Department (of the Museum). 
You people all read newspapers. You know what we are doing in China, 
Spain, and in your own country our strikes and all. Our world revolution 
will start with China and end with the United States" In this Department 
is a map of the United States re-districted and with our cities renamed as 
they are expected to be "when the red flag waves over the White House." On 
this map Cleveland is renamed "Ruthenberg", Detroit is "Lewistown", etc. 
Since I heard these ominous words of our guide, the December 24, 1931, issue 
of "Inprecorr" announced that "the Soviet power has already been set up 
over a sixth part of China"; the Communist "Daily Worker" of April 5, 
1932, in an article entitled "The Growth of the Soviet Power in China", 
gave details of great new Red Army victories in China. No wonder Com- 
munists demonstrate in front of Japanese embassies against "imperialist" 
war on China. 

In January 1933, authorities reported seven provinces and at least 
80,000,000 Chinese Sovietized, and an inner Chinese Soviet state which had 
an army of many thousand troops trained by German and Russian officers. 
Officers, arms and supplies were being sent from the U. S. S. R. by an ancient 
caravan route through Outer Mongolia, a large territory practically annexed 
to the U. S. S. R. after a revolution was engineered there in 1921, a point the 
League of Nations remained strangely silent about. Sovietization is increas- 
ing steadily in China. 

The dirty, drab dilapidation of Russia, with its uncurtained, broken win- 
dows and unrepaired roofs, but with idle crowds roving the streets, bespeaks 
the loss of private ownership which always fosters personal interest and 



10 The Red Network 



initiative. Communism has indeed abolished wealth in Russia. The wealth 
of those "liquidated" millions of the intelligentsia, aristocratic, middle, and 
small-land-holding classes, who have been killed or leveled down, has made 
way for universal poverty. Thirty per cent of the poorer portion of the 
160,000,000 Russian population still remain to be dispossessed or "liqui- 
dated", and so, unceasingly, great train loads of those resisting "collectiv- 
ization" travel the rails to Siberia. Ellery Walter counted, recently, in four 
weeks' time, seventeen train loads, some forty cars long, of such people. Men, 
women and children peered out at him through the bars. They were enroute 
to hard labor, prison camps, or death in Siberia. 

Siberia is now populated as never before with exiled peasants who have 
spoken bitterly about, or resisted, the giving up of their pigs, cows, or little 
homes, or nearly all of their grain, or have offended by upholding religion, 
and consequently are being punished as "counter revolutionaries" or 
"damagers". 

Tourists in Moscow may see, near their hotels, during late night and 
early morning hours, the "wild" or deserted children sleeping in doorways. 
These are not the same wild hordes of children seen during the revolution 
sixteen or more years ago, for those would now be grown. These are a new 
crop, produced not only by low living conditions but also by conditions of 
low living, fostered by the Communist government destruction of faith in 
God, religion, and morality. Lenin's wife said in "Pravda" (the official 
organ of the Communist Party of Russia) : "We have seven million deserted 
children officially registered and eighty thousand who have been gathered 
into our asylums. How many more are wandering about Russia?" Couples 
may simply live together or register quickly as married or divorced by pay- 
ment of a ruble. These can hardly support the children of several successive 
unions on incomes barely sufficient for their own existence. 

Of course, a hospital we visited bragged of forty abortions performed that 
morning, and an "educational" movie viewed by a friend showed pictorially, 
to a mixed audience, old and new abortion methods and the benefits of the 
latter. 

While visiting a "model" institution for children at the Tsar's old summer 
palace at Tsarskoye Selo, we photographed the little tots, naked from the 
waist up, running around in our party. Some not over six years old had 
learned enough English to beg "Gimme a cigarette, gimme a cigarette!" In 
this, and in other respects, our American institutions for six-year-olds are 
unlike the "model" products of the Russian Revolution. Concerning the 
Russian conditions, the U. S. Fish report on Communism says: "Documents 
and books presented to the committee indicate that the most terrible kinds 
of vice are encouraged among the young school children in order to break 
down their family influence which is the foundation of all religion." Sie- 
mashko, Soviet Commissar of Health, confessed at one time that venereal 
disease "had reached the proportions of a terrible plague". 

My friends Mr. and Mrs. George Cretors have returned from Russia, 
where he, an American engineer, was in charge of 475,000 acres as agri- 
cultural expert for the Soviet government. They tell of the openly free sex 
relations among the 700 children between the ages of 11 and 17 in the 
"model" cooperative children's institution on this project, and of indecent 



Russian Revolution Do We Want It Here? U 

practices taught in the school there by a Soviet official from Moscow, and 
of the long line of these children who waited in line to be treated for social 
disease when a doctor and nurse came there for that purpose. 

All of the churches our guides took us to visit had been converted into 
anti-religious museums. Life-size manikins are dressed up in church robes 
and the most revolting interpretations of religious subjects are portrayed by 
them and by colored cartoons tacked up on large bulletin boards so that the 
crowds of young workers who are taken through may see and have explained 
to them by Soviet guides how ridiculous religious faith is. The most exquisite 
church of all, the Church of the Redeemer in Moscow, was then about to be 
dynamited to make way for a "Palace of the Soviets". I have movies of nude 
bathing in the river taken in the heart of Moscow, men and women together, 
with the Church of the Redeemer in the background. Beautiful St. Isaac's 
Cathedral in Leningrad, then an anti-religious museum, is now used as an 
atheist theatre as part of the new five-year plan to close all houses of worship 
by 1937 and to eradicate even the thought of God from the minds of the 
people by a militant anti-God campaign. 

Our guides took us to the Torgsin stores for foreign tourists, where gold 
trinkets, paintings, art objects, church robes and ikons, looted from their 
former owners, are sold by the Soviet government for foreign gold only. But 
no visitor or proletarian Russian gets inside the Soviet officials' special stores, 
where the best is sold to the higher-ups at lowest prices. The windows of 
these stores are whitewashed and a guard with a gun stands out in front. Nor 
did our guides take us to visit the poor, miserable workers' stores, where 
long lines wait whenever merchandise is offered at prices the worker can afford 
to pay. My friends living there did take me, however. Goods on the half- 
empty shelves were labeled in several stores "For Display Purposes Only". 
Only counter supplies were for sale. An oil barrel in one had a sign "There 
is no more", which had been there for eight months, I was told. In one store, 
buzzing flies fought over three cheeses, priced at eight, ten, and twelve rubles 
(four, five, and six dollars) per pound. Three fish displayed were priced at 
$3.75 per pound. A thin, fly-specked box of candy was priced at $5.00, small 
individual pieces priced about twenty cents each, although a Woolworth 
buyer in New York was offered all the Soviet candy he could use at a penny 
a pound delivered. Incidentally, he patriotically bought American candy at 
five cents a pound instead. 

The products of Russian workers are dumped abroad to break the markets 
of capitalistic countries, to pay for some machinery which is rusted and unfit 
for use in a short time, and to pay for propagandizing Communist revolution 
throughout the world. 

There was no meat in the stores when I was there, as it was August and 
there is no ice. Everything is strictly rationed. Soap was $1.30 a bar and 
limited to two bars a month. Black bread, dried herring, and cucumbers 
seemed to be the actual purchases of the average buyer, except at one store 
which offered carrots and at another which offered tomatoes, both of which 
had previously been impossible to procure. Long lines waited to buy these 
specialties. Milk is sold at a special store and only to those with certificates 
showing that they have infants. 

I saw scaffoldings on numerous buildings, but while there saw no one 



12 The Red Network 



working on them. An American engineer who had been there three years said 
nobody in that time had worked on a scaffolding across the street from our 
hotel. I saw buildings which had been slopped over outside with whitewash 
a long time before, to judge by their soiled appearance, and yet the windows, 
splotched and streaked with the whitewash, still remained unwashed. I saw 
no window curtains anywhere, but I am told there are a few in Russia. 

Two of the three busses we rode in in Leningrad broke down. The 
streets and roads were very much torn up and rutted, and the government 
cars rented to our party were trembling and unsure. On one trip, a wheel 
came off of one, and an axle broke on another. However, one day we had 
the use of some very good Packards and Buicks. These were the private cars 
of minor Soviet officials, loaned to us. I was told there were over seventy 
Rolls-Royces then in use in Moscow as the private cars of Soviet officials. Of 
course, the poor bundle-laden proletarian who walks or hangs out of an over- 
crowded street car is told that these cars are not the officials' "private" cars 
but are only for their "private use". The Socialist slogan is "Production for 
use, not for profit." (Whose use, whose profit?) Outside the towns, people 
poured out of old, dilapidated houses to see us go by. Auto traffic is a novelty. 

The incessant propaganda about Communism and about what Russia is 
going to do is the only lively feature about Russia. So many of the widely- 
publicized and supposedly photographed projects are merely on paper. Din- 
giness, bad smells, and a sense of fear pervades everything. The last manager 
of the Grand Hotel in Moscow with his wife and children had been awakened 
at three o'clock in the morning by the G. P. U. (secret police) and had not 
since been heard of. They have a saying "Only the G. P. U. works fast in 
Russia." My friends showed me their letters, which plainly had been opened 
and glued together again before reaching them. All dispatches by foreign 
newspaper correspondents are censored before entering or leaving Russia. 
Our ship was not allowed to use its radio while within Russian waters. 

Russian workers pay out about 30% of their earnings in taxes, such as 
the "culture tax" (for the privilege of reading newspapers and hearing propa- 
ganda at Workers' Clubs), a "housing tax" (to build houses for others), a 
"cooperative store tax" (for the privilege of buying at government stores), 
and an income tax. Besides, all workers must occasionally "voluntarily" give 
their whole month's wages to the government as a loan. Russians are for- 
bidden to possess foreign money. Guards, barbed wire, spies, and heavy 
penalties inflicted on relatives left behind deter Russians from leaving Russia. 

The bedbugs in the Grand Hotel were wild about me, the listless waiters 
not interested at all. Some beautiful marble statues, large Sevres vases, fly- 
specked crystal chandeliers, and massive old furniture remained, contrasting 
sharply with bare floors and cheap new iron beds. The hotel elevator ran 
once in a while, when not out of order. The dingy-windowed empty stores 
which line the streets (for only here and there a government store is oper- 
ating) give a dismal appearance to the large cities. The few outcast private 
peddlers who remained when I was there were ragged and wretched looking 
individuals and were soon to be strictly dealt with and banned. 

The hotel food was the best Russia provides for its tourists who pay pre- 
cious foreign money and was infinitely better than the Russians get, but it had 



Russian Revolution Do We Want It Here? 13 

a kinship with the smelliness of everything connected with it and affected the 
digestion peculiarly due it was said to benzoate of soda preservatives used. 
Ragged proletarians loaded with bundles fill the railroad stations. The 
mattress and pillow tickings of the special first-class sleepers we rode on were 
revoltingly dirty. On the train, unwrapped black-bread sandwiches were 
handed to us out of a basket by a girl with soiled hands about 9 A. M. Regular 
breakfast was served at the hotels between 10 and 11 A. M., luncheon between 
3 and 4, and supper between 10 and 11 P. M. Fresh fruit was non-existent; 
it is exported. 

We were constantly told how much better off the Russians are now than 
they were before the Revolution. To be sure, we visited suburban homes 
formerly owned by well-to-do families now in use as "Workers' Clubs," or 
"Homes of Rest and Culture," as they are called. In one of these, workers 
in undershirts were sitting around, one hammering on the grand piano. Their 
old hats were hung on an elaborate old lamp and the marble statuary. Beauti- 
ful paintings of the former owners still hung at each end of the paneled din- 
ing room. The floors were bare and none too clean and there were iron cots 
in living room and dining room. The dining table was covered with soiled 
oil cloth and set with black bread and soup for the noonday meal of the 
inmates. A plaster bust of Lenin with a red necktie tied slightly askew graced 
the window seat in the living room. Out of the window, we saw and photo- 
graphed girls very scantily clad lying in the tall grass of what had once been 
the garden, near an ornamental pool then filled with trash. 

I was never in Russia before the Revolution. But as I passed miles of 
homes along the roads now neglected and nearly falling down and noted how 
many of them had ginger-bread carvings on them, it occurred to me that 
someone must have cared for them more than their present occupants do, 
or else they would never have bothered to carve them. As I watched the 
workers in the stores and noted what they were buying, I concluded that if 
they had formerly had less to eat than they were now getting they would not 
have survived. I met Russian bourgeois exiles in Switzerland who had escaped 
only with their lives and whose relatives had been killed after the Revolution. 
I believe that those exiles and the millions who were killed are more fortunate 
than the poor Russian proletarian left behind living as a mere cog in a God- 
less, slavedriving state machine. 

Stepping from Russia into Esthonia is like stepping from the slums into a 
comfortable neighborhood. Until only fifteen years ago, Esthonia was a part 
of Russia; but it has since had democratic government and private trade. 
The clean window curtains and potted flowers, and the busy bustle of trade 
and traffic, and the general air of well being contrast sharply with gloomy 
Russia. 

When over one thousand Communists rioted in front of the Chicago School 
Board offices (March 27, 1932), they bore a placard: "We Want Soviet 
Conditions Here." Some misguided Americans, openly or covertly, are 
echoing this sentiment. The universities seem to have joined the gutter Com- 
munists in "going Red." They unite in using the argument that inasmuch 
as the American "economic system" has "collapsed" we must have Russian 
revolution to right matters. 



14 The Red Network 



Owing to the spirit of Christian (not atheist) mercy, deeply ingrained in 
the American people, no one is starving, or will starve, here, who asks for 
aid. I compare the miserable food and living conditions of Russians who 
work, with the rations of our county and charity unemployed poor, to the 
latter's advantage. Moreover, no free-born American can conceive of the 
Soviet despotic regulation of the smallest personal matters of conduct and 
conversation, nor understand the haunting fear of the terrorist secret police 
which even the American tourist in Russia senses. Much less would Amer- 
icans want to live under such "Soviet conditions" here. 

While I was in Moscow, factory workers who had long protested bad 
working conditions decided to strike. At once soldiers and machine guns 
surrounded the factory. The workers were given fifteen minutes to decide 
whether to work or be blown to bits. They worked. 

The present economic depression or "collapse" is not as unprecedented 
as was the era of prosperity which just preceded it. No other country at any 
time has ever had a standard of living, a condition of general welfare, to 
compare with ours. Since our struggling little thirteen colonies pioneered 
through to the foundation of this nation, we have survived wars and many 
depressions (or "collapses") without halting our upward march and with- 
out ceasing to be the mecca of the whole world. Immigration barriers have 
been necessary to hold back the multitudes drawn here by the opportunities 
and liberty offered under our form of government. Africa, South America, 
and other lands have soil and resources as rich, but they have lacked our 
government and those American principles which have inspired progress in 
the people of all nationalities who have come here to make America their 
home. 

Macauley, the historian, said: "Your Republic will be pillaged and rav- 
aged in the twentieth century, just as the Roman Empire was by the bar- 
barians of the fifth century, with this difference, that the devastators of the 
Roman Empire came from abroad, while your barbarians will be the people 
of your country, and the products of your own institutions." 

Within each person lies the spirit and the power to help guide events in 
this nation either toward Russian revolution, with all its horrors, or upward 
toward firmer American principles and new American progress. Will our peo- 
ple rise in this crisis, as they have before, or will they at last fall? That 
depends upon you and me. 

HAVE WE RECOGNIZED RUSSIA? 

Have we recognized the poor Russian peasants deprived of food cards 
and deliberately "liquidated" starved to death by the Soviet Government 
within the last year as "class enemies," a number estimated at three million 
by Ralph Barnes of the N. Y. Herald Tribune, four million by Henry Cham- 
berlain of the Manchester Guardian of England, and five million by pro- 
Soviet Walter Duranty of the N. Y. Times? 

"At the recent London Economic Conference Maxim Litvinov . . . calmly 
admitted to an European diplomat that the sacrifice of fifteen to twenty 
million more people will be readily agreed to by the Soviet Government in 
order to transform Russia into a real Communist State" (from "America" 
of Nov. 25, 1933). 



Have We Recognized Russia? IS 

Anna Smirnova, Moscow factory worker, answering questions about Russia 
in the communist Daily Worker of Nov. 10, 1933 says: "It is true that we 
are unmercifully driving from our ranks and from our enterprises all those 
'wreckers' and counter revolutionary forces in our midst those forces that 
are using all their intelligence and physical strength to hold us back and to 
establish a capitalist society among us. ... To take the place of the Church we 
have given the workers the theatre . . . club houses, etc. To take the place of 
the Bible and the priests, books concerning the class struggle by Lenin and 
Stalin. There are quite a few churches left in the U. S. S. R. It is true that 
with each year the number grows less . . . little by little through their con- 
tacts with this culture of ours they" (the believers) "are being won over to 
the cause of the workers' struggle to establish a Socialist Society and they 
find little place or time in their lives to think of religion." (Won over by the 
example of the "liquidated.") 

Have we recognized the hapless Christians or the helpless majority of the 
Russian people now living under the iron dictatorship of their Communist 
Party which comprises but 1% of the population? 

We have not. We have recognized the Communist Party Government of 
Russia and its Communist International, which are one and which are striv- 
ing for similar power in America. We are financing agitations for our own 
destruction and supplying millions of dollars worth of cotton to be used for 
explosives for a war, perhaps, against anti-communist Japan, Asia's only bul- 
wark against Communism now. We have made a pact with Hell to help pro- 
vide the Cross upon which to crucify Christian civilization. 

"Tut tut be broadminded ! " says the man educated beyond his own 
intelligence. One is reminded of two prisoners discussing a fellow prisoner 
in a motion picture. One asked "What is he in for? Didn't he kill his mud- 
der?" "Sure," replied the other, "he cut his old lady's t'roat but he's 
sor-ry. He's a good guy!" 

The most broadminded can not say that the Soviet Government is sorry. 
It is proud and hopeful of similar opportunities for revolution in America 
and fifty-eight other countries. As the world's outstanding nation that with- 
held recognition of the murder regime for 16 years, we now capitulate and 
provide it with new hope, new pride, new funds for the fulfillment of its aims. 

As a reward the communist Daily Worker editorially promises us the 
following (Nov. 20, 1933): 

"The success of recognition, which the workers throughout the world will 
celebrate and greet as a harbinger of greater advances for the workers of the 
Soviet Union, and the revolutionary proletariat throughout the world, was 
made possible by the stalwart and brilliant leadership of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union, the Party of Lenin and Stalin, a section of the 
Communist International. 

"Revolutionary Way Out of Crisis" 

"The Communist Party of the U. S. A., section of the Communist Inter- 
national, points out that the only guarantee of peace is the abolition of cap- 
italism. Its main task is the abolition of capitalism in the United States. 

"The deepening of the crisis of American capitalism, the growing sym- 
pathy for the Soviet Union, gives the Communist Party of the U. S. A. the 



16 The Red Network 



widest possibilities of convincing and winning the American toiling masses 
for the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 

"In this country, the Communist Party, section of the Communist Inter- 
national, basing itself on the principles of Lenin and Stalin, will more deter- 
minedly than ever strive to win the American workers for the revolutionary 
way out of the crisis, for the emulation of the Soviet Union and its revolu- 
tionary victories." 

M. J. Olgin, member of the central committee of the Communist Party, 
and editor of the Jewish Communist organ, "Freiheit," has written a pamph- 
let since recognition of Russia by the United States, entitled "Why Com- 
munism," which is even clearer in its open advocacy of violent destruction 
of the United States government. It should be read by everyone, particularly 
by those who have any belief in the piffle printed in the daily press about 
cessation of Soviet communistic activities in the United States. To quote but 
a small part of it: 

"The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is affiliated with the Com- 
munist International. It is the most influential but not the only influential 
party in the International. It is one part but not the whole of the Inter- 
national. Its advice is highly precious because it has long accomplished what 
the Communist Parties of the world are only striving at the proletarian 
revolution. The advice and experiences of the other parties, however, is also 
of great value in determining the policies of the Comintern. The seat of the 
Comintern is Moscow because this is the capital of the only workers' and 
peasants' government in the world, and the Comintern can meet there freely. 
As the workers become rulers of other countries, the Comintern will not have 
to confine its meetings to Moscow alone. 

"The Communist Party of the U. S. A. is thus a part of a world-wide 
organization which gives it guidance and enhances its fighting power. Under 
the leadership of the Communist Party, the workers of the U. S. A. will pro- 
ceed from struggle to struggle, from victory to victory, until, rising in a revolu- 
tion, they will crush the capitalist State, establish a Soviet State, abolish the 
cruel and bloody system of capitalism and proceed to the upbuilding of 
Socialism." 

"O, LET THEM BLOW OFF STEAM AS THEY DO 
IN ENGLAND" 

Before obligingly parroting this subtle Red propaganda: 

1. Read the Communist press and the Workers Schools leaflets and see 
there the headlined quotation: " 'Without revolutionary theory there can 
be no revolutionary practise? Lenin." Thousands of dollars are continually 
raised for the Red press in order to "blow steam" into the Red movement, 
with this statement of Lenin's heading the printed pleas for funds. 

2. Read: "The Surrender of an Empire" by Nesta Webster, "Potted 
Biographies" (of British statesmen), and the weekly "Patriot" of London, 
to gain some actual picture of England's blind grapple with Socialism-Com- 
munism within. (Boswell Pub. Co., 10 Essex St., London, W. C. 2.) 

3. Read in this book, in the daily press, and A. C. L. U. reports, of the 
determined fight the A. C. L. U. (directed by Communists, Socialists and 



"O, Let Them Blow OS Steam" 17 

sympathizers) wages to secure the "free speech" for Reds to "blow steam" 
into the Red movement, whereas Michael Gold's statement in the Daily 
Worker, Oct. 28, 1933, is typical of the Communist-Socialist view of "free 
speech" for others. To quote: "This whole controversy over free speech 
is an academic one with these ivory-tower liberals. To the worker it is some- 
thing as real as murder. It is part of the class war, not something in the 
clouds. Free speech is not an inalienable right, but something to be fought 
for a class weapon. It is not to be given up to scabs in a strike, or to Nazis 
and Ku Kluxers. We are not interested in hearing what they have to say 
we only wish to labor that they may not exist" Read herein what Robt. 
Briffault says of "liquidating" dissenters in the article "Recovery Through 
Revolution" under "Organizations." 

4. Take note that the Garland Fund appropriation "to investigate spy 
activities of the U. S. Department of Justice" and the National Popular Gov- 
ernment League's false charges resulted in successfully shutting off the 
appropriation of U. S. funds to the Dept. of Justice for the purpose of 
investigating Red activities in the U. S. A. This was in 1925. We have since 
had no actual protection from the Government against Reds except some 
barring and deportation of Reds by the late Mr. Doak through the Dept. 
of Labor. "Miss" Perkins has now changed that. Then note that the Com- 
munist Party (see Communist Organization in the U. S. A.), which was 
illegal and was raided at Bridgman, Michigan in 1922, after 1925 came out 
more boldly, until in 1928 all camouflage was thrown aside and it labeled 
itself "Communist Party of the U. S. A. (Section of the Communist Inter- 
national)." Since 1928, it has increased its organizing Party workers to 
27,000 members and enlisted a membership in its subsidiary organizations of 
1,200,000 members, approximately the number of Communists now holding 
down Russia's 160,000,000 people who, however, were put in bondage by 
not over 79,000 Communists (by working the "united front"). Many of 
these members of Communist subsidiaries are our college presidents, pro- 
fessors, ministers, and public idols. 

5. Study various revolutions and learn what a small number of deter- 
mined agitators can actually govern a country. Observe what is being done 
in Washington now. 

6. Ask yourself if in recent years sex, pacifistic, atheistic, and socialistic 
propaganda has increased in America and why. 

7. First familiarize yourself with the names of leaders and the principles 
of Socialism-Communism, then visit your son's or daughter's college. Read 
the college paper and look at the college bulletin board. Observe the insidious 
High School journals. Then start looking elsewhere with "seeing" eyes. 

8. Finally try "blowing off" some anti-Red, anti-pacificst, anti-sex-trash, 
patriotic "steam" and watch who opposes you. You will be surprised! 

COMMUNIST ORGANIZATION IN THE U. S. A. 

The World Communist movement is organized by three super-organiza- 
tions. The supreme head is the Communist Party of the U. 5. S. R. The 
two equal and subordinate organizations are the Soviet government and 
the Third International. 



18 The Red Network 



The ruling inner circle of the C. P. U. S. S. R. is a group of nine men 
forming the Polit-Buro (Political Bureau). This inner circle rules the Soviet 
government and the Third International. All of the nine members of the Polit- 
Buro are high officials of the Soviet Government and all are high officials 
of the Third International. The supreme head is Joseph Stalin, secretary 
of the C. P. U. S. S. R. 

"The Communist Party of U. S. A. (section of the Communist Inter- 
national)," which is the title of Moscow's American branch, is one of about 
59 national branches of the Third International. 

To quote from the leaflet "Revolutionary Greetings," which is presented 
to each new Party member in the U. S. A.: "The Communist Party was 
organized Sept. 1, 1919, by the revolutionary workers who were expelled from 
or left the Socialist Party when it became a reformist organization. 

"The Party was declared illegal by the Federal government in January, 
1920, when thousands of its members were arrested. 

"The Party functioned illegally up to Dec. 26, 1921, when it changed 
its name into Workers Party. 

"The name was subsequently changed to Workers (Communist) Party 
and finally again to Communist Party, in April, 1928. 

"The Party has been a section of the Communist International from the 
day of its organization." 

The Central Committee of the C. P. of U. S. A. receives its orders directly 
from the Third International and in turn sends out its orders through district 
committees in the U. S. and the Communist press to Communist members. 

The United States is now (1934) divided into 20 districts each with its 
own committee. Each district is divided into sections and sub-sections with 
Section Committees, mapped out in accordance with the residential location 
of Communist members. 

The district in which I live is district No. 8 and comprises all of Illinois 
and part of Indiana and small section of Mo. (St. Louis). The district head- 
quarters are in Chicago (101 South Wells St., Room 705) and the district 
Party school for training organizers, agitators, functionaries, etc. is called 
the "Workers School" (2822 S. Michigan Ave.). 

New York City is in district No. 2 and houses also the headquarters for 
the entire U. S. and part of Latin America. New Haven, Conn., is in district 
No. 15, Boston in district No. 1, etc. 

Each section is divided into Units. The Units establish Nuclei (two or 
three members), in various neighborhoods and shops. There are two kinds of 
Nuclei: Shop Nuclei, made up of those working in one establishment, and 
Street Nuclei, made up of scattered membership in one neighborhood. 

Each Unit has its own "Functionaries," such as Organizer, Agit-Prop 
(agitational propaganda) Director, Literary Agents, etc. The Units after 
they number more than 25 members, are frequently divided. Meetings of 
these Units are held in the homes of members and admittance is solely by 
membership identification (now a numbering system, 1934). General meet- 
ings of functionaries of Units are held at a Party headquarters with admit- 
tance only by membership identification. Since the Communist Party is a 
secret society it is impossible to know, with the exception of certain open 



Communist Organization in the U. S. A. 19 

leaders and organizers, whether or not any individual is or is not a Party 
member. He may or may not be. Only a small percentage of Communist 
Party members are known as such. 

All Party members must engage in active Communist work. Otherwise 
they are expelled. The Communist Party regularly cleans house of slothful 
or dissenting members. One word against Party commands and out they go. 
Often, if an expelled member shows contrition, he is taken back or put on 
probation more humble and tractable than he was before. This strict dis- 
cipline is exercised even against the highest Party leaders. Wm. Z. Foster 
himself is not exempt. The offshoot Communist Parties are largely composed 
of expelled Communist Party members who refused to "knuckle" to Moscow. 
This military organization gives the Party a cohesive, united driving force 
which increases its power a thousand fold and makes it "only the distilled 
essence of revolution," as Wm. Z. Foster once said. 

"The Communist" for Aug. 1933 (p. 716) complains that thousands are 
ready for Party membership "but we do not bring them in. ... During 1932 
our membership was doubled." For a number of years it had hovered around 
8,000 members. The present active number is given as 27,000 members 
(Clarence Hathaway, Jan. 21, 1934). "When we consider the composition 
of the mass organizations under our influence, with the 100,000 members and 
the more thousands in the left-wing oppositions, the 150,000 readers of the 
language press, then we immediately realize that we have already thousands 
upon thousands of potential forces inside of hundreds of factories in the 
country, among the millions of unemployed," etc. 

Earl Browder, general secretary of the Communist Party, at the Trade 
Union Cleveland conference August 29-30, 1933, stated that the member- 
ship in Communist Party subsidiary organizations was 1,200,000 members. 
This figure is considered fair by neutral experts. Russia is now being held 
down by about this number of Communists. The revolution in Russia was 
put over by not over 79,000 Bolshevik fighters. 

The figure of 1,200,000 members in Communist subsidiaries probably 
does not include the membership of the allied Socialist Party which polled 
about 800,000 votes at the last election (in addition to the heavy Socialist 
and Communist vote given to Roosevelt as the radicals' most practical hope), 
nor the I. W. W. and Communist opposition parties' complete memberships. 
Jan. 1934 the Communist Friends of the Soviet Union claimed over the radio 
to have 2,000,000 members. 

Under Soviet Supervision 

Communist Revolutions do not just happen. They are officered and 
planned. From Soviet sources the Better -America Federation compiled the 
following information: The Polit-Buro of the U. S. S. R. (the executive com- 
mittee of the central committee of the Communist Party of Russia; nine men) 
controls the Torgpred or controlling organization for the Soviet government's 
activities in the U. S. Torgpred is organized in three depts.: one is the Raz- 
vedoupr, the military or naval espionage, having as heads two "Voenspetz" 
military or naval specialists of high rank. Razvedoupr is composed of three 



20 The Red Network 



sections; Sec. 1 has charge of gathering information relative to the army and 
navy; Sec. 2 has charge of organizing Communist "centuries" or "100's," 
which are to be the framework of the Revolutionary army. Sec. 3 has charge 
of abolishing military power, also the organized espionage ; it is further com- 
posed of nine branches: 

1. Operations branch; 2. Information branch; 3. Disarmament branch; 

4. Naval branch; 5. Aeronautical branch ; 6. Transportation branch; 7. Bac- 
terio-Chemical branch; 8. Anti-militaristic branch; 9. Liason with Moscow. 

Another of three sections of Torgpred is the Tcheka (O. G. P. U.) or 
State political police, secret in practically all of its activities and personnel 
and with the following functions: A. Dept. of investigations; B. Education 
of anti-revolutionary masses; C. Organization of assaults on individuals con- 
demned by the Tcheka; D. Protection of prominent Communist offiicials who 
are at any time in the U. S. whether on open missions or, as is usually the 
case, incognito. 

Qualifications required of Tchekists in the U. S. are as follows: 

1. Must speak and write English correctly; 2. Must know American his- 
tory and political economy; 3. Must study minutely and in minute detail the 
political activity of the parties in the U. S.; 4. Must send a daily report to 
Torgpred; 5. Must dress correctly and in style; 6. Must hide their identity 
as well as their functions; 7. Must never have on their persons, in case of 
arrest, anything which will compromise the Party or anyone connected with 
the Party; 8. When doing a job must be certain they are not being watched, 
but if watched, escape at all costs; 9. Never speak of their assignments, even 
to comrades; 10. Never call a comrade in public; 11. In case arrested never 
confess not even when told their fellows have confessed; 12. Before appear- 
ing in court prepare defense carefully beforehand, then speak as little as pos- 
sible; 13. When arms or explosives are found on an arrested Tchekist, he 
will swear that he found them on the street, or they were handed him by an 
unknown person; 14. In prison do not speak to anyone, not even those 
arrested with you, they may be spies; IS. Get a Communist lawyer if pos- 
sible; speak only in his presence; 16. How to maneuver policemen and judges 
is the first duty of an arrested Communist. Violations of any of the above 
rules cause the Tchekist so violating to be considered and treated as anti- 
revolutionist. 

The third branch under Torgpred is Amtorg (so-called Commercial 
agency of the Soviet Govt. in the U. S.), under which is Ikki (the executive 
committee) under the control of the Komintern (Communist International). 
In the U. S., Ikki's mission is to direct the action of the American Com- 
munist Party. It studies the possibilities of action. The functions of Ikki 
are as follows: 1. Organizes centuries (A) in "clashing" or strife groups 
and (B) in combat groups (armed Communists) (20,000 arms had already 
been imported, in 1930, for this purpose) ; 2. Obtains arms in foreign coun- 
tries; ^3. Organizes specialist corps to manufacture grenades, bombs and 
explosives; 4. Formulates plans for disarming the police and loyal troops; 

5. Operates to break up all groups of loyal fighting workmen when the revolu- 
tion starts, and to destroy, when unable to capture, all tanks, cannon, machine 
guns and other weapons which the loyal proletariat might use; 6. Details 



Red Army in the U. S. A. 21 

and instructs reliable men who at the zero hour will arrest you and put to 
death magistrates, police heads and police officers; 7. To seize quickly all 
barracks, city halls, public buildings and newspapers; 8. To seize and strongly 
occupy all public means of transportation, stations and piers; 9. To use 
sabotage on all state equipment, bridges, telegraphs and telephones, rail- 
roads, army trucks, powder mills, aviation camps, barracks, police stations, 
banks and newspapers which if left undestroyed will aid the State to quell 
the revolution. 

The Ikki Section must be entirely composed of American citizens who 
must conform themselves strictly to instructions from Moscow. 

Clarence Hathaway of the central committee of the Party spoke one 
hour Jan. 21, 1934 at the Chicago Coliseum on Leninist policies for seizure 
of power and said they already had men in the Army and Navy ready to 
turn their guns on their officers and the "capitalist class" (as they did in the 
Russian revolution) and turn any war into Red revolution. He emphasized 
the point that "We must be ready and prepared to DESTROY everyone 
who puts up any struggle against us." An audience of 10,000 Reds cheered 
him and booed the American flag as it was paraded up and down the aisles, 
by men dressed as U. S. soldiers, led by a man dressed to represent a capitalist 
holding a big yellow bag with a dollar mark on it. A huge Red flag was then 
dropped from the top of the stage and the audience applauded enthusiastically. 

RED ARMY IN THE U. S. A. 

Now recruiting fighters to train for bloody revolutionary action. "Red 
Front," the monthly publication for the Red Army in the U. S. A., is pub- 
lished by the "Central Executive Committee, Red Front Fighters League of 
U. S. A., 95 Ave. B, N. Y. City." The November 1933 issue was distributed 
at the Communist mass meeting Nov. 7, 1933 at the Chicago Coliseum and 
is headlined "Mobilization/" After telling of the need for fighting Fascism 
in the U. S. A., it says, to quote from p. 1 : "We revolutionary workers who 
at all strikes, demonstrations, and picket lines have a share in the tear gas 
and the clubs of capitalistic lackeys are also not more anxious for terrorism 
and beatings without returning them their due. We live in a new time, when 
any day may be the beginning of the struggle WE RED FRONT COM- 
RADES HAVE A GREAT RESPONSIBILITY" (emphasis in original) 
"in winning over the unemployed for the fight against Hunger and Frost 
and to open food storage places. New methods for the defense of strikers 
must be discovered. At the same time the question of anchoring the Red 
Front in different factories and shops, railroads, etc. are of the greatest impor- 
tance. The dashing to pieces of the whole apparatus of government, is, in 
the period of revolutionary uprising, thus easier to accomplish" (Emphasis 
supplied). On p. 8: "What is the Red Front? The Red Front is com- 
posed of workers and farmers as poor, downtrodden and exploited as pro- 
letarians of all other working parties and organizations. . . . With Red Front 
against hunger regime! With Red Front for a Socialist Soviet Republic of 
America! Comrades: Decide on which Front you are willing to fight." The 
Fist (Red Front emblem) is "a symbol of irreconcilable battle." 



22 The Red Network 



And on p. 7: "Join Our Ranks! . . . The Chicago Red Front is the section 
of the Red Front Fighters League, an International Workers Defense Organ- 
ization. Send in your applications to Red Front, care Young Communist 
League, Room 707, 101 S. Wells St., Chicago." 

"Join the Red Front for Anti-Fascist Action: Los Angeles, Calif., 224 
S. Spring St., Rm. 304; New York District: East Manhattan, 95 Ave. B. 
Every Wed., 8 P. M.; West Manhattan, 108 W. 24 St.; Yorkville and Har- 
lem, 350 E. 81 St.; Bronx. 2800 Bronx Pk., East, Every 1st, 2nd and 4th 
Wed's.; Brownsville, Bklyn., 1440 E. N. Y. Ave. Every Fri., 8 P. M.; South 
Brooklyn, 291 Wyckoff St.; Brighton Beach. Inquire at 95 Ave. B, N. Y. C.; 
Jamaica (same) ; Red Front Pioneers, 95 Avenue B. Every Friday." 

Is there no sedition law in the U. S. A.? Must citizens now simply train 
themselves in target practise to combat these revolutionaries bent on seizing 
plants (as at Austin, Minn.), farmers' produce, and private property? 

At this writing, Litvinov, the arch conspirator and bank-robbery aid who 
represents these, our would-be Red assassins, is being feted and dined by Pres. 
Roosevelt as an honored guest in our American White House. 

COMMUNIST PARTY AND RELIGION 

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, "Mother of harlots and abomin- 
ations of the earth" (Rev. 17:5), is the world's first government to raise the 
flag of absolute hatred and enmity to God Almighty. It not only makes no 
secret of its satanic Marxian atheism but finances and boastfully backs im- 
moral sex and militant atheist movements the world over. In addition to sur- 
passing the worst days of pagan Rome in its wholesale murder, persecution, 
and exile of Russian Christians, it endeavors to kill the souls of the young 
generation by prohibiting all teaching of God to children ; by urging children 
to publicly disown non-atheist parents; by urging parents to turn over chil- 
dren to atheist state control; by blaspheming God and Jesus Christ always 
and everywhere in the Communist press, in plays, in anti-religious parades 
and pageants and in nauseous cartoons placed in former churches. Its birth 
control societies, there and in America, are for the purpose of facilitating 
immorality and encouraging promiscuity and the abolition of Christian mar- 
riage. Communism blasphemes not only against the "Son of Man" and all 
churches but against the Divine Spirit under any name or form whatever. 

I heard Neil H. Ness of the sinister Russian O. G. P. U. speak at the 
radical Seven Arts Club, Chicago, Oct. 14, 1933. His outstanding boasts 
were that Soviet Russia in 15 years under Communism had risen to first 
place as the greatest military power in the world, and that "Godless Russia" 
had done more in fifteen years than Christianity had in nineteen hundred. 
He said he had been often asked about promiscuity in Russia and that in 
reply he would say it had been his observation that the "ladies of shame" 
had all turned good Bolsheviks after the revolution and were now "handing 
out their commodity in a Comradely manner." Truly this accomplishment 
of changing vice from a segregated, commercialized pursuit to a free and 
general habit is something Christianity has not achieved in nineteen cen- 
turies, nor have the savages in thousands of years. They are less degenerate. 

"The Church and the Workers" is pamphlet No. 15 in the series of Inter- 



Communist Party and Religion 



national Pamphlets published for Communist Party use. It proudly says: 
"The Soviet Union, under a workers and peasants government, is the only 
country in the world where religion and the churches are being combatted 
with the active cooperation of the government ---- As militant materialists, the 
Soviet leaders are uncompromising in their scientific and atheist position. . . . 
It is necessary to link the fight against the church and religion with the fight 
against capitalism and imperialism. As long as capitalism exists, religion and 
the churches will be used ____ In the United States, as in all capitalist countries, 
the churches by developing law-abiding citizens through the appeal to fear 
of an avenging god, become part of the repressive apparatus, equally with 
the police, the army, the prisons, for the purpose of attempting to prevent 
rebellion. ... As the anti-religious campaign in the Soviet Union succeeds, the 
religious forces of the world are organizing and supporting interventionist 
movements to destroy the worker's state. ... A militant worker's anti-religious 
movement must be organized . . . "; etc. 

In the official Communist Chicago newspaper "Workers Voice" of Mar. 1, 
1933, was an article by Joseph Stalin, dictator of Russia, entitled "Com- 
munists and Religion", in which he says: "The Party cannot be neutral 
towards religion and does conduct anti-religious propaganda against all and 
every religious prejudice. . . . The Party cannot be neutral toward the bearers 
of religious prejudices, toward the reactionary clergy who poison the minds 
of the toiling masses. Have we suppressed the reactionary clergy? Yes, we 
have. The unfortunate thing is that it has not been completely liquidated. 
Anti-religious propaganda is a means by which the complete liquidation of 
the reactionary clergy must be brought about. Cases occur when certain mem- 
bers of the Party hamper the complete development of anti-religious propa- 
ganda. If such members are expelled it is a good thing because there is no 
room for such 'Communists' in the ranks of our Party." Great placards 
with the words of Marx, "Religion is the opium of the people," are widely 
displayed in Russia. 

The "A. B. C. of Communism" by N. Bucharin and E. Preobraschensky 
is a standard work for use in Communist Party schools. It says: "Religion 
and communism are incompatible. 'Religion is the opium of the people,' said 
Karl Marx. It is the task of the Communist Party to make this truth com- 
prehensible to the widest circles of the labouring masses. It is the task of 
the party to impress firmly upon the minds of the workers, even upon the 
most backward, that religion has been in the past and still is today one of 
the most powerful means at the disposal of the oppressors for the main- 
tenance of inequality, exploitation and slavish obedience on the part of the 
toilers. Many weak-kneed communists reason as follows: 'Religion does not 
prevent my being a communist. I believe both in God and communism. My 
faith in God does not hinder me from fighting for the cause of the proletarian 
revolution ! ' This train of thought is radically false. Religion and communism 
are incompatible, both theoretically and practically" (To this I agree!) 

SOCIALIST PARTY AND RELIGION 

The 1908 Convention of the Socialist Party adopted a plank in its 
platform which stated: "The socialist movement is primarily an economic 



24 The Red Network 



and political movement. It is not concerned with the institutions of marriage 
and religion." Agnostic Victor Berger backed this plank, as did Unterman, 
delegate from Idaho, who started off his speech in its favor by declaring 
himself to be a thorough atheist but argued: "Would you expect to go out 
among the people of this country, people of different churches, of many 
different religious factions and tell them they must become atheists before 
they can become Socialists? That would be nonsense. We must first get 
these men convinced of the rationality of our economic and political program." 

Arthur M. Lewis, delegate from Illinois, who opposed this plank stated: 
"I know that the Socialist position ... in the question of religion does not 
make a good campaign subject . . . therefore I am willing that we should be 
quiet about it. But if we must speak, I propose that we shall go before this 
country with the truth and not with a lie ... I do not propose to state in this 
platform the truth about religion from the point of view of the Socialist phil- 
osophy as it is stated in almost every book of standard Socialist literature; 
but if we do not do that, let us at least have the good grace to be silent about 
it, and not make hypocrites of ourselves." 

The official proceedings of this convention quote Morris Hillquit as say- 
ing that 99% of the Socialists were agnostics (Lusk Report, p. 1127). The 
International Socialist Review at that time said "Religion spells death 
to Socialism, just as Socialism to religion ... the thinking Socialists are all free 
thinkers." The New Yorker Volkzeitung later said: "Socialism is logical 
only when it denies the existence of God." 

In 1912, the Socialist Party Convention dropped this plank and adopted 
a resolution on "Our Attitude Towards the Church" in which this language 
appears: "The ethics of Socialism and religion are directly opposed to each 
other." (See official proceedings National Convention held at Indianapolis, 
Ind., May 12 to 18, 1912, pages 247-8). 

The May 9, 1920 Socialist Party Convention adopted a "Declaration of 
Principles" which urged complete separation of church and state and allowed 
freedom of conscience to worship or not as one pleased. At this same time 
David Berenberg of Socialist Rand School reported to the Socialist Party 
international executive committee on the book to be published that August 
by the Socialist Schools Publishing Assn. connected with the Rand School. 
It was entitled "Socialist Sunday School Curriculum." The Lusk Report 
sums up its review by saying the purpose of this book was "to inculcate in 
the minds of children from a very early age a distrust in the government of 
this country as now constituted, a belief that religion is one of the instru- 
ments invented by capitalists for the oppression of workers and to lead them 
to accept the revolutionary principles of the Socialist movement." (p. 1791). 

The Socialist Educational Society of New York more recently published 
a pamphlet entitled "Socialism and Religion." It was sold at the Rand 
School Book Store, 7 E. 15th St., the same address at which the official 
Socialist weekly "New Leader" is published (mouthpiece of the clever "Rev." 
Norman Thomas and his fellows). In the preface the Socialist Educational 
Society says: "Our position is clear. There can be no compromise between 
Socialism and religion." Chapter headings include "The Exodus of Religion," 
"The Materialist Explanation of Society," and "Quackery and Confusion." 



Socialist Party and Religion 



The booklet sums up its point of view on the last page with the statement: 
"The decay of religion is, indeed, a measure of the advance of humanity." 

Herr Bebel, German Socialist leader and classic Socialist writer, announced 
in the German Reichstag that his party aimed "in the domain of economics 
at socialism and in the domain of what is called religion at atheism" (Mar. 
31, 1881), and again he said, "Christianity and socialism stand toward each 
other as fire and water. . . . Christianity is the enemy of liberty and civilization 
... it has kept mankind in slavery and oppression." 

Today the works of atheists Lenin, Trotsky, Scott Nearing, Robt. W. 
Dunn, etc. are recommended and standard Socialist literature (see L. I. D.), 
as are the "Little Blue Books of Socialism" of Socialist Haldeman-Julius 
which are also recommended by the Socialist "Christian Social Action Move- 
ment" of the Chicago Methodist Church hdqts. To quote the National Re- 
public of Sept. 1933: 

"In January the radical and filthy minded Haldeman-Julius launched a 
new publication. His pockets already overflowing with gold collected through 
sales of his various socialist, communist, sex, trial marriage, atheist and birth 
control propaganda periodicals and pamphlets, the new publication known 
as the 'Militant Atheist,' was begun in January with a circulation of 1,540. 
The September number had reached 4,051, a gain of 2,511 subscribers within 
only eight months. This sacrilegious sheet, the size of a daily newspaper, is 
edited by E. Haldeman-Julius and 'Rev.' Jos. McCabe. It contains ballyhoo 
articles on atheism, on Russia, on Prof. Einstein, on Karl Marx, on Revolu- 
tion, and derides Catholicism, Protestantism, the Church, and God Himself." 

Among books sold and recommended by the Socialist Party hdqts. in 
1932-3 are: "Socialism the Utopia of Science" by Engels, in which he says: 
"Nowadays in our revolutionary conception of the universe there is absolutely 
no room for either a Creator or ruler" (English edition, 1901, p. 17) ; "Social- 
ism in Thought and Action" by Harry W. Laidler, L. I. D. student lecturer, 
in which he says: "the philosophy of Socialism is itself diametrically opposed 
to the principles of revealed religion" (p. 155); the "Communist Manifesto" 
of atheists Marx and Engels, admittedly the "bible" and foundation of Social- 
ism; a new edition with adornments by Socialist leaders is now advertised 
as "A Very Convenient Handbook KARL MARX. An Essay by Harold J. 
Laski with the COMMUNIST MANIFESTO by Karl Marx and Friedrich 
Engels. With Introduction by Norman Thomas" (Student Outlook, May, 
1933); etc., etc. 

Two friends of mine attended a public Socialist meeting at Highland 
Park, held in behalf of the candidacy of Norman Thomas and Rev. Roy 
Burt, a Methodist minister in good standing and connected with world-wide 
Methodist religious education. As they entered, they were given a copy of 
"America for ALL," the official Socialist campaign paper (issue of August 
13, 1932), and noted with surprise that, under the heading "Yes, but WHICH 
shall I read? Our Recommendations are:", the first recommendation was 
"The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels." The price was given 
as ten cents and the footnote said: "Send order with remittance to Socialist 
Party of America, 549 Randolph, Chicago." During the question period, 



26 The Red Network 



they asked Rev. Burt, who presided and spoke, whether Socialism and Com- 
munism were the same. He replied lengthily that their aims were the same 
but that their methods of attainment differ. They then asked him why the 
Socialists recommended the Communist Manifesto for reading. Burt replied 
that the Communist Manifesto is the basis of Socialism. After reading this 
Manifesto, a copy of which is before me, I was unable to understand how 
anyone could presume to be a disciple of both Christ and Marx. Since it is 
the "bible" of Socialism-Communism, it is sold at all Communist and Socialist 
book stores. It is printed in pamphlet form, about forty-eight pages. It was 
drawn up first in 1848 by Marx and Engels, later re-edited by Engels in 1888. 
Class hatred is, of course, the dominating note. Society is divided into two 
classes, proletarian and bourgeoisie (or middle class, such as small merchants 
and land owners). The bourgeoisie are represented throughout as the villains 
who exploit the proletarians. The proletarians, or lowest class, are represented 
as the noble heroes who must fight to the finish for dictatorship in order to 
make everything equal. According to Marxian argument, people are neces- 
sarily worthy of ruling all society because they are poor. 

To quote (page 20) : "The proletariat, the lowest strata of our present 
society, cannot raise itself up without the whole super-incumbent strata of 
official society being sprung into the air. . . . the struggle of the proletariat with 
the bourgeoisie is at first a national struggle. The proletariat of each country 
must, of course, first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie ... up to the 
point where that war breaks out into open revolution, and where the violent 
overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the 
proletariat." 

(Page 23): "The theory of the Communists may be summed up in the 
single sentence: Abolition of private property." 

(Page 24): "And the abolition of this state of things is called by the 
bourgeois, abolition of individuality and freedom! And rightly so. The 
abolition of bourgeois individuality, independence and freedom is undoubtedly 
aimed at. By freedom is meant, under the present bourgeois conditions of pro- 
duction, free trade, free selling and buying." 

(Page 25) : "In a word you reproach us with intending to do away with 
your property. Precisely so; that is just what we intend." 

(Page 26) : "Abolition of the family! ... On what foundation is the present 
family, the bourgeois family, based? On capital, on private gain. In its com- 
pletely developed form this family exists only among the bourgeoisie. But 
this state of things finds its complement in the practical absence of the family 
among the proletarians, and in public prostitution. The bourgeois family will 
vanish as a matter of course . . . with the vanishing of capital." 

(Page 27) : "But you Communists would introduce community of women, 
screams the whole bourgeoisie in chorus! . . . Bourgeois marriage is in reality a 
system of wives in common and thus, at the most, what the Communists might 
possibly be reproached with is that they desire to introduce, in substitution 
for a hypocritically concealed, an openly legalized community of women.'' 1 

Communizing women for free use was tried repeatedly in Russia until 
the outcries against it temporarily halted this program, which for the time 



Women and Socialism 27 



being is now largely limited to encouragement of free relations, legalized 
abortions, and state care for children. The private "ownership" of one man 
for one woman is called "capitalism" and is frowned upon. The teaching is: 
"Break down the family unit to build national Communism, break down 
nationalism (or patriotism) to build international Communism." 

To resume quoting from the Manifesto (Page 29): "But Communism 
abolishes eternal truths, it abolishes all religion, and all morality, instead of 
constituting them on a new basis ; it therefore acts in contradiction to all past 
historical experience. What does this accusation reduce itself to? ... The Com- 
munist revolution is the most radical rupture with traditional property 
relations; no wonder that its development involves the most radical rupture 
with traditional ideas." (Thus does Marx defend the destruction of all moral- 
ity and all religion.) 

(Page 44) : "In short, the Communists everywhere support every revolu- 
tionary movement against the existing social and political order of things. . . . 
The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare 
that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing 
social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. 
The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world 
to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This last sentence is a slogan of the Socialist Party and is used on their 
literature with a picture of two hands clasped around the world. A Socialist 
leaflet advertising supplies (secured at Chicago headquarters) lists: "Red 
flag buttons or pins (large and small) ISc each." 

WOMEN AND SOCIALISM 

The Socialist authority August Bebel in "Women and Socialism," pp. 466- 
467, says: "In the new society women will be entirely independent both 
socially and economically. ... In the choice of love she is as free and unham- 
pered as man. She woos or is wooed and enters into a union prompted by no 
other consideration than her own feelings. The union is a private agreement 
without interference of functionary. ... No one is accountable to anyone else 
and no third person has a right to interfere. What I eat and drink, how I 
sleep and dress is my own private affair, and my private affair also is my 
intercourse with the person of the opposite sex." 

Friedrich Engels' "Origin of the Family" (p. 91-92) says: "With the 
transformation of the means of production into collective property the mono- 
gamous family ceases to be the unit of society. The private household changes 
to a social industry. The care and education of children becomes a public 
matter. Society cares equally well for all children, legal or illegal. This 
assumes the care about the consequence which now forms the essential social 
factor hindering the girl to surrender unconditionally to the beloved man." 

Helen R. Marx, daughter of Karl Marx (quoted Chgo. Tribune, Nov. 
14, 1886), said: "Love is the only recognized marriage in Socialism. Con- 
sequently no bonds of any kind would be recognized. Divorce would be 
impossible as there would be nothing to divorce; for when love ceases, sepa- 



28 The Red Network 



ration would naturally ensue." Eleanor Marx, another daughter, never 
married her "husband" Dr. Aveling. A consistent Socialist woman would 
neither marry nor bear her "husband's" name. (Note the leading Red women 
who do not bear the husband's name.) 

"CHRISTIAN" SOCIALISM 

The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism (4A), which 
cooperates in its own World Union of Atheists with Moscow's International 
of the Godless and other Communist groups, in its official reports proudly 
relates how the socialist Debs Memorial Radio Station (WEVD) staunchly 
aided it in regularly broadcasting the 4A Atheist propaganda. It states that 
it has but two real foes, Fundamentalist Christianity and Roman Catholicism, 
and adds that it welcomes the aid of Modernists in paving the way for Athe- 
ism (and, one might add, Communism). Jeeringly, it asserts that the reason 
Fundamentalists do not dare openly to expose heresy within the Protestant 
Churches is because they are afraid of a split and that the Churches are thus 
held together "by real estate." To this one might reply that Christ's faith 
was started without any real estate in the first place and it can flourish and 
acquire real estate any time that it burns with living power. 

Modernist Protestant Churches, united under the influence of the radical 
Federal Council of Churches, penetrated with communistic propaganda, 
unsure of allegiance to Christian doctrines, are weak and divided foes, when 
not actual allies, of the advancing menace of Bolshevism and Atheism now 
assailing America from the schools and universities, the press, the pulpit, the 
lecture platform, and radical politicians. 

Three facts stand out: 

1. Marxism is Atheism. Both Socialism and Communism are Marxism, 
the only difference being that Socialism covers over its Atheism with a gar- 
ment of "Christianity" when camouflage is expedient, while Communism 
does not. 

2. Cooperation with Marxism is cooperation with Atheism. Christ has 
warned us against trying to serve two masters, saying "he who is not with Me 
is against Me." Also, "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: 
for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what com- 
munion hath light with darkness. . . . Wherefore come out from among them, 
and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I 
will receive you." (II Corinthians 7:14-17). 

The "A. B. C. of Communism" has truly stated that it is impossible for 
a man both to believe in God and to serve the Marxian cause. Even though 
a Christian may believe that he is no less a Christian or that he in fact is 
even a more "practical" Christian through accepting Marxism with a 
mental reservation concerning its immorality and atheism, still the fact 
remains that he is aiding those who have no such mental reservation but 
whose fixed, immediate, and ultimate purpose is the destruction of Christian- 
ity and its moral principles everywhere. The intermediary stage of true Social- 
ism, which is called "Christian" Socialism, is a smeary mess of conflicting 



"Christian" Socialism 29 



Marxism and religious sentimentality which is referred to facetiously by real 
Communists and Socialists as "the kindergarten of Red radicalism." Social- 
ists agree that a consistent Socialist must lose his Christian faith. The pity 
is that so many who have lost it continue to usurp pulpits. 

3. "Christian Socialists" do cooperate actively with atheist Communists. 
This whole book is an illustration of that fact. One may search in vain for 
the prominent "Christian" Socialist who is not working with and for Atheist 
Communists. As one becomes familiar with the names in the various Red 
organizations, the truth becomes apparent that "Christian" Socialism and 
Communism are branches of the same movement. Their members mingle on 
the same committees; they are arrested in the same strikes and riots; they 
share funds from the same sources; they unite in defending Satan's Base 
Godless Soviet Russia. 

My most vigorous opponents are "Christian" Socialists, even those who 
are only sympathizers with the Red movement. My first experience was 
with the Rector of the Episcopal Church which I formerly attended and in 
spite of this I believe him to be a sincere, tho misguided, believer in Christ. 
I was lecturing about Russia and I told him about the Soviet government's 
dreadful blasphemous anti-Christian displays I had seen there, of their open 
boast that they would accomplish from within the same thing in America, 
and offered to come and show my Russian pictures to the Women's Guild, 
gratis. Of course, I expected his sympathetic indignation and cooperation, 
[nstead, to my surprise and bewilderment, he started talking about "Christian" 
Socialism and about its being "quite different" from Communism; he stated 
that he had once belonged to a small Socialist group at Oxford "just for the 
benefit of the social order." Later, he asked if an anti-communist lecturer 
who was to speak in the vicinity was "one of those terrible American Legion 
men" and asked if I did not agree with him that Norman Thomas' Socialist 
campaign platform was "pretty good." His instantaneous, almost automatic, 
efforts to shield godless Communism and his refusal to allow me to warn of 
its atheistic Christ-crucifying plans came as a shock to me at the time, but 
I soon found it to be but a mild manifestation of "Christian" Socialism. 

Try, I say, attacking Soviet Russia's godlessness, and see where your 
"Christian" Socialist will stand. He will screen Sovietism and attack youl 

As we observe how "Christian" Socialist Reinhold Niebuhr advocates 
Marxian revolution and how he occupies the platform with atheist Communist 
Party officials controlled by godless Moscow; as I have observed the con- 
stant procession of Communist notices tacked on "Christian" Socialist Tittle's 
Evanston M. E. Church bulletin board and read his printed sermons prais- 
ing Communist revolutionaries as the ones God "spoke through"; as one 
observes with what zeal Harry Ward, Bishop McConnell, and other "Chris- 
tian" Socialists serve the A. C. L. U. legal defense of atheists and Communist 
criminals, and how pleasantly McConnell serves the Socialist campaign while 
Winifred Chappell serves the Communist campaign and signs a Manifesto 
subscribing to Communist principles, and all of these unite in the Methodist 
Federation for Social Service, headed by McConnell, in getting out the Bulle- 
tin edited by Ward and Winifred Chappell after a thousand more obser- 



30 The Red Network 



vations like these the airy soap-bubble castle built upon arguments that 
"Christian" Socialism has nothing to do with and is "quite different from 
Communism" vanishes into thin air! 

The Catholic Church, strangely, seems unaware that it has a few Red- 
aiders in its midst, but in spite of these no such headway has been made by 
radicals with Catholics as has been made with Protestants. 

Gerard B. Donnelly, S. J., wrote, in "America," a Catholic publication 
(1932), a statement which should be framed and put on every church door 
in this land. He held that a vote for Norman Thomas for President would 
be in direct violation of Catholic doctrine and said: "No Catholic can 
accept the Marxian philosophy or the denial of the right of property. Social- 
ism cannot Christianize itself merely by soft-pedaling or even by dropping 
entirely its dogmas on class warfare and property rights. Rome's ban against 
Socialism is not withdrawn. . . . The Socialist Party proposes recognition of the 
Soviet Union. Now the Soviets are publicly and explicitly hostile to God. 
To vote for their recognition, or, what is tantamount, to vote for a party 
which advocates their recognition, is once more formal cooperation with evil 
and obviously something no Catholic can do." 

Tactics 

The Socialist method of attaining power has been the inspiration for the 
adjective which Communists popularly bestow upon their Socialist brothers. 
They call the Socialists "yellow" and the Second International the "yellow" 
International. This Socialist method, says Hearnshaw, is "the method of 
sapping rather than assault; of craft rather than force; of subtelty rather 
than violence. 'Permeation' has been their watchword. . . . Above all they have 
tried to bemuse the public mind into the belief that 'socialism' and 'collec- 
tivism' are synonymous terms; and that all they are aiming at is a harmless 
and beneficent extension of state and municipal enterprise." 

Even Friedrich Engels, collaborator of Karl Marx, writing to his friend 
Sorge in America (who collected Florence Kelley's letters from Engels and 
placed them in the New York Public Library) in commenting on the camou- 
flage, subterfuge and indirection of Fabian Socialists said: "Their tactics 
are to fight the liberals not as decided opponents, but to drive them on to 
socialistic consequences; therefore to trick them, to permeate liberalism with 
socialism, and not to oppose socialistic candidates to liberal ones, but to 
palm them off, to thrust them on, under some pretext. ... All is rotten." (So- 
cialist Review, vol. 1, p. 31). 

Even more rotten is the attempt of mis-named "Christian" Socialists to 
deceive Christians into believing that Marxism is like Christianity. The Daily 
Northwestern of Dec. 13, 1932, under the heading "Niebuhr Claims Marxian 
Theory Like Christian," reviews Niebuhr's book, "Moral Man and Immoral 
Society," which has been praised by both the Communist and Socialist Red 
press for its correct Marxian position in setting forth the necessity for bloody 
class hate and revolution. It quotes him as saying: "The religio-political 
dreams of the Marxians have an immediate significance which the religio- 
ethical dreams of the Christians lack." Yes, indeed! The religio-political 
dreams of the Marxians include the destruction of Christianity and of the 
very moral principles Christ held dear. Whenever and wherever Marxians 



"Christian" Socialism 31 



attain power, as in Mexico, Russia, or Spain, Christian churches are "signifi- 
cantly" and immediately closed or destroyed and Christians persecuted. 

Reinhold Niebuhr is one of America's outstanding "Christian" Socialists. 
In company with Harry Ward and others of the same kind who adorn plat- 
forms at Communist meetings, he teaches at Union Theological Seminary, 
where the L. I. D. conference on "Guiding the Revolution" was held and 
from whence Arnold Johnston went forth to Kentucky last year as repre- 
sentative of the A. C. L. U., to be arrested for criminal syndicalism. Niebuhr 
was honored with a place on the platform as speaker for the Communist- 
controlled U. S. Congress Against War, held in N. Y. City, Sept. 29, 1933, 
in company with Earl Browder, General Secretary of the Communist Party, 
and Henri Barbusse, French Communist, guest of honor (Daily Worker). 

The Phila. Record of October 14, 1933 reported: "Reinhold Niebuhr, 
Union Theological Seminary Professor, last night advocated the use of force 
to bring about a new social order. . . . His open leaning toward revolution was 
expressed at the opening of a three-day joint regional conference of the 
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and the Fellowship 
of Reconciliation at Swarthmore College" (A "Pacifist" conference). 

Karl Marx, the idol of Reinhold Niebuhr, denies the existence of God 
or Supreme Spirit in any form. He teaches: the desirability and inescapable 
necessity of class hatred, class revolution, envy and covetousness; the abol- 
ition of the family unit and of marriage; the communizing of women; state 
ownership of children; that matter and force constitute all of creation; that 
only materialistic circumstance guides destiny, character, and history; that 
man's spirit is as material as a chemical effervescence or an electric spark 
which flickers out or rots with the body; that "Religion is the opium of the 
people"; that with the vanishing of property rights, religion and morality 
will vanish, along with other "bourgeois sentimentalities"; that a govern- 
mental proletarian dictatorship must be set up by violence; and that any 
theory that the two classes can get together is only a dodge on the part of 
the bourgeoisie who wish to avoid having their throats cut in a bloody 
proletarian revolution. 

Jesus Christ teaches: that God is the Father of all life; that the family 
unit and marriage are indissoluble; that parents should love their children 
and children honor their parents; that Christians should exercise love and 
charity toward their neighbors; that no political kingdom of worldly power 
should be sought by Christians, as such, but rather personal kindness and 
a mastery over self. 

Any government will be good if it is composed of good persons and no 
government can be good that is built by persons of Godless and immoral 
principles. Goodness is a day to day personal achievement, a contest with 
evil which constantly breaks down, and must be taken up again. 

Anyone who says that the theories of Marx and Christ are alike is either 
a hopeless idiot or a wilful deceiver. But the siren call of Marxism to the 
altruist, who clings to the title of "Christian" for the sake of lingering senti- 
ment, or financial or political expediency, is that it promises to obtain by 
foul means a pure, just, classless, equalitarian society; by means of rage and 
hate to usher in the reign of brotherly love; by means of plunder and gory 
class war to achieve peace; and by means of anti-moral propaganda to ele- 



32 The Red Network 



vate mankind. By discouraging the lazy, incompetent and debauched man 
from the belief that his condition is in any way the result of his own faults, 
but rather that all sufferings and inequalities are due to capitalism, it promises 
to eradicate these sufferings through revolution. 

The kindly man cannot see that, as Hearnshaw says: " Socialism debili- 
tates and demoralizes those whom it seeks to succor." It "is the cry of adult 
babyhood for public nurses and pap bottles" and "by means of doles, poor 
relief, free meals, free education, free medical services, free everything all 
paid for by the industrious and careful it breeds and fosters a vast demoral- 
ized mass of paupers and vagrants . . . battening contentedly and permanently 
upon the industry of their more efficient and self-respecting neighbors." 

"The ultimate source of our social evils is not economic," says T. W. 
Headley (in "Darwinism and Modern Socialism"), "and as soon as we realize 
that whatever social malady we have to deal with, it originates with human 
weakness and folly more than with outward circumstances, we have a prin- 
ciple that will guide us." 

"Socialism" That Is Christian Is Not Socialism 

There is an epigram to the effect that "Socialism is Christian only in so 
far as it is not Socialism and Socialism only in so far as it is not Christian." 

Modern predatory Socialism despises and ridicules as "only sham Social- 
ism," the religious, purely voluntary "Associations for Cooperative Produc- 
tion" which were formed in England subsequent to 1848 by Christian groups 
calling themselves "Socialists." Dr. Robert Flint says of these Christian 
"Socialists": "They did not teach a single principle or doctrine peculiar to 
socialism but rather by their ethical and religious fervor struck at the very 
roots of socialism." They had no quarrel with the existing social system as 
such; they gave no countenance to projected raids on land and capital; they 
utterly rejected the doctrine that character and destiny are determined by 
materialistic circumstance; above all, they repudiated with abhorrence the 
idea of the class war and the ferocious savagery of the Communist Manifesto 
of Marx and Engels. 

Dr. C. E. Raven's "Christian Socialism" tells the pathetic but ridiculous 
story of forty-one of these community enterprises all of which failed dis- 
astrously and failed in a short time. He illustrates and specifies as causes of 
their uniform collapse: the vicious principle of equality of reward irrespec- 
tive of output or ability; lack of business capacity; quarrels; indiscipline; 
greed; dishonesty; slackness; inefficiency it was said, for example, "you 
could always tell a Christian socialist by the cut of the cooperative trousers." 
When the incentive of competition and private profit is removed only com- 
pulsion remains as a driving force. Without dictatorship and force, any form 
of Socialism collapses. As Socialist-Communist G. B. Shaw has said: "Com- 
pulsory labor with death as the final punishment is the keystone of socialism" 
(Fabian Tract No. 51, 1906). 

F. J. C. Hearnshaw in "Survey of Socialism" (1929) says: "It is a pro- 
found truth seen equally clearly by keen sighted Christians and by keen 
sighted socialists that the principles of the religion of love are wholly incom- 
patible with the only operative form of socialism viz. that which incites 



"Methodists Turn Socialistic" 33 

the proletariat to attack all other classes ; which seeks to drag down the pros- 
perous to the level of the base; which lusts for confiscation of capital; which 
projects the extermination of landowners; which envisages the eradication 
of competition by the reintroduction of slavery under a criminal dictatorship. 
'In their strictest sense Christianity and socialism are irreconcilable/ said 
the Rev. T. W. Bussell in a recent Bampton lecture. 'It is a profound truth 
that socialism is the natural enemy of religion,' echoed the British Socialist 
Party in its official manifesto." 

"Marxism . . . sublimated robbery into 'restitution.' It enabled the impe- 
cunious to regard themselves as 'the disinherited'; the ne'er-do-wells as 'the 
defrauded'; the unsuccessful as 'the oppressed'; the unskilled as 'wage slaves'; 
the incompetent as 'the exploited'; the unemployed as 'the sole creators of 
wealth and value'; the proletariat as 'the people'; and the violent revolution- 
aries as 'vindicators of the rights of man.' " 

"Marxian socialism is potent just because of its appeal to the primitive 
individualism of the subnormal man. It excites his passion for plunder; it 
stimulates his love of fighting; it bemuses his rudimentary conscience, mak- 
ing him believe that he is out for justice and not for loot; it muddles his 
immature mind with ineffable nonsense concerning complicated economic 
theories of value and surplus value. Of the potency and efficacy of its appeal 
there can be no doubt. It is the only really effective type of socialism in 
existence. It entirely supersedes its Utopian predecessors; for they postulate 
self-sacrifice and hard work, and depict an ideal community which provides 
its own modest sustenance by cooperative toil a most unattractive paradise 
to a cave-man. Only Marxian socialism offers brigandage systematized, 
rationalized, moralized, glorified. Hence, as Thorstein Veblen says: 'The 
socialism that inspires hopes and fears today is of the school of Marx. No 
one is seriously apprehensive of any other so-called socialistic movement. . . . 
In proportion as the movement in any given community grows in mass, 
maturity, and conscious purpose, it unavoidably takes on a more consistently 
Marxian complexion. . . . Socialists of all countries gravitate toward the theo- 
retical position of avowed Marxism.' So, too, Clayton: 'Modern socialism 
is Marx and Marx modern socialism : there is no other foundation.' . . . Prof. 
Ely concludes: 'In socialism Karl Marx occupies a position ... all going before 
him in a manner preparing the way for him and all coming after him taking 
him for a starting point/ " (Hearnshaw). 

The Lusk Report says: "In fact the only scientific, concrete and per- 
fectly systematic scheme" (of Socialism) "is the scheme of Karl Marx. This 
is the basis for materialism inherent in present day socialism, for its antago- 
nism to religion, to ethics, to all idealism based on principles . . . that do not 
relate to purely material life and wealth interests.' 7 

"METHODISTS TURN SOCIALISTIC" 

If the great voice of John Wesley with its call to Christianize individual 
souls should finally be stilled by the voice of Karl Marx with its call to class 
war disguised as a call to preach the "social gospel of economic justice" 
not only Methodism but the whole world will suffer. 

Ominously, the Socialist "Christian Social Action Movement" of Chicago 



34 The Red Network 



Methodist Church headquarters says of its opportunities for teaching Social- 
ism-Communism: "Our most fruitful field of accomplishment we believe to be 
within and through the agency of the Church of which we are a part. It is 
difficult to overemphasize the significance to the social and economic move- 
ment in America if the Methodist Church should be won to whole hearted 
advocacy and support of the social gospel. To this endeavor . . . we pledge 
ourselves." (p. 41 of its Handbook). 

"Methodists Turn Socialistic" is the title of an article written by Socialist 
Chas. C. Webber (jailed in a radical strike in 1930 and defended by the 
A. C. L. U.), which appears in the Socialist, Garland-Fund-aided "World 
Tomorrow" of July 1933. In it he felicitates the Annual Conference of the 
M. E. Church held at Central Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. for its report on "The 
Necessity of Social Change from capitalism to a socialistic economic system," 
and says that the motion to change the words "social ownership" (complete 
Socialism) in the final report to "social control" just barely passed. He says: 
"This debate clearly showed that the majority of the members of the N. Y. 
East Conference of the M. E. Church are convinced that 'capitalism' must 
be brought under some form of social control." 

The Northeast Ohio Conference of the M. E. Church exhibited similar 
tendencies when "Socialized ownership and control of the country's financial 
and industrial system as a substitute for capitalism were recommended" 
(Associated Press report, Sept. 20, 1932). Other conferences have likewise 
adopted communistic-socialistic resolutions. 

The Methodist Federation for Social Service is headed by Bishop Francis 
J. McConnell, Socialist, A. C. L. U., etc., and its Bulletin is edited by Harry 
Ward, of radical fame, and Winifred Chappell, frankly of the Communist 
Party campaign committee. As an ex-Communist said to me, "Most of those 
Bulletins sound like the Daily Worker, only more so." The April 15, 1932 
Bulletin, which I have, not only frankly admitted Federation cooperation 
with Communist organizations but under the heading "Is it a Coincidence?" 
said: "The nature of the membership of the Federation and the penetration 
of the church by this movement is indicated in part by the fact that entirely 
without design one third of the Delaware Conference membership belonged 
to the Federation. This overlapping included every member of the com- 
mission on 'Modern Business and Industry,' 10 of the 14 commission chair- 
men, and two secretaries of the Board of Foreign Missions who were largely 
responsible for the conference, and the presiding officer, the president of the 
Federation." 

Of the "Call to Action," which had just then resulted in the formation 
in Chicago of the Socialist Methodist "Christian Social Action Movement," 
it also proudly observed that "most of the sponsors were members of the 
Federation." Concerning the Federation's financial support it said the Rock 
River Conference had originated and systematically used the plan of donat- 
ing "one half of one per cent of the preacher's salary including house rent" 
to the Federation (for its Socialist and Communist-cooperating activities) 
and that "Philadelphia uses it in modified form." 

The editorial of Dr. E. P. Clarke, editor of the Riverside Daily Press and 



"Methodists Ttirn Socialistic" 35 

himself a prominent Methodist layman, is reprinted in the National Republic 
of October 1933. To quote from it: 

"The Methodist conference at Long Beach adopted resolutions urging 
the pardon of Mooney. It seems rather pertinent to ask what these ministers 
know about the Mooney case. The evidence has been reviewed by four 
governors Stephens, Richardson, Young and Rolph and they all refused 
to pardon Mooney. The courts have also acted unfavorably on his case in 
several hearings. The average citizen may well give some heed to the find- 
ings of these various investigations; and it looks as if the Methodist con- 
ference went far afield in seeking some subject on which to adopt resolutions. 

"For centuries of human progress and recession it has been a controversial 
question as to the supremacy of church or state, but the Methodists appar- 
ently have no fear of stepping over the line. The action on the Mooney ques- 
tion might seem to line up the Methodists with the unsavory and violent 
element of Russia and America. 

"Other resolutions were of similar dubious propriety. To issue its demands 
upon the mayor of Los Angeles to abolish the 'Red squad' of police, foe of 
communistic rioters, and to investigate the Better American Federation, and 
other organizations outside of church affiliation is hard to reconcile with the 
teachings of the gentle Carpenter from Nazareth, which the church is sup- 
posed to further. 

"The Methodist Church is probably the most powerful of all religious 
denominations. It has done a marvelous good, but when their conference pre- 
sumes to rule on things religious, moral and political without regard to 
courtesy or courts of justice we fear the church's popularity is endangered, 
especially with the youth of the land." 

The communist Daily Worker of May 13, 1933 under the heading "Negro 
Bishops Back I. L. D. Fight" says: "The General Board of the Colored 
Methodist Episcopal Church in session in Jackson, Tenn. with 8 Bishops and 
9 general officers, with more than 250 pastors and lay representatives through- 
out the U. S. went on record. . . . The resolution reads in part: 'The Bench of 
Bishops and the General Board of the Colored Methodist Church in Annual 
Session desire to issue the following statement to the nation with reference 
to the Scottsboro and Peterson cases in Alabama, and the Angelo Herndon 
case in Georgia. . . we feel it our duty ... to call upon our entire congregations 
throughout the Nation to contribute funds and moral support to aid in such 
able defense as shown by the International Labor Defense organization ; and 
that such donations be given concertedly, and funds sent to a designated com- 
mittee and in turn to the headquarters of the International Labor Defense.' " 
(Godless Moscow's Communist organization using this means to hook Chris- 
tian Negroes into the revolutionary movement). "The Bishops of the bench 
are: Elias Cottrell, Holly Springs, Miss.; C. H. Phillips, Cleveland, O.; R. C. 
Carter, Chicago; R. T. Brown, Birmingham, Ala.; J. C. Martin, Memphis; 
J. A. Hamlett, Kansas City, Kans.; and J. W. McKinney, Sherman, Texas." 

The colored people are a sincerely religious race. As long as they stayed 
in Africa un-Christianized, they remained, as did pagan white men, savages. 
Their pagan brothers in Africa today are savages, while in a comparatively 



36 The Red Network 



few years, under the opportunities of the American government and the 
inspiration of Christianity, the American Negroes have acquired professions, 
property, banks, homes, and produced a rising class of refined, home loving 
people. This is far more remarkable than that many Negroes are still back- 
ward. The Reds play upon the Negroes' love of their own people and repre- 
sent them as persecuted in order to inflame them against the very white 
people who have in reality given the colored race far greater opportunities 
than their fellow negroes would give them in Africa today. Only recently 
the U. S. government was protesting slave holding by colored officials in 
Liberia. The Reds look upon the Negroes as their greatest hope. They want 
them to do their dirty work in stirring up bloody revolution and to bear its 
brunt. Then whether the Reds win or lose the Negroes will be the losers, 
for Sovietization is slavery. 

The U. S. Fish report states: "The task of the Communists among the 
negro workers is to bring about class consciousness, and to crystallize this 
in independent class political action against the capitalist class; to take every 
possible advantage of occurrences and conditions which will tend to develop 
race feeling with the view of utilizing racial antagonism. At every oppor- 
tunity the attempt is made to stir up trouble between the white and negro 
races. 

"The negroes are made to believe that the Communists practice complete 
racial and social equality and that only when a Communist Government is 
set up in the United States will the negroes obtain equality and freedom from 
exploitation by the 'white bosses,' and in order to attract and impress the 
negro, the Communists make a point of encouraging mixed social functions 
where white women Communists dance with negro men and white men Com- 
munists dance with negro women. It is openly advocated that there must be 
complete social and racial equality between the whites and negroes even to 
the extent of intermarriage." 

Put yourself in the Negro's place. Would you not be flattered by Dr. 
Tittle's act in putting over a Negro social equality plank in the 1932 General 
M. E. Conference in Atlantic City, following similar action by the Federal 
Council of Churches, even though you knew in your heart that social equality 
is guided entirely by human desires and feelings and that no law or plank 
can alter this. Neither a white nor a colored person will invite another per- 
son to supper in his home unless he wishes to. Sociability is won, not forced. 
Force on this point only engenders real antagonism, even bloodshed. 

To quote the Chicago Tribune report of May 8, 1932 concerning this 
Conference, headed "Racial Question Jars Methodist Church Session": 
"Doctor Tittle's resolution stated that future general conferences will be 
held 'only in cities where there is no segregation of racial groups, no dis- 
crimination in hotels, hotel lobbies, hotel dining rooms, restaurants, or ele- 
vators.' ... In his argument for the passage of the resolution Dr. Tittle . . . 
stated that the wording of his resolution 'followed closely a resolution recently 
adopted by the Federal Council of Churches.' . . . Such possible inability to 
find a city that would entertain the conference, Dr. Tittle said, would focus the 
attention of church and nation on the 'cause of racial equality.' . . . The M. E. 
Church South seceded from the northern church on the slavery issue nearly 



"Methodists Turn Socialistic" 37 

a century ago. It was pointed out in debate that The passage of this resolu- 
tion would forever end all possibility of reunion of the two American branches 
of Methodism.' ' : 

Dr. Tittle went out of his way to solicit support for Jourdain, a colored 
candidate for Alderman, but not of Tittle's ward. He signed a letter sent 
out for this purpose during the 1932 spring campaign and Jourdain was 
elected. 

The time was, when Methodism in its zeal for personal purity frowned 
upon dancing. Some Methodists nowadays who are little opposed to dancing 
even in a church were a bit surprised, however, when several colored men 
were introduced into circle dances at a dance given in the parish house of 
Tittle's church and were thus forced upon the young white girls as partners. 
An M. E. Guild member whose daughter attended this dance reported that 
when she phoned the assistant pastor about this he said that these colored 
men had been invited by Dr. Tittle himself (one of them being the son of 
a classmate of his at college), who felt that it was now time that the young 
people learned to mingle with other races. (God created separate races, but 
Communism insists upon racial inter-mixture and inter-marriage.) 

The great American colored man, Booker T. Washington, voiced the 
sentiment of the best elements in both races when he said the races should 
be as separate and distinct as the fingers of a hand and as united for the 
service of all humanity. Why should either race wish to lose its distinctive 
characteristics? Neither the races nor the sexes can ever be equal. They 
will always be different and have distinctive functions to perform in life. 

Most shocking is the constant procession of Red and outright Communist 
posters and notices which disgrace the bulletin board of this gorgeous M. E. 
church, coupled with the fact that the minister himself is a "book editor" 
of the National Religion and Labor Foundation and responsible for dis- 
tribution of such Communist literature as "Toward Soviet America'' by Wm. 
Z. Foster, "Little Lenin Library," etc. 

One such poster advertised "We, the People," a play by Elmer Rice, for 
the benefit of the militant Socialist L. I. D., in which Tittle is a leader. This 
play is praised by the Communist press as "an argument for revolution." 
Others advertised: lectures by George Soule of the "New Republic," on 
such subjects as "The Chances for Revolution," at the Chicago City Club, 
Mar. 6, 7 and 8, 1933, under the auspices of the Chicago Forum Council, of 
which Tittle is a member; Scott Nearing's (Communist) lectures under the 
same auspices; Reconciliation Trips to radical headquarters; and the Oct. 
23, 1933 mass meeting for the visiting French Communist, Henri Barbusse, 
whose "pacifistic" cure for war is bloody Red revolution. Perhaps most incon- 
gruous of all was the large poster advertising the "Proletarian Arts Ball" of 
April 15, 1933, given for the benefit of the communist International Labor 
Defense, Moscow's propaganda and legal defense agency to aid Communist 
criminals a dance given for the defense of Communism, which means destruc- 
tion of Christianity, and advertised in a Methodist Church! 

One can only regret that men like this minister possess the gifts of glorious 
oratory, of charm and culture to bestow upon the Socialist cause and that 
their humanitarian sincerity gives them additional power. For no hate-filled 



38 The Red Network 



grimy Communist, however sincere, cursing God and capitalism from a soap 
box, could ever lure the Church-going "bourgeoisie" into Marxism as can 
a truly sincere and altruistic "Christian" Socialist. Yet both are leaders to 
the same ugly end Marxism. Those repelled by the crude who would shud- 
der at raw Marxian doctrine, sit enraptured in a church to hear Marxism 
falsely embellished with adornments stolen from Christianity. Under the 
spell of soft organ music and dim religious light, they feel that whatever the 
preacher's direction it must be toward heaven and they remain oblivious of 
the fact, or uncaring, that the Communist notices sent out by Satan's pub- 
licity bureau hanging in their very Church are calls to Christ's flock to hear 
Communists like Henri Barbusse, advocates of Christ crucifixion and throat- 
slitting Red revolution, preach Communism as the "Way and the Truth." 
As one sees the blind leading the blind into the ditch, one realizes that Hell 
must indeed live up to its reputation of being "paved with good intentions." 
That some Methodists are awakening to the issue now being forced within 
the church by radicals, and that they wish to cleave to the "faith once deliv- 
ered" and to the Rock of Ages, rather than to the new social order of Marx 
and Lenin, is shown by statements such as that of Methodist Bishop Leete 
which I have quoted under "Christian Century." The survey of Bishop Lake 
revealing that the Methodist Church had lost 2,000,000 members between 
1920 and 1932 should also provide food for thought. The fault certainly 
does not lie with the drawing power of Jesus Christ, "the same yesterday, 
today, and forever." 

"NEWS" 

There is a saying: "When a dog bites a man, that is not news, but when 
a man bites a dog, that is news." Red meetings are constant occurrences in 
Evanston, Illinois. People either do not sense their significance or are used 
to them. It is not considered "news" that James M. Yard should at the same 
time be Dean of Religious Education of the Methodist Northwestern Uni- 
versity, an active Communist-defending A. C. L. U. committeeman, an adver- 
tised John Reed Club speaker, and an official sponsor of the communist 
revolutionary Chicago Workers Theatre. (Once Methodists frowned upon 
the ordinary worldly theatre.) Nor, when the post of Dean of Religious Edu- 
cation was abolished and Yard lost his position, was the public announce- 
ment by Pres. Walter Dill Scott that Yard was not let go because of his 
radicalism, in itself, considered news. That Max Otto, a leader of the atheist 
movement, should be engaged in successive years by this Methodist Uni- 
versity to lecture to its students on such subjects as "Can Science Recognize 
God" (Oct. 1933) and be praised and honored by the college paper for these 
addresses, is not news; nor is Harry Ward's address in praise of Godless 
Russia at Garrett Biblical Institute, or the sale of I. W. W. and other Red 
literature at this Methodist college Y. M. C. A., news. But when, following 
only two of the many Red meetings held in Evanston churches, a group of 
patriotic Americans gathered outside and sang "America" in protest against 
the sedition they had heard preached within, this was indeed as though a 
man had bitten a dog. It was news and the newspapers featured it! 



"News' 9 39 



The first of these was an A. C. L. U. meeting held in Tittle's Evanston 
M. E. Church and addressed by Carl Haessler, a teacher and official of the 
Communist Party's school of revolution at 2822 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 
and a fellow A. C. L. U. committee member with Dr. Tittle. Haessler ended 
his talk with a little story illustrating the A. C. L. U. viewpoint, frankly say- 
ing "And so what we want is not more liberty but more licenser'' On the 
Church bulletin board hung an announcement of Communist Scott Nearing's 
lectures. Tittle attended this meeting. Inside the door of the church at the 
close of the meeting a Communist handed out leaflets reading: "A Lecture 
of Vital Importance! by Romania Ferguson who recently returned from 
the Lenin Institute of Moscow. On Tuesday, January 17th, 8 P. M., at The 
Unitarian Church of Evanston Fight for the freedom of the Scottsboro 
boys! Join with the International Labor Defense! Auspices: International 
Labor Defense, Scottsboro Branch of Evanston." 

The patriotic crowd who had attended this A. C. L. U. meeting out of 
curiosity, indulged afterwards in some arguments on the church lawn with 
Red sympathizers, among them Catherine Waugh McCulloch of the A. C. 
L. U., who had presided at the meeting. But this would not have merited 
publicity, only that a young Red who intruded himself into the conversation 
I was holding with friends attempted to slap my face when I contradicted 
him, and he was chased by my husband and some Legionnaires. The 
attempted but unsuccessful slap was news! 

At the announced communist I. L. D. meeting which followed, the Reds 
were prepared to defend themselves against any patriotic utterances. Police 
were stationed inside the Unitarian Church. And one menacing looking 
Negro in front of us pulled out his gun and looked it over before returning 
it to his pocket. Others had bulging pockets. A colored woman as officer of 
this I. L. D. branch announced that regular meetings were held in this 
Unitarian Church every first and third Tuesday of the month; also that all 
of the 18 north side branches of the I. L. D. were expected to participate in 
a Communist demonstration to be held before the Japanese consulate in Chi- 
cago the following week as a protest against Japan's war against the Chinese 
Soviets and Chinese revolution. When this demonstration actually took place, 
an army of steel-helmeted policemen was required to disperse the surging 
crowds of Red rioters which formed and reformed to advance on the building. 
Several policemen were injured and one without a steel helmet had his skull 
fractured by Communists. 

Romania Ferguson, the colored girl advertised as speaker for this I. L. D. 
meeting, who had been trained at Moscow's Institute for Red agitators from 
all countries, was then teaching with Haessler (speaker in Tittle's church) 
at the Communist Chicago school of revolution. She spoke of the Scottsboro 
case and then contrasted the wonderful life and race relations of Soviet 
Russia, and said that the only way for the 12,000,000 colored people in the 
United States to obtain a similar "paradise" was to unite with the white 
Communist "workers" in the "revolutionary way out" and set up a Soviet 
government in the United States as the Russians had done. (Pure sedition 
and in direct violation of the Illinois sedition law). 

She was followed by Albert Goldman, fellow teacher with herself and 



40 The Red Network 



Haessler at the Chicago school of revolution. He said that it was a good 
thing the capitalistic class in America were building fine homes and other 
buildings as these would then be ready for the " workers" to take over and 
occupy by revolution in from six months to a year. He said that only old 
people cared for churches in Russia now; that no one under 35 went to 
church and, as the old people would soon die off, churches would soon be 
extinct there. He pointed out that children could be taught anything and 
that the same thing could be accomplished in America by training the young 
generation against religion. (A fine meeting to advertise in a Methodist 
Church!) Red cards were passed out at this meeting advertising a Scott 
Nearing lecture for the benefit of the Communist school of revolution. Near- 
ing's lectures had been advertised on white paper on the bulletin board at 
the Methodist Church, a slight difference in paper. 

The police who had so staunchly stood by while Romania talked sedition, 
at once attempted to disperse the patriotic crowd that stopped to discuss the 
meeting outside. They were told to go back inside the church, but the group 
objected saying they were not wanted inside the church, that the police 
allowed sedition inside why not patriotism outside? When one policeman 
kept insisting they must either go back inside the church or go home, some 
in the crowd said "All right we will go back in. Come on!"; but as they 
started to do so, a woman of the church aided by a policeman barred the door 
of the church and flourished her arm at me and said: "You shan't come in." 
I said: "Keep your hands off me" as she waved dangerously near my nose 
and this flourishing falsely reported as "hitting" furnished the "news" for 
the next burst of publicity, which, however, did some really enlightening 
educational work. People who had been actually unaware of the Red move- 
ment in Evanston started wondering and inquiring what it was all about. 

Soon after this, a patriotic group in Evanston published a pamphlet of 
authentic and indisputable information revealing the purposes of the organ- 
izations these ministers support. They distributed a copy to practically every 
home in Evanston at their own expense with the result that ? O, no, they 
received no praise whatever! On the contrary the patriotic editor who gave 
the situation in Evanston some truthful publicity and participated in pre- 
paring the pamphlet lost his position owing, so he said, to the pressure brought 
by M. E. Church supporters upon the wealthy "patriotic" men of national 
reputation who owned the newspaper! 

And what did the dear smart successful American capitalist Church 
trustees, who collect $85,000 or more each year to support Tittle's activities, 
do? They issued a public statement rebuking those who would interfere with 
the "free" speech of the M. E. Church pulpit and expressing their staunch 
admiration for and support of Dr. Tittle. 

One feels like snickering at the thought of the triumph of Socialism, which 
Tugwell, in the National Religion and Labor Foundation (see) Bulletin, 
(of which Tittle is an editor) says will literally da away with private business. 
One can picture with amusement these capitalists who support Socialism 
having had their businesses "done away with." But the sad part is that we 
"bourgeoisie" and the hopes and futures of the present rising "proletariat" 
and of their and our children would all suffer as well with the sweeping away 



Jail or Asylum for Me Suggests "Liberal" Mandate 41 

of the American system. That is why a public political propaganda pulpit 
becomes a public affair and deserves public and political opposition. 
The communists' Federated Press news service, Mar. 29, 1933, stated: 

"The trustees of the Unitarian Church of Evanston, where the Intl. 
Labor Defense has been renting a hall for its fortnightly meetings, declare 
that they 'consider it against the spirit of the church to deny the use of 
its church house to any group of people who might wish to rent it for 
political, economic, social or educational purposes, except those whose 
meetings would be objectionable on moral grounds or those whose meet- 
ings might be definitely forbidden by the law of the land.' 

"The Rev. R. Lester Mondale of the church had been criticized by pro- 
fessional patriots for allowing the I. L. D. to rent the church hall. Trustees 
of the First Methodist Church of Evanston similarly supported the Rev. 
E. F. Tittle when he was rapped by the patrioteers for permitting a civil 
liberties meeting in his church hall." 
The Advisor of March 15, 1933, stated: 

"Following the activities of the American Legion and Paul Revere 
Clubs in exposing the affiliations and red-supporting activities of the 
Reverend Ernest Fremont Tittle, pastor of the First Methodist Church, 
Evanston, Illinois, the government board of the church has issued a state- 
ment expressing 'absolute confidence in Dr. Tittle's Christian character 
and his deep unselfish devotion to his country and humanity.' We note 
that these profound expressions of support come from Fred Sargent, presi- 
dent of the Northwestern Railroad, William A. Dyche, donor of Dyche 
Stadium to Northwestern University, R. C. Wieboldt, and others. 

"This is quite typical of the warning we have voiced continually in 
our bulletins. Knowing little or nothing of the ramifications of Com- 
munism and Socialism, these 'Captains' of industry listening to the siren 
voice of this misleader, come to his support with a vote of confidence. 
The average man would sing pretty hard to get the support of the millions 
represented by the three men named above. The moral and financial 
support which is given the Communist and Socialist movements by the 
very class that would suffer most if these agencies should win control, is 
one of the principal factors in the perpetuation of these movements in this 
country. Without this support Communism and Socialism would collapse 
of their own weight. 

"Men like Tittle are more valuable to the Communist movement than 
if they were actual members of the Party. Lenin's injunction 'Get things 
done and paid for by others' has been fulfilled to a remarkable degree. 
The unfortunate part of things is that should either Communism or 
Socialism succeed in their objectives the loyal would have to suffer for 
the mistakes of the misguided. The more we study Lenin, the more we 
appreciate his diabolical shrewdness and psychology." 

JAIL OR ASYLUM FOR ME SUGGESTS "LIBERAL" MONDALE 

The September, 1933 issue of the communist magazine "Anti Fascist 
Action," published by the Chicago Committee to Aid Victims of German 



42 The Red Network 



Fascism of the communist W. I. R., contains, in addition to material by Com- 
munist authors, a section headed "Correspondence," which invites "the true 
expression of workers everywhere" and says: "Here is the space! Voice 
your indignation, your protest, etc." To quote: 

The following letter comes from R. Lester Mondale, Evanston, who takes 
this opportunity to answer a worker who had written to him, asking "How 

is it possible for Mrs. (a notorious red-baiter) to insult every worker 

in this country, calling them 'gutter adherents,' without being thrown into 
a prison or insane asylum?": 

"Dear Frank: 

"You ask, 'How is it possible that this woman can insult every honest 
wage earner in this country without being thrown in a prison or insane 
asylum? 

"Permit me to tell you how it is possible for these respectable women 
to insult you and to get away with it. My answer will sound stranger than 
fiction. But Frank, the reason it sounds strange is that you have been 
fed up on the lies you read every day in the newspapers and the lies you 
were taught in the public schools lies about every American being born 
free, and equal to the richest. 

"The lady you speak of is a well-known North Shore 'patriot.' She 
speaks before fashionable churches; the Legionnaires admire her; the 
D. A. R. ladies introduce her at speaking engagements. Now, Frank, 
there is a man in Chicago (another patriot, who has an organization for 
spying on communists and liberals) who also speaks before churches, 
Legionnaires and D. A. R. conventions. This man is a great friend of the 
lady who insulted the working men. In fact, Frank, this lady and this 
man more often than not are seen together in public gatherings, and the 
style of her anti-red pamphlets strikingly resembles the style of the reports 
sent out by his spy organization. 

"One sentence will explain why they insult you, Frank. This man I 
speak of was for years a professional strike-breaker in the Clay Products 
Industries. Do you see the connection now? By pretending to be super- 
patriots these people can break up the workingman's unions, keep him 
in poverty, and call all liberals like myself un-American Communists 
because we would like to see these ladies get a little less of the country's 
income and honest workers like yourself get your just share. 

"To these respectable ladies, you are a 'gutter adherent.' To them, 
the wife you love, 'stinks of the gutter'; to them, the babies you bring 
into the world are 'rats of the gutter' and they can use the gutters (when- 
ever the super-patriots haven't parked their Packards) for their play- 
grounds. You 'gutter' people should be glad to kiss the hands of the 
wealthy for their willingness to be compelled to pay enough in taxes to 
keep you starving to death on the installment plan on the dole. You 
'gutter' people should be glad to get a fifteen dollar week minimum wage 
and to starve and freeze through life while the government dumps wheat 
in China, plows under the cotton crops, closes coal mines, and slaughters 
hogs. You 'gutter' people who complain if the Citizens Committee (whose 



Jail or Asylum for Me Suggests "Liberal" Mondale 43 

own children go to private schools) destroy the public schools with their 
economies, when thousands of contractors would be willing to put up 
new buildings and thousands of unemployed teachers would gladly teach 
your 'gutter' children you who complain are trouble makers, un- 
American ! 

"You and I know, Frank, that the 'gutter' people of New York and 
New England made the rulers of Cincinnati and Cleveland; that the 
'gutter' people of Europe and Ohio made the rulers of present day Chi- 
cago; that the 'gutter' people of Indiana and Illinois made the pioneers 
of the great West. But Frank, now there is no West where you can 
show the world the fight there is in you; now you must not complain, 
you must not demonstrate, you must not strike to do so would be to 
disturb the peace and be un-American. You stay where you are in 
the gutter. 

"But Frank, I have been a 'gutter' person myself. I know that you 
have the intelligence not to be fooled for long by the lies of the insulting 
'patriots' and their schools and their newspapers. 

"Your fellow workers in Germany were not fooled. They saw the 
German patriots grinding the life out of the working men at a time when 
their country was over-flowing with milk and honey, and they organized. 
In Germany the respectable people, such as insult you in this country, 
became afraid that the working man would get justice, that the working 
man would seize the factories in which he worked and use them for all 
the people, rather than for the respectable patriotic few, the owners. 
Today, the German relatives of those American women who insult you, 
are making their last desperate stand under the leadership of that mad- 
man and enemy of the worker, Hitler. They are making one last desperate 
stand to keep the working man in the gutter. The German workers need 
your help. If you can help the German working man today, help to over- 
throw Hitler Fascism, then, when the time comes for you to get justice 
in this country, they will stand ready to help you. 

"The day is coming, Frank, when those who insult honest working 
men will be cast into prison or into the hospitals for the insane. And you, 
Frank, are the one to set the date. 

"Very Sincerely yours, 
"R. LESTER MONDALE." 

Since I too may be besieged by Red Workers asking my help and advice, 
I now take this opportunity to answer a Red who may write to me: 

Dear Red Worker: 

You ask me why Rev. puts on such a show of sympathy for 

the Communist cause and of hatred for its enemies while at the same time 
he himself does not come out and stand by your side as an avowed comrade? 
You want to know why he calls himself a "Liberal" instead of a Communist? 

I will explain this to you, Red. You see Rev. has a much better 

education than you have and he likes North Shore bourgeois comforts, the 
title of "Rev.," an income from capitalistic sources, and he does not want 
to lose these nor to risk his head in Red demonstrations, nor to spend his 



44 The Red Network 



time in smelly jails with you. Don't you see how much safer it is for him 
to peek out from behind the skirts of respectability, to sic you on to do the 
dirty work? In that way he gets the thrill without paying the bill. 

After the Revolution is over, of course, I shan't blame you, Red, if you 
do with his kind just what your brothers in Russia did after their Revolution. 
They made truces with some of their outright Czarist enemies but they 
cleaned out as so much bourgeois trash the yellow little professors and min- 
isters who had tried to play both sides and were true to neither, especially 
when it came to making sacrifices. This was right. One cannot depend on 
a man who is not loyal to his colors be they Red or White. 

Mike Gold has the right idea. In his communist Daily Worker column, 
Oct. 24, 1933, he says of these arm-chair warriors: 

"One of the basic dangers has been that these intellectuals come into 
the movement bringing a great deal of worthless bourgeois baggage in their 
minds and trying to sell this junk to the movement. They sometimes demand 
positions of leadership, and try to revise and pervert the proletarian char- 
acter of the Communist movement. . . . One of the most amazing sights to me 
has been to watch some of the recent recruits to Marxism around New York. 
Their progress is sometimes as rapid and humorous as that of an old Key- 
stone comedy. On May 1 they suddenly discover the proletarian revolution. 
It had been present in the world for over 60 years but the boys shout and 
whoop as though they were original Columbuses. ... By the next May Day 
these heroes have been completely disillusioned. Now they have a whole 
new program for Communism and they share the 'betrayed' feeling of a 
Trotsky. Really it is no wonder intellectuals get a bad name. The worker 
earns his Communism and the right to make mistakes by hard and dangerous 
experience. Do these intellectuals really EARN their right to criticize? They 
know nothing, actually nothing, of the revolutionary practise. It is all in 
their heads." 

The next day he took another crack at them, saying: "the truth for 
which one is ready to die or (more dreadful) the truth for which one is ready 
to go ragged and poor . . . this really is the Integrity that the vacillating Stuart 
Chases cannot permit themselves to see or announce. This is the true luxury 
of integrity the guts to speak out and say 'Capitalism is dead, Long live 
Communism I' ' 

One cannot dispute Rev. 's statement that he belongs in the 

gutter ; but if I felt about Communism as he says he feels, I would quit ped- 
dling the "opium" of religion, as Marx calls it, from a bourgeois North Shore 
pulpit and call myself a Communist not a "Liberal." 

But wasn't it kinda cute and deteckatif-like for him to find out all by 
himself that a big strong man is seen with me "more often than not?" Of 
course he only infers you know. Wouldn't he be surprised if he could see 
the door close on that man and me night after night when he brings me home? 
He has stayed with me for fifteen years, and, while law and engineering are 
supposed to be his professions, still he does break spinach-eating and neck- 
washing "strikes" on the part of our children. 

Like the rotten bourgeois that I am, I bear his name. But what's in a 
name when one is facing at best the penitentiary or asylum as I am? 



Who Are They? Gandhi 45 

On the door of the A. C. L. IT. Chicago hdqts., Room 611, 160 N. La Salle 

St., of which Rev. and Carl Haessler are both members is 

printed "Institute for Mortuary Research, The Director, Carl Haessler, Fed- 
erated Press," etc. Do you not see the connection, Red? While Haessler 
capably runs the communists' Federated Press and teaches leaders for Red 

revolution at the communist Workers School, his and Rev. 's 

A. C. L. U. committee in his office defend his pupils when they participate in 
little riot practise skirmishes. But with the Institute for Mortuary Research 
under the same capable Haessler direction, how can people like me have 
hope of the asylum or penitentiary after the Revolution? 

Yours until I clasp a White's lily, 

MRS. A. W. DILLING. 

WHO ARE THEY? 

Those who read newspapers these days without some knowledge of Red 
propaganda and its propagandists miss much of the significance of what they 
read. Lectures, forums and debates, advertised in such a way as to make it 
appear they are impartial educational entertainments of general public 
interest, are the mediums constantly used for subversive propaganda among 
the intelligentsia. 

Stuart Chase, when he lectured before the society Town Hall audiences 
was advertised as an "economist" and author, not as a Socialist propagandist 
and former associate of the Berkman anarchist gang. Scott Nearing, the 
Communist mouthpiece of Moscow, is also referred to in the press as a lec- 
turer and "economist." In the press notices announcing Horace Bridges as 
the speaker for a North Shore audience, his connection with the Ethical 
Society was emphasized, but no mention made of his connection with the 
Communist-aiding American Civil Liberties Union. He is on the Chicago 
Committee which has been pushing suits against the City of Melrose Park 
because its police, when attacked and defied by Communist rioters, were 
forced to uphold law and order and use guns. If these suits are successful, 
no one will be safe, for naturally the police will not dare to interfere with 
Communist agitators. 

Gandhi 

Vithalbhai J. Patel, speaker at the Wilmette Sunday Evening Club and 
Union League Club of Chicago last year was the Gandhi aid released from 
jail and "welcomed out" of India. He was the house guest while in Chicago, 
of Herbert J. Friedmann, who is on the executive board of the Chicago Civil 
Liberties Committee. Patel was listed in the Communist Moscow News of 
August 30, 1932, as the delegate for India to the Communist "World Con- 
gress Against War" which convened in Amsterdam in August, 1932. 

"The Surrender of an Empire" (by Nesta Webster, published by Boswell, 
London), in writing about Gandhi's Moscow-financed agitations in India, 
has bits like this: "In 1928, the Bardoli No-Tax Campaign was carried 
out by Vithalbhai Patel. This agitation, though ostensibly industrial, was 
directly inspired by Communist agents. . . . Meanwhile money had been sent 



46 The Red Network 



continually from Moscow to the strike leaders. In May it was publicly 
announced that 1575 had been sent. ... In August a sum of 5500 ... on 
September 5, 1000 from Moscow. 'The Statesman' confessed itself puzzled 
as to the policy of the British government in allowing Soviet Russia to remit 
these sums through British banks in order to foment agitation. ... In March, 
Pravda (Moscow official paper) had declared that the battles in India 'are 
now part of the World Revolution, led, organized and watched over by the 
Communist International ... in July it devoted eight columns to an analysis 
of the position in India, showing that Moscow was not only heavily sub- 
sidizing the revolutionary movement there, but maintaining its own spies 
and agents, and again admitting that it was out to destroy British power in 
India." (The British government sent an appeal to the Indian people say- 
ing the government and Viceroy were in entire accord with Indian desire 
for self-government. Gandhi, Nationalist leader, replied demanding a con- 
ference.) "The violent elements in the Nationalist camp replied more for- 
cibly by placing a bomb on the rails outside Delhi, with the object of blow- 
ing up the Viceroy's train, which was carrying him, on December 23rd, to 
a meeting with Gandhi and other Nationalist leaders. The plot, however, 
failed in its effect . . . (1930) Savage rioting broke out in Calcutta; a raid, 
accompanied by the murder of British officials and every form of violence, 
was made on the armories of Chittagong ; loyal Indian police were massacred 
and burned by brutal mobs at Sholapur; the Afridis descended from the 
hills and Peshawar burst into flame. As Gandhi peacefully observed to the 
'Times' correspondent 'Non-violent and violent movements always go hand 
in hand.' 

"Then and then only, when India was in a blaze from end to end, the 
Viceroy took alarm and resolved on firmer action. ... On May 5 Gandhi was 
arrested. His successors to the leadership, the aged Abbas Tyabji and Mrs. 
Naidu, then the Pandit Motilal Nehru and Vithalbhai Patel followed him 
into imprisonment later." 

Glenn Frank 

When a radical forum wrote a local paper asking that in its columns 
"particular attention" be given to Glenn Frank, their lecturer to be, the 
paper asked me to write this publicity and published the following (Oct. 28, 
1932), which complied with the letter if not the spirit of the request. 

Those who have paid "particular attention" to the Red movement know 
that Glenn Frank, president of the U. of Wis., is on the Mooney-Billings 
Committee organized by the American Civil Liberties Union, which fights for 
Communists and upon whose national board sit such Moscow-controlled 
Communists as William Z. Foster, Scott Nearing, and Robert W. Dunn. They 
know also of the exposures made by John B. Chappie, fiery Wisconsin editor, 
whose revelations showing the connections between radicalism and atheism 
at Wisconsin University and Communism-Socialism-La Folletteism resulted 
in such an uprising at the last election that for the first time in forty years 
the La Follette dynasty was overthrown. The Wisconsin voters registered 
their unwillingness to surrender to the threefold Red onslaught against (1) 



Who Are They? Glenn Frank 47 

the right to own property, (2) the American home and Christian moral 
standards, (3) the American form of government. 

Harry Elmer Barnes, who said "There is no such thing as sin, scientifi- 
cally speaking, and hence it disappears into the limbo of outworn super- 
stitions. The Bible deserves no reverential awe," etc., founded the Wisconsin 
American Civil Liberties Union chapter with headquarters at the University. 
Governor La Follette, and Prof. Meiklejohn, head of the Wisconsin Uni- 
versity Experimental College, are committee members. Meiklejohn's pupils 
on the Communist Labor Day, May 1, 1931, were flying the Red flag and 
singing the Internationale without known protest from him. One of his pupils, 
Fred Bassett Blair, now running for governor on the Communist ticket, was 
sentenced to serve a year for rioting in Milwaukee. Meiklejohn worked 
diligently to have him released. Governor La Follette pardoned and released 
him before his term expired. 

Bill Haywood House, named in honor of the Anarchist-Communist and 
occupied by radical students, a large proportion being self-professed Com- 
munists, has been situated on University property. A large photo of Lenin, 
sent from Russia, decorated the walls. (U. P. Dispatch.) 

The Wisconsin University Zona Gale Scholarship was awarded to a young 
Communist, David Goronefsky, alias Gordon. He led a Communist parade 
at Madison which resulted in the injury of two persons. He wrote an obscene 
poem against the United States, printed in the communist Daily Worker, 
which was so vile that he was sentenced to serve three years in the New 
York State Reformatory. Zona Gale, one of the Wisconsin University 
Regents wrote the New York Parole Board begging for Gordon's early release 
saying in part (U. of Wis. Cardinal, May 8, 1928): "I am interested in the 
future of David Gordon. Mr. Gordon was the winner of a scholarship in 
competition with many other applicants, a scholarship which he held at the 
time of his conviction for an offense committed before he entered the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. As the donor of this scholarship I want you to know 
that with the approval of the president the scholarship will continue to 
belong to Mr. Gordon upon his release from the reformatory." 

In a notorious case involving student immorality at Wisconsin University, 
Prof. William Ellery Leonard defended the actions of the immoral students 
in a long letter to President Frank, saying their actions were "founded on 
the decent instincts of human nature." Dean Nardin in upholding marriage 
and morality stated: "Prof. Leonard is an advocate of free love and a con- 
tributing force to unsanctified marriage." President Frank was evasive. It 
was noted, however, that after notoriety died down somewhat, Dean Nardin 
was discharged while Prof. Leonard continued to hold his position. (See 
Chappie's "La Follette-Socialism.") 

Victor Berger, the Milwaukee Socialist, in a speech before a radical group, 
said: "The ballot box is simply a humbug. Now I don't doubt that in the 
last analysis we must shoot, and when it comes to shooting Wisconsin will 
be there." He advised radicals to have good rifles and the necessary ammu- 
nition. He died before his dreams materialized. This announcement appeared 
in the Chicago Daily News (March 20, 1931): "The Victor Berger Foun- 



48 The Red Network 



dation is preparing to launch a drive next month for a $100,000 fund as a 
nucleus for a national chain of daily newspapers 'for the promulgation of 
liberal thought and public welfare.' Prof. John Dewey of Columbia Uni- 
versity is one of the leaders of the foundation. Associated with him are Clar- 
ence Darrow, Jane Addams, President Glenn Frank of the University of 
Wisconsin, Upton Sinclair, and Elizabeth Gilman of Baltimore." 

The Communist Daily Worker looked with such approval upon Maurice 
Hindus' book about Russia, "Broken Earth," that they ran it serially. John 
Dewey wrote the introduction to Hindus' next book. Hindus dedicated his 
last book about Russia to Glenn Frank. 

Harry Ward, A. C. L. U. leader, with Harry Elmer Barnes and Sherwood 
Eddy, sent a demand to the United States War Department that the ban on 
the Communist party in the Philippines be lifted. This was after 300 Com- 
munists had been arrested charged with sedition. One month after this, at 
the commencement exercises, President Frank bestowed an honorary degree 
upon Harry Ward saying: "As chairman of the American Civil Liberties 
Union you have valiantly defended those basic rights of free speech, free 
press, and free association, without which neither scientific advance nor 
social progress is possible." 

A short time after this the New York Times (August 22, 1931) reported: 
"The American Civil Liberties Union announced yesterday it had cabled 
$500 to the Philippines to aid the legal defense of Communists indicted there 
for sedition." The next spring (May 19, 1932) a New York Times report 
on rioting, revolt and arson in the Philippines said: "Fourteen Communists, 
free on appeal and assisted by the American Civil Liberties Union, are 
declared to be leading general agitation." 

Prof. Max Otto, well known for his atheistic ideas, is prominent at Wis- 
consin University. His picture appeared in a periodical with the heading: 
"Is there a God?" and below this: "Max Otto says NO." 

One who has paid "particular attention" to Glenn Frank is not surprised 
that he thought it necessary to announce publicly that he is not a Com- 
munist, and that he believes in the existence of a God. The Chicago Tribune 
commented editorially upon this announcement. 

Einstein 

One of the best press-agented men in the world is Albert Einstein, who 
dares to tell the smart professors that his Relativity theory is so far beyond 
their intelligence that they cannot understand it and gets away it! They 
know, sure enough, that they cannot understand it but evidently figure that 
the best thing to do is to keep quiet and leave him undisturbed on his self- 
erected scientific throne, lest perchance his theory might be found to have 
some basis some day, in which event they would be classed as ignoramuses 
for having doubted it in the first place. 

Fellow workers in the Red movement are glad, of course, to magnify Ein- 
stein's importance in order to point out with pride that the greatest most 
un-understandable scientist in the world is one of their number. 

But no publicity for some reason is given to those sober courageous 



Who Are They? Einstein 49 

scientific authorities who with proof deride Einstein's theory. Dr. Nikola 
Tesla takes sharp issue with Einstein, saying: "The Einstein theory in many 
respects is erroneous." Charles Lane Poor, Ph. D., Professor of Celestial 
Mechanics at Columbia University, states: "The supposed astronomical 
proofs of the theory as cited and claimed by Einstein do not exist." Prof. 
Thomas Jefferson See, a distinguished scientific authority, says: "Einstein 
is neither astronomer, mathematician nor physicist. He is a confusionist. The 
Einstein theory is a fallacy. The theory that ether does not exist, and that 
gravity is not a force but a property of space can only be described as a 
crazy vagary, a disgrace to our age." Prof. Dayton C. Miller lectured before 
the Western Society of Engineers on his experiments in complete refutation 
of the Einstein theory. 

Perhaps the most exhaustive treatise on the Einstein theories is the volume 
entitled "The Case Against Einstein," written by Dr. Arthur Lynch, a very 
eminent English scientist. While much of this treatise is a technical analysis 
of the mathematical and philosophical fallacies of Einsteinism from a scien- 
tific standpoint, part of it is of interest to the layman. Dr. Lynch cites such 
critics of Einstein as the noted mathematicians, M. Picard, Henry Poincare, 
"perhaps the most celebrated of his race since Cauchy," G. Darboux, "who 
received the Nobel prize for mathematics," M. Paul Painleve, LeRoux, the 
German Klein, the Italians Ricci and Levi Civita, "who have done most to 
develop the mathematical instrument used by the Relativists" and who 
reject Relativity, and the American "framers of the case which is the corner 
stone of the theory, the Michelson-Morley experiment. Michelson rejected 
the Relativist theory." 

Dr. Lynch analyzes Einstein's popular vogue and says: "Yet as I cast 
my eye over the whole course of science I behold instances of false science, 
even more pretentious and popular than that of Einstein gradually fading 
into ineptitude under the searchlight; and I have no doubt that there will 
arise a new generation who will look with a wonder and amazement, deeper 
than now accompany Einstein, at our galaxy of thinkers, men of science, 
popular critics, authoritative professors and witty dramatists, who have been 
satisfied to waive their common sense in view of Einstein's absurdities." 

Personally I shall not forget the merry evening my husband and I spent 
at a University round table lecture devoted to the Einstein theory. As our 
instructor diagrammed space-time as a circle and visioned us meeting our- 
selves as infants again coming around the circle of time, and demonstrated 
the speed of a locomotive and its beams of light in accordance with relativity 
and in contradiction to all accepted mathematical rules, we all, including 
the instructor who admitted he could not understand it himself, howled with 
glee. We felt as though we had spent an evening in a mental madhouse. 

While I am unable to understand the scientific value of the Relativity 
theory, I can understand the "relativity" of Einstein to his daughter. who 
married a Russian and lived in Russia following her marriage. I can also 
see the "relativity" of the atheist book he endorses and of the "Down with 
War, Up with Revolution" pacifism of the War Resisters International, of 
which he is a leader, to the communist Congress at Moscow, which he attended 
(he appears in a photograph published by the Better America Federation), 



50 The Red Network 



and the relativity of the communist Workers International Relief, which he 
sponsors, the communist Congresses against War and in favor of Red revo- 
lution (see his "Who's Who"), which he has helped to assemble, and the 
communist International Committee for Struggle Against War, upon which 
he serves (1933) with Maxim Gorki, Remain Rolland, Henri Barbusse, etc., 
Moscow's world leaders for bloody Communist revolution. Atheism, pacifism 
for capitalist countries, and militarism for Russia are Communist principles. 

The League of Nations Chronicle, published in Chicago, March 1931, 
reporting Einstein's address to 400 "peace" advocates in Chicago said: "No 
one mentioned relativity. . . . Militant opposition to militarism was his key- 
note. ... 'It is my conviction that the only way is actual refusal of military 
service/ he said. . . . 'What I propose is illegal, but whenever a government 
demands criminal actions from its citizens, they have a very real right to 
oppose it and we must uphold them.' " 

In his speech to the War Resisters conference at Lyon, France, he not 
only urged defiance of the government authority which requires citizens to 
bear arms in defense of their government, but also said: "I have authorized 
the establishment of the Einstein War Resisters Fund. Contributions should 
be sent to the treasurer of the W. R. I., 11 Abbey Road, Enfield, Middlesex, 
England." This fund is for the defense of "militant war resisters." 

"The Patriot" of London, Nov. 30, 1933, said: "It is reported from 
Berlin that the entire seized property of Prof. Einstein and his wife has been 
confiscated under the law regulating the seizure of property of Communists." 

When Hitler started his campaign against Communists and Einstein's 
Jewish relatives, Einstein demonstrated his "relativity" theory in a perfectly 
understandable way by reversing his "pacifist" position and urging Belgian 
war resisters to go to war against Germany. 

When the Woman Patriot Society tried in 1932 to bar Einstein from 
entering the United States, the whole company of Red intellectuals rose up 
in wrath. Jane Addams' W. I. L. P. F. sent a message criticizing the Amer- 
ican consul for even questioning the idol, Einstein. 

Yet, legally, Einstein's membership in only one of these communist organ- 
izations was sufficient to exclude him from admission to the United States. 

The United States Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, requires: "That 
the following classes of aliens shall be excluded from admission into the 
United States: Anarchists or persons who believe in or advocate the over- 
throw by force or violence of the government of the United States, or who 
disbelieve in or are opposed to organized government ... or who are members 
of or affiliated with any organization entertaining and teaching disbelief in 
or opposition to organized government. . . . The giving, loaning or promising 
of money or anything of value to be used for the advising, advocacy or teach- 
ing of any doctrine above shall constitute the advising, advocacy or teaching 
of such doctrine." Etc. (Section 3.) 

Nor is it necessary to prove he "had knowledge of the contents of the 
programs ... or any one of them. It is sufficient if the evidence showed that 
he was a member of, or affiliated with, such an organization as contemplated 
by the statute." (Case of "Kjar vs. Doak," page six.) 

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in the Robert F. Clark case (301 



Who Are They? Jane Addams 



Pa. 321) held: "Anarchy will stalk in unmolested if individuals, because of 
superior education, age or mental reservation, are to be permitted to resist 
or to modify the laws of Congress according to their own individual beliefs." 
That was a naturalization case where the fundamental principle of the United 
States Constitution, namely, the power of government to defend its existence 
and enforce its laws by force of arms, was at issue. 

The program of Einstein's War Resisters International, which is actually 
affiliated with at least three Anarchist-Communist societies, is in entire con- 
formity with the teachings of Karl Marx as quoted by Lenin: "Not merely 
to hand on from one set of hands to another the bureaucratic and military 
machine . . . but to shatter it, and it is this that is the preliminary condition 
of ariy real people's revolution." 

Jane Addams 

Greatly beloved because of her kindly intentions toward the poor, Jane 
Addams has been able to do more probably than any other living woman (as 
she tells in her own books) to popularize pacifism and to introduce radicalism 
into colleges, settlements, and respectable circles. The influence of her radical 
protegees, who consider Hull House their home center, reaches out all over 
the world. One knowing of her consistent aid of the Red movement can only 
marvel at the smooth and charming way she at the same time disguises this 
aid and reigns as "queen" on both sides of the fence. 

I was impressed with her charm and ability (and subterfuge) at my only 
meeting with her, which was at a Legislative Hearing held at the Chicago 
City Hall, May 29, 1933. She was there to testify against the passage of the 
Baker Bills, which aimed only at penalizing the seditious communistic teach- 
ing of overthrow of this government in Illinois colleges. One would not have 
believed any person wishing to appear decently law abiding could have 
objected to these Bills which easily had passed the Senate; but the vehement 
fight the college presidents (Hutchins, Scott, McClelland, and McGuire of 
St. Viator's) put up against them at the first Hearing in Springfield was in 
itself a revelation. 

At the second Hearing in Chicago, in reply to a gentleman's testimony 
concerning Prof. Lovett's revolutionary speeches, Miss Addams, after plead- 
ing for freedom to teach Socialism and Communism in schools because these 
are world movements, said she was sure Prof. Lovett (who lives at Hull 
House) had never advocated the overthrow of this government by force and 
violence; in fact, said she, "I don't believe I ever heard of any member of 
the Communist Party doing so ! Of course you all know I am a pacifist and 
would not advocate the overthrow of anything by force and violence." (Lovett 
writes the introduction of "Recovery Through Revolution" [see] .) 

I arose to remark that Communists do advocate such overthrow as she 
should know since she had been associated with enough of them, reminding 
her that she had spoken only in December on the same program with Com- 
munist Scott Nearing at the Student Congress Against War (see) at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. She started to deny this, but I held up the program of 
the Congress with her name on it. Then she said: "But Prof. Nearing is 
not a member of the Party any more." I replied: "He is lecturing under 



52 The Red Network 



the auspices of the Friends of the Soviet Union and for the benefit of the 
communist Chicago Workers School of revolution at 2822 S. Michigan Ave." 
"O, I didn't know," she murmured. (I had the announcement card with me.) 

During this Hearing, Carl Haessler of this same school of revolution sat 
taking notes, probably for his communist Federated Press, and when it 
adjourned he came along with Jane Addams as she magnanimously sought 
me out, her "enemy," to introduce herself. Graciously she said, "I don't 
believe we have ever met, Mrs. Billing, I am Miss Addams." We shook 
hands and I said "I believe you have a very kind heart for the poor, Miss 
Addams, but why is it you have been helping the Communist movement all 
these years? Communism only pulls people down!" She said "I am not a 
member of the Communist Party." "No, of course not," said I, "You can 
do so much more good from the outside. But you have belonged to every 
outstanding Red-aid society from the American Civil Liberties Union with 
its terrible record in aid of sedition down to this last National Religion and 
Labor Foundation which uses atheist Soviet cartoons and talks plain revo- 
lution." She said, "I make no apology for my connection with the Civil 
Liberties Union. It was quite necessary during the war. But what is this 
National Religion and Labor Foundation you mention?" I dug down into 
my brief case and drew out its letterhead and pointed to her name on its 
national committee. Mildly she professed to know nothing about it, and 
her woman companion at her request copied off the address, presumably to 
chide the organization for "using her name." 

Only a few weeks later (July 21) the Chicago Daily News carried the 
story of a radical strike in which three patrol wagons full of strike pickets 
were arrested for "hurling missiles at returning workers and the police," and 
stated that Lea Taylor of Chicago Commons (who had also testified against 
the Baker Bills at this same Hearing), Karl Borders of Chicago Commons, 
and Annetta Dieckman of the Chicago Y. W. C. A., along with Francis Hen- 
son, Victor Brown, Norman Sibley, and Ralph Barker, jour delegates to the 
national conference of the National Religion and Labor Foundation then 
being held at Hull House, had joined the picket lines. So, after "discovering" 
her membership and making inquiries, Miss Addams must evidently have 
approved of the National Religion and Labor Foundation sufficiently to sanc- 
tion its convention at Hull House. 

Newspaper photographers approached asking to take our pictures, as Miss 
Addams stood talking with me after the Hearing, with Carl Haessler grinning 
like a little Cheshire cat at her side. He had written me up in the communist 
Federated Press as a "rabid D. A. R.," following our previous encounter (see 
article "Red Ravinia"). 

To the photographers Miss Addams said: "If Mrs. Dilling is broadminded 
enough to have her picture taken with me, you may take it providing you 
will call the picture Two D. A. R.'s' " and to me, "You know I also am a 
D. A. R." But before a Haessler-Addams-Dilling photo could be snapped 
then and there I truthfully spoke up and said "I am not a D. A. R., I am sorry 
to say," which upset her plan. 

Roland Libonati, chairman of the Legislative committee holding the Hear- 
ings, was impressed no doubt by the array of talent ("important" personages 



Who Are They? G. Bromley Oxnam 53 

such as college presidents and Jane Addams) which opposed the Baker Bills 
and favored freedom for communistic teaching in our schools. Living as he 
does within a block of Hull House, he must also realize the influence Jane 
Addams wields in his political district. At any rate, the Bills were killed, as 
he then intimated to reporters that they would be. 

Miss Addams wields great influence also at the Chicago Woman's Club, 
where the communist Chicago Workers Theatre (see) play "Precedent" was 
given in May, 1933. Its Feb. 1934 play was presented at Hull House. 

The communist Daily Worker, Saturday, Oct. 21, 1933, said: "Today the 
John Reed Club will hold a banquet for Henri Barbusse at the Chicago 
Woman's Club, 72 E. llth St. ... Jane Addams internationally known social 
worker, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize and head of the Women's Interna- 
tional League for Peace and Freedom, writes that although illness will prevent 
her from attending the mass meeting, she expects to be present at the banquet 
and is anxious to meet M. Barbusse. . . . B. K. Gebert, district organizer of 
the Communist Party, and Herbert Newton, editor of the Workers Voice, are 
also scheduled to speak at the banquet. . . . Barbusse will be accompanied by 
Joseph Freeman, editor of the New Masses and Prof. H. W. L. Dana, noted 
author." 

(See "Who's Who" for affiliations of Jane Addams.) 

G. Bromley Oxnam 

Louis Adamic, radical, in an article entitled "Liberals in Los Angeles" in 
"Plain Talk" magazine for December, 1929, said: "A few years ago there was 
in town a Methodist minister, Methodist only in name Bromley Oxnam, a 
man of tremendous personal force, who ran a dingy institution called the 
Church of All Nations, preaching in a vacant storeroom in an out-of-the-way 
street, interesting himself in all sorts of liberal and radical movements, fighting 
for the atheistic wobblies who got into jail, pacifists, anarchists and other 
victims of police persecution, running for office on independent tickets, speak- 
ing from all sorts of platforms five or six times a week. He wanted to stay 
in Los Angeles, but it was no place for a man of his sincerity and capacity 
and so when he received an offer of the presidency of De Pauw University 
in Indiana he wisely accepted it." 

The Daily Worker, Communist newspaper, Oct. 26, 1926, stated: "Rev. 
Oxnam, one of the American delegation of 24" (Sherwood Eddy's delegation) 
"just returned from Soviet Russia spoke at the open forum of the Civil 
Liberties Union at Music Arts Hall to a large audience. After reciting what 
he had seen in that immense country he urged that the American government 
recognize the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics. . . . Such statements as 
'priests are considered parasites and are therefore disenfranchised' and 'tho 
there is absolute religious freedom in Soviet Russia yet there are no young 
people in the churches' were greeted with enthusiastic applause." 

The American Vigilant Intelligence Federation of Chicago reprints the 
charges which Leroy Smith, a member of the M. E. Church of Los Angeles, 
laid before the M. E. Southern California Bishop, A. W. Leonard, on Sept. 
22, 1923. To quote from these charges, specifications and mass of data con- 
cerning Oxnam's radical activities: "I hereby charge that G. Bromley Oxnam, 



54 The Red Network 



. . . has proven by many and varied public activities, by many personal 
affiliations and by numerous spoken and printed utterances that he is 
utterly unfit to represent the Methodist Episcopal Church as one of her 
ministers." 

"Specification 1" cites details of a meeting held April 13, 1921, in behalf 
of prisoners convicted for sedition at which Oxnam "had as a fellow speaker 
Harriet Dunlop Prenter, the well known Communist." 

Specification 2 tells how Oxnam spoke at "a protest mass meeting against 
the Criminal Syndicalism Act of the State of Calif."; and at this same meet- 
ing it was publicly advertised that "members of the I. W. W. now on trial 
would address the meeting and did address said meeting, six of these men 
being introduced as martyrs." 

Specification 3 charges that May 19, 1923 under A. C. L. U. auspices in 
the interest of Upton Sinclair and in defense of so-called "Freedom of Speech," 
in company with specified notorious radicals, "Mr. Oxnam opened the 
meeting with prayer and as he started to pray, several in the gallery called 
out 'Cut out the prayer'; one of these men said, 'Who the hell is that Bird?' 
One of the others answered, 'That's Oxnam, the Wobbly Preacher. 7 The first 
one asked, 'Is he with us?' The second one replied, 'Is he? You ought to 
hear the blankety blank blank preach sometimes.' Then the third man broke 
in 'That's the dope that's great, once we get a few of these Holy Joes 
coming our way, we'll be able to put the skids on the whole damned works, 
president, constitution, government and all' others agreed with fine fervor"; 
etc. (Note: "Wobblies" is the slang term for "I. W. W.'s.") 

Specifications under the second charge concerning Oxnam's unfitness for 
the ministry include: "One of Mr. Oxnam's trusted Lieutenants, an enthusi- 
astic teacher in his Sunday School, has been Mrs. Kashub. Mrs. Kashub 
entertained Harriet Dunlop Prenter and other numerous Communists and 
I. W. W.'s on visits to this city. Mrs. Kashub has been teaching the children 
from 9 to 11 years of age in the Church of All Nations; she has been using 
Walter Thomas Mills' book called The Struggle for Existence' as a text 
book. This book is wonderfully adapted to make it easy to understand Social- 
ism. On a certain Sunday morning not long since, in the Sunday School Class 
of Mrs. Kashub, the following program was carried out: First The studies 
in Socialism lasted one hour. Second There was one hour of dancing. Third 
There was twenty minutes of singing the meeting closed by singing 'The 
Workers' Flag is the Red Flag.' " 

Specifications No. 2 states: "The Boy Scout movement of the Church 
of All Nations (Methodist Episcopal) is in charge of a young Russian 
Socialist by the name of Klussman." 

Specification 3: "The Church has a library of most up-to-date Socialist 
and Communist books," etc. 

Specification 4: "His religious services have not been religious services." 
(See "Who's Who" for affiliations.) 

"Red Ravinia" Carl Haessler 

Several years ago, because of the activities of a certain "Red" clique, 
Ravinia acquired the nickname "Red Ravinia" in neighboring communities. 



Who Are They? "Red Ravinia"Carl Haessler 55 

Carl Haessler spoke at the Ravinia Woman's Club April 13th, 1932, in 
favor of Communism and violent Red revolution in America. His audience 
was composed of well-dressed women who enjoy the comfortable homes, 
great new inventions, and educational benefits of church and school which 
the American "capitalistic" system has fostered as never before in the world's 
history. To be sure, Haessler is a past master at the art of revolutionary 
propaganda. His own account of how he and a few others incited the strike 
of 3,200 fellow prisoners in Leavenworth Penitentiary demonstrates practical 
ability which no doubt helped him to secure his present position as Chicago 
head of the Communistic propaganda news-gathering agency, The Federated 
Press. 

In appearance, Haessler is harmless, even effeminate, and before the 
Woman's Club he employed to perfection the manner of a sweet startled deer 
beseeching its captors for mercy, which is so appealing to the mother instinct. 
He told the ladies he wanted to avoid offending anyone, and apologetically 
asked that his propaganda be regarded as an academic question (not a ques- 
tion of life and death to all of us). By all the subtle arts of indirection and 
innuendo he proposed a revolution of terror and confiscation as smoothly as 
though he were offering his listeners a charming prospect or a chocolate cream, 
and most of them seemed to accept it as such. 

Haessler's introductory remarks were that, while he was not a member 
of the Club (laughter), he felt that he had taken part in its life through his 
wife, who had acted as Program Chairman, Secretary of the Board, etc., for 
over ten years. After hearing this, I could well understand the difficulty 
patriotic citizens and club members have had in trying to combat "Red" influ- 
ence in Ravinia, where the Haesslers live. 

Briefly, his arguments were for the confiscation of all private wealth and 
property, and for putting these under state control (control by state political 
machines being purer, supposedly, than private control). He said that while 
the Socialist and Communist systems were interchangeable, Socialists think 
they can win by peaceable means, while "history tells Communists" that 
violence is necessary, and that his sympathies were with Communism. He 
said Communism is inevitable and we had only to choose between "dragging 
along" for several generations or "having it over with" by quick, violent 
revolution. He deceptively compared this proposed revolution with our own 
Revolutionary War for independence (as Communists always do). He non- 
chalantly observed that while revolutions undoubtedly "pull down houses," 
many of these need pulling down anyway, and while they undoubtedly kill 
people, all of these would have to die later anyway, so that, after a few gen- 
erations this violence becomes immaterial. He omitted to say that property 
destruction and death would be very material to this generation. However, 
as Haessler's appearance is harmless and appealing, the ladies applauded him 
enthusiastically; they had "listened," evidently, to his appearance. 

It is interesting to note in Communist literature that criminal violence is 
always promoted and excused under a cloak of supposed martyrdom. Negroes 
are urged to fight their white "oppressors," who actually have freed them and 
given them better jobs and opportunities than exist in Africa. Mooney is 
the Anarchist convicted of bombing the 1917 Preparedness Day Parade at 



56 The Red Network 



San Francisco, when many were killed and injured. To the Communists, 
Mooney is "framed" by his "capitalistic oppressors," and freeing him is a 
popular Communist cause. Freeing the Scottsboro Negroes convicted of rap- 
ing two white girls is another Communist enthusiasm (in order to stir up race 
hatred). Patriotic citizens of Ravinia speak with despair and indignation 
of their futile efforts to combat "Red" influences in Ravinia and of the per- 
sistence required to keep the United States flag displayed there. As soon 
as a "Ravinia Red" is reproached for disloyalty to America, he or she at 
once assumes the martyr role, giving the role of "oppressor" to the patriotic 
person, who is then referred to slightingly as a "hundred-per-center," "a 
narrow-minded D. A. R.," or a "super patriot." To praise the American 
Legion in "Red Ravinia" society circles, would be the social faux pas inex- 
cusable. 

No one in Ravinia has ever accused Brent Dow Allinson of being a "super 
patriot." He is the infamous slacker who refused to serve his country in the 
World War and, like Haessler, is a penitentiary alumnus. His mother is an 
active member of the Ravinia Woman's Club. 

Haessler served twenty-six months in Leavenworth and Alcatraz Prisons 
(between June 1918 and August 1920), for refusal to serve the United 
States during the World War. His reasons for refusing to serve, and his 
activities while confined in prison, are clearly set forth in his article describ- 
ing the strike incited by the "political prisoners" of whom he was one. This 
article appeared in the Communist "Labor Defender" (issue of January, 
1927), and is entitled "The Fort Leavenworth General Strike of Prisoners 
An Experiment in the Radical Guidance of Mass Discontent." It says in 
part: "Not every convict took part in the general strike that brought the 
War Department of the strongest nation on earth to its knees. But those 
who scabbed will remember the surging of overwhelming cooperative action 
that all but engulfed them." (He tells how the 500 out of 3,700 prisoners 
who did not join were afraid to return to their cells for fear of the strikers.) 
"How was this feeling brought about? It is an interesting experiment in the 
solidarity of mobilizing and directing mass discontent. A small but highly 
organized and highly conscious body of prisoners led the great majority 
almost without the knowledge of anybody but the leaders and their opponents, 
the military command of the prison. This small body of leaders were the 
political objectors to the Wilson war. . . . Their purpose was general revo- 
lutionary propaganda, and, if the occasion proved favorable, revolutionary 
action , . . The politicals as a rule had no conscience so far as means of fur- 
thering their main purpose was concerned. They deemed Socialism, or Com- 
munism, as many of them began to call it after the Russian revolution, as 
more important than any specially ordained way of achieving it ... Where 
the commandant used spies and propaganda the politicals did likewise with 
better effect. In a few months they had the roughneck ordinary military 
convict tatooing red flags instead of the national emblem on their arms and 
chests. In some weeks more they had them rejecting every chance to shorten 
their terms by reinstatement with the colors." (He describes the riots in 
which arms were broken, teeth knocked out, and prisoners "bruised to a 
jelly.") "That night the commandant surrendered. The men then returned 



Who Are They? "Red Ravinia" Carl Haessler 57 

to work. Their strike had been successful beyond their dreams. . . . The 
political prisoners had not produced the mob but they had supplied the direc- 
tion for it. The two factors cooperated in a neat little revolutionary experi- 
ment behind the walls and under the guns of Fort Leavenworth. When the 
tide of events produces similar conditions on a national scale, it may be that 
men of national calibre will be ready to carry out a similar experiment on 
national and international lines" (All italicising mine). He was the spokes- 
man for the strikers, as is proudly stated in the radicals' Am. Labor Who's 
Who. 

In 1922, Haessler became Managing Editor of the Federated Press, which 
is described in the U. S. Government Fish Committee report on Communism 
(2290). The Communist Party of America considers the Federated Press its 
own press service organization, and upwards of 200 papers in the U. S. are 
affiliated with it. It represents and is closely associated with the Soviet Union 
Telegraph Agency. Louis P. Lochner is European director and has an office 
in Berlin where he is in close touch with the International Propaganda Bureau 
of the Communist International of Moscow. Haessler is also an official of the 
communist Workers School (of revolution). 

Haessler, while lecturing August 12, 1926, is said to have referred to his 
sister Gertrude as being then in Moscow studying "Journalism." Gertrude 
Haessler writes not only for Communist papers but also for the Communist 
"Party Organizer." She is an authority on publications of "shop nuclei," 
or revolutionary units in shops. The April, 1932, issue of that startling Com- 
munist paper, the "Labor Defender," bears an article by her entitled "In 
Blue Blood Kentucky." In it, she ridicules the "capitalistic" Lindberghs and 
their lost baby, as Communist papers have been doing ever since the kid- 
napping. She upholds Mooney and the convicted Scottsboro Negro rapists 
and says: "Lindbergh shaking hands with the czars of the underworld in 
the frantic effort to get back his 'chubby, golden-haired son' doesn't give a 
damn for the nine terrified little dark skinned Scottsboro lads . . . Lindbergh, 
the ideal of American boyhood, never made a move to see that Mother 
Mooney got her son back during the entire fifteen years of his legal kid- 
napping." 

After Haessler's talk at the Ravinia Woman's Club, one of the "Red 
Ravinians" said to a friend of mine who has the honor, which I have not, 
of being a D. A. R. member; "I don't understand you D. A. R.'s at all. You 
are all for that old 1776 Revolution but against this new revolution." Com- 
munists delight in making it appear that our Revolutionary War for Inde- 
pendence and the second Russian, or Bolshevik, revolution, as well as the 
proposed international "Red" revolution, are all similar. They are not 
similar. Our Revolutionary War of 1776 was to establish only the right of 
this nation to govern itself. The first Russian revolution which overthrew 
the Czar in February, 1917, formed the Kerensky government, patterned 
somewhat after our own, and was a revolution concerning only Russia. The 
U. S. was the first nation to officially recognize the Kerensky government. 
But eight months later, in October, 1917, about 36,000 Russian Communist 
Bolsheviks overthrew the Kerensky government and proceeded to repudiate 
all national debts and set up a dictatorship over, not of, the "proletariat," 



58 The Red Network 



more autocratic than any Czar's. They confiscated all private property, 
murdered at least 3,000,000 persons of the upper classes and of those resist- 
ing dispossession. They abolished all religion, for Communists everywhere 
must not only be atheists themselves but also militantly anti-religious. They 
set up and financed, as part of the Soviet government, the Third International, 
whose purpose is (quoting U. S. Government Report 2290) "the stirring up 
of Communist activities in foreign countries in order to cause strikes, riots, 
sabotage, bloodshed and civil war . . . The ultimate and final objective is by 
means of world revolution to establish the dictatorship of the so-called pro- 
letariat into one world union of Soviet, Socialist Republics with the capital 
at Moscow." 

As this U. S. report says (page 65) : "There is a sharp distinction between 
the right to advocate in an academic way any doctrine we like and the right, 
which is not right, under any reasonable interpretation of our Constitution, 
to preach and plan the overthrow of our republican form of government by 
force and violence." This report says in regard to the Soviet "five-year 
plan": " Travda,' the Communist organ, of August 29, 1929, fully defines 
its purpose: c lt is a plan tending to, undermine capitalist stabilization. It is 
a great plan of world revolution.' " In spite of the efforts of radical Senators 
with Soviet sympathies, like Brookhart, Borah, La Follette, etc., the U. S. 
Government long refused to officially recognize the Soviet government. 

Atheism and Communism go hand in hand. The February 14, 1928, 
issue of the Communist "Daily Worker" announced an illustrated lecture by 
Carl Haessler on "The Twilight of Religion in Soviet Russia" under the 
auspices of the Russian branch of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Atheism at Workers' Home, 1902 West Division Street, Chicago. On 
January 7, 1932, Haessler gave a lecture "The Twilight of the Gods in 
Russia" at the Communist atheist forum at 109 West Chicago Avenue, 
Chicago. 

Haessler is a committeeman of the American Civil Liberties Union, of 
which the U. S. Report (2290) says: "The A. C. L. U. is closely affiliated 
with the Communist movement in the U. S. and fully ninety per cent of its 
efforts are in behalf of Communists who have come into conflict with the law. 
It claims to stand for free speech, free press, and free assembly; but it is 
quite apparent that the main effort of the A. C. L. U. is to attempt to protect 
the Communists in their advocacy of force and violence to overthrow the 
Government, replacing the American flag by a red flag and erecting a Soviet 
government in place of the republican form of government . . . Roger Bald- 
win, its guiding spirit, makes no attempt to hide his friendship for the Com- 
munists and their principles." It was this same Roger Baldwin who recently 
threatened to sue Henry Ford for "countenancing the injury" of the Com- 
munist rioters at the Ford plant. 

Roger Baldwin was the speaker for the Ravinia Woman's Club January 
14, 1931. Mrs. Haessler was then the Club's Program Chairman. Ravinia 
residents tell of the community dinner which preceded the evening meeting 
of the Ravinia Woman's Club March 3, 1926, at which the honored speaker 
was Scott Nearing, the well known Communist lecturer and a director of 
the communistic Garland Fund. They tell how a patriotic school teacher 
challenged Nearing's statements about Russia and how this challenge was 



"/ Am Not Interested" 59 



brushed aside. Scott Nearing and Arthur Fisher of Winnetka (A. C. L. U. 
Chicago Chairman) staged a debate on a favorite Communistic subject, 
"Imperialism" with Carl Haessler acting as chairman, at Plumbers' Hall, 
1340 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, on March 10, 1928. 

During the question period which followed Haessler 's talk at the Ravinia 
Woman's Club, I asked a question which showed my antipathy for Haessler 's 
proposed revolution. The audience at once broke into a surging tumult of 
angry comment against me. Then, defying this hostility, I said: "Oh, you 
have been listening to the insidious propaganda of the voice of Moscow, 
whose government is attempting to overthrow our Government, etc. Just as 
in Russia, you would be the class first to be murdered in case of a revolution 
here. This meeting is an insult to a loyal American citizen!" Then, indeed, 
there was a near riot. The Club President (Mrs. Robt. L. Grinnell, wife of 
the President of the local school board) quieted the meeting momentarily 
by apologizing to Haessler. Most of the audience applauded this act 
vehemently. She then came to me, and to prominent members of patriotic 
organizations who were with me, to criticize and to demand by what right 
we were there. I was the invited guest of two members but I refused to 
divulge their names, feeling that they had been persecuted enough in Ravinia 
for their patriotic leanings. At Ravinia, once again, as in the Leaven worth 
Prison revolt, Haessler "led the majority almost without the knowledge of 
anybody but the leaders and their opponents." 

This is a time when the entire world is feeling the unrest caused by the 
strikes, sabotage, and revolutionary activities of Communists in India, Ger- 
many, England, South America, New Zealand, America, and so on. Wealthy 
Americans are now losing their fortunes, aging with worry, and turning to 
despair and to suicide. Every American is feeling the economic pinch caused 
by deflation and by the Communist "plan of economic unstabilization" or 
"plan of world revolution." The person who joins Communists in accusing 
our capitalists of closing their factories and ruining themselves for the pur- 
pose of ruining the poor is either blind or willfully seditious. We do need 
the Jeffers and Bachmann Federal Bills for our protection, but when loyal 
fighting Americans unite in insisting that our elected officials enforce the 
Illinois statutes covering sedition, then organizations like the Ravinia 
Woman's Club, Y. M. C. A., and University of Chicago (a hotbed of similar 
speakers) will lose their taste for hiring men of Haessler's calibre to preach 
revolution to audiences who are also held responsible under these laws for 
attending such meetings. 

The Illinois Criminal Code (Chapter 38, Sections 558-564) provides a 
penalty of one to ten years in the penitentiary for advocating the overthrow 
of our Government by unlawful means, and a fine of $500 to $1,000 and 
imprisonment for six months to one year for knowingly attending a meeting 
at which such overthrow is advocated. 

"I AM NOT INTERESTED" 

Police line the streets when the Red flag is paraded down the streets of 
Chicago, in defiance of the Illinois sedition law. Any week one may attend 
immense revolutionary Red meetings, which are given ample police protection. 



60 The Red Network 



In fact, the Daily News last year reported that the only unseemly incident 
in one Communist parade was when a Red flag was snatched from the hands 
of a marcher by a bystander, but that it was quickly restored to the Red 
by the police. 

The Chicago police department granted a permit for a parade Sunday, 
December 17th, 1933, of loyal Ukrainian-Americans who, after a service in 
their church, wished to march to a hall to hold a meeting and raise funds 
to try to save their relatives in the Russian Ukraine, now being "liquidated" 
deliberately starved to death by the Soviet government. Even pro-Soviet 
news reporters estimate the deaths by such starvation during the last year 
as numbering in the millions, while the American Communist press main- 
tains that such "liquidation" of bourgeois elements who object to Soviet 
tyranny and destruction of religion, must go on until Russia is a "pure" 
Communist state. 

Dr. Emil Tarnawski, loyal American citizen, and president of the 
affiliated Ukrainian-American societies of Chicago, with some 10,000 mem- 
bers, also Lt. Nelson E. Hewitt, warned the Chicago police department, asked 
for special police protection for this parade, and told them that a secret meet- 
ing of the Reds had been held to plan an attack on the parade and that Dr. 
Tarnawski and many of his people had been personally threatened with 
death if they marched. 

But only two policemen were with the 3,000 Ukrainian- American marchers 
at the time the Reds attacked them by first throwing Communist leaflets from 
above, then, as they looked up, throwing down bricks in their faces from 
an elevated station platform. Hundreds of Communists along the sidewalks 
simultaneously rushed in from both sides, and assaulted them with iron 
pipes, tools, brass knuckles, etc. They tore the American flag to pieces, and 
about 100 were injured. I personally saw many bandaged heads at the 
Ukrainian meeting which I addressed. Dr. Tarnawski received a severe leg 
injury and for some time was unable to walk. The communist Daily Worker 
reported the attack jubilantly as a Communist triumph. 

Judge Gutnecht (see Robt. Morss Lovett in "Who's Who"), who heard 
the cases the next day, was reported in the press as criticizing the police for 
having only arrested Communists, and not the Ukrainians whom they had 
attacked as well! When their cases were tried only two received ten and 
two received thirty days in jail for this bloody attack! 

When sixteen of us, including Mrs. Tarnawski, as a delegation repre- 
senting various patriotic societies, called upon Chief of Police Allman the 
following Tuesday and laid the facts before him, I attempted to show him a 
copy of the "Red Front of U. S. A.," a Communist revolutionary military 
publication which boldly lists recruiting stations in New York, Los Angeles, 
Chicago, etc. where Reds are urged to sign up for military training for just 
such attacks, and in order to give the police "their due" in strikes and riots, 
to "open food storage places," and says, "Any day may be the beginning of 
the revolutionary struggle" and that "the dashing to pieces of the whole ap- 
paratus of government is in the period of revolutionary uprising, thus easier 
to accomplish. The Chicago office, 101 S. Wells St., Room 707 ... meets at 
2322 W. Chicago Avenue" (near where the attack occurred). Chief Allman 



/. So-Called "Pacifism" Is It Christian or Red? 



said, "We have recognized those people now." (We have not recognized the 
overthrow of this government.) He refused to look at this Red publication, 
saying very coldly, "/ am not interested." 

While Chief Allman has been often praised by radicals and by the 1932 
report of the Red-aiding Chicago Civil Liberties Committee for his "enlight- 
ened attitude" toward "civil liberties" for Communists, some of us are still 
interested in civil liberties for Americans, in the protection of the American 
flag, and the enforcement of the Illinois State sedition law. The attorney 
for the Ukrainian-Americans called upon the Federal authorities the same 
day and was told that they are no longer interested in Communist activities. 
Is anyone interested? Are you? What are you going to do about it? 

I. SO-CALLED "PACIFISM" IS IT CHRISTIAN OR RED? 

(II Cor. 7:14) "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: 
for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what com- 
munion hath light with darkness?" 

(Matt. 12:29) "How can one enter into a strong man's house and spoil 
his goods unless he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his 
house. He that is not with me is against me ; and he that gathereth not with 
me scattereth abroad." 

The sincere Christian pacifist, determined in spite of Biblical prophecy 
to immediately invoke Christ's final reign as Prince of Peace on earth by 
disarmament, buries his head in the sand like an ostrich, blindly ignoring the 
fact that those most dominant in influencing, financing, boring from within, 
if not actually controlling the great majority of pacifist societies are Socialists 
and Communists who appear in the clothing of sheep crying "Peace! Peace! 
when there is no peace" while they themselves, like ravening wolves, are agi- 
tating "class struggle," "class war," civil wars and bloody revolution. 

"Beware of false prophets," said Jesus Christ (Matt. 7:15), "which come 
to you in sheep's clothing but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall 
know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns or figs of thistles?" 
or peace of civil war or godliness of atheistic Socialism-Communism? one 
might add. 

Jesus Christ, who so militantly fought sin and so tenderly sought to save 
sinners from the inescapable penalties of their sins, taught that "wars and 
rumors" of wars would continue, "for these things must first come to pass. 
And nation shall rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom" (St. 
Luke 21:10), until a final era of great tribulation and warfare against Chris- 
tianity (such as Communism is preparing) would culminate in a mighty 
conflict ushering in His second coming and real reign as Prince of Peace. 
Throughout the Scriptures, it is foretold that one of the signs preceding that 
era would be the return of the Jews, scattered over the earth, to Palestine, 
their homeland. 

The great conflict, as visioned by St. John (Revelation, Chap. 17, 18), 
will take place on the plains of Armageddon in Palestine, between lovers of 
God and ten blasphemous kingdoms, in power but a short time, under the 
control of "that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth" called 



62 The Red Network 



"The Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth" (a description per- 
haps of Moscow and its blasphemous anti-God, anti-moral hordes now plot- 
ting to control all governments). "These shall make war with the Lamb and 
the Lamb shall overcome them: for He is Lord of Lords and King of Kings: 
and they that are with Him are called and chosen and faithful." "For her 
sins" (the city's) "have reached unto Heaven and God hath remembered 
her iniquities." In regard to this final conflict, Jesus said (St. Luke 21:20): 
"And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that 
the desolation thereof is nigh." (Verse 22): "For these be the days of 
vengeance, that all things that are written be fulfilled." (St. Luke 21:12): 
"But before all these, they shall lay hands on you and persecute you deliver- 
ing you up to the synagogues and into prisons, being brought before kings 
and rulers for My name's sake." (Christians are now persecuted by the 
Russian government and similar persecutions are under way in Mexico and 
Spain. 300 churches were closed in Mexico in August, 1933). 

St. Paul (Timothy 3:1-7) says: (1) "This know also, that in the last 
days perilous times shall come." (2) "For men shall be lovers of their own 
selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemous, disobedient to parents, un- 
thankful, unholy." (3) "Without natural affection, truce-breakers, false 
accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good." (4) "Traitors, 
heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God." (5) "Hav- 
ing a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away." 
(6) "For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly 
women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts." (7) "Ever learning, and 
never able to come to the knowledge of the truth" 

One is forced to think, in this connection : of those present-day, Moscow- 
loving, intellectual ministers who rewrite the Bible and teach it in modernist 
style so as to leave faith in little besides its covers "having a form of god- 
liness but denying the power thereof"; of those, "Ever learning and never 
able to come to the knowledge of the truth," who follow, like a will-of-the- 
wisp, every conflicting theory, so uncertain, so wobbly in their own faith 
that they willingly yoke their Christian faith equally together with the 
agnostic, the depraved Hindu and similar cults, in a "Fellowship of Faiths," 
which applauded Wm. M. Brown (unfrocked Bishop) when he said: "We 
must banish capitalism from the earth and gods from the skies!"; of Russia 
falsely boasting of its "new social order," Communism-Socialism, which 
teaches, in Russia and abroad (subsidized by the Soviet Govt.): Atheism 
and blasphemy; disobedience to parents (Children of parents disenfranchised 
because of being Christians are urged to publicly disown their parents in 
Russia) ; want of natural affection on the part of parents (who are urged 
to put their children into state orphanges for "mass education" (because of 
the lack of such orphanages, thousands are deserted) ; trucebreaking (Mos- 
cow makes "Non- Aggression Pacts" with nations within which she is main- 
taining Moscow-directed schools training agitators to stir up bloody revo- 
lution and civil war) ; incontinence or "free love" (taught by Marxian Social- 
ists-Communists as "freedom from bourgeois sentimentality" and from the 
"capitalistic private ownership of one man and one woman for each other," 
and propagandized everywhere by such sympathizers with the Red move- 



/. So-Called "Pacifism" Is It Christian or Red? 63 

ment as: Communist Dreiser, Bertrand Russell, Bernard Shaw, Havelock 
Ellis, Judge Ben Lindsey (aided by the Garland Fund), Freud, etc., etc.; 
by "sex" publishers such as the Eugenics Publishing Co.; by some radical 
and numerous commercially-greedy motion picture producers whose pictures 
glorifying prostitution and vice inspire people "to be led away with divers 
lusts" and so on. 

"Pacifist" Clarence V. Howell, director of Reconciliation Trips, announced 
that he was voting for and supporting the Communist Party in its 1932 cam- 
paign. "Pacifist" J. B. Matthews, exec. sec. of the "Pacifist" Fellowship of 
Reconciliation, and a militantly revolutionary speaker at many Communist 
meetings, was booked as co-chairman, with Communist Donald Henderson, 
of the communist U. S. Congress Against War, Sept. 29, 1933, and fellow 
speaker with Communists Earl Browder and Henri Barbusse at its sessions 
(Daily Worker, Sept. 8, 1933). 

That the "Pacifist" Fellowship of Reconciliation deliberately uses the 
name of Christ to propagandize communistic theories among Christians is 
shown in its release to members advising: "Position A. Keep Central and 
Typical the Reference to Jesus Brief A. ( 1 ) To omit all reference to Jesus 
from our public statement of purpose or to make our reference to Him 
incidental, so that it might be inferred that the Fellowship began with central 
emphasis on the way of Jesus but has now substituted a wider basis, are 
positions both subject to the following objections: . . . The Fellowship would 
have less chance to influence churches and the Christian Student Movement 
and to secure their cooperation in spreading radical Christian views on war, 
economics, and race issues. . . . Many members might feel compelled to start 
a new organization to regain the advantages of the original unequivocal basis 
of the Fellowship for demonstrating 'left-wing' Christianity. (3) Much prac- 
tical work of the Fellowship would be jeopardized. Hitherto our leadership 
and support have come mainly from Christian sources. These sources espe- 
cially have made possible the extension of our work in Europe, Central Amer- 
ica and Southern United States. If the leadership and support of them is 
seriously diminished what evidence is there that other pacifist groups can 
take over this work and carry it on?" . . . But stating our objective in terms 
of His type of love, has in addition to the advantages implied above such 
reasons as the following: (1) The unique fitness of Jesus of Galilee to be a 
world wide symbol of pacifism . . . the utter conflict between His way and the 
way of military preparedness and war" etc., etc. 

But Jesus Christ was not a "left-wing" proponent of "radical views on 
war, economics and race issues." While teaching love and pity in the heart 
for enemy or sinner, He said (St. Luke 11:21-23): "When a man armed 
keepeth his palace his goods are in peace. But when a stronger than he shall 
come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein 
he trusted, and divideth the spoils. He that is not with me scattereth against 
me." In St. Luke 22:35, He said: "When I sent you without purse, and 
scrip and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they said, nothing. (Verse 36): 
Then said he unto them But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and 
likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and 
buy one. (Verse 38) : and they said, Lord behold here are two swords. And 



64 The Red Network 



he said unto them, It is enough." He also said (Matt. 10:34-37): (34) 
"Think not that I am come to send peace on earth, I came not to send peace, 
but a sword. (35) For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, 
and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her 
mother-in-law. (36) And a man's foes shall be they of his own household. 
(37) He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me." 

Nor was He pacifistic in His denunciations of sin and hypocrisy, for when 
they came to Jerusalem "Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out 
them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the 
money changers, and the seats of them that sold doves ; And would not suffer 
that any man should carry any vessel through the temple. And he taught, 
saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations 
the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves." (St. Mark 
11:15-17.) 

I think of that when I see Communist posters on the bulletin boards of 
Christian Churches. 

Jesus taught that the Kingdom of God is within the individual heart. He 
rebuked the idea of making His Kingdom a political system over this world 
until after the final culmination of evil in the great Armageddon conflict and 
the defeat of that "mystery of iniquity" which works to keep this world in 
strife. (Eph. 6:12): "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but 
against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of 
this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." 

During His fast (Matt. 4), He was "led up of the spirit into the wilder- 
ness to be tempted of the devil . . . the devil taketh Him up into an exceeding 
high mountain and sheweth Him all the kingdoms of the world and the glory 
of them: And saith unto Him, All these things will I give Thee, if Thou will 
fall down and worship me. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: 
for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt 
thou serve." Today some "Christians" are not turning a deaf ear to this bid 
for temporal power made by the satanic Marx. 

They came asking Him whether they should revolt against Caesar's 
government by refusing tribute and said: (Matt. 22:17-21): "Is it lawful 
to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, 
and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Show me the tribute money. 
And they brought unto him a penny and He saith unto them, Whose is this 
image and superscription? They say unto Him, Caesar's. Then saith He 
unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's; and 
unto God the things that are God's." 

None of Christ's disciples taught a political revolution either in the name 
of Christ or of "social justice." But the traitorous or misguided Christians 
of today are doing so in teaching the "social gospel" of Socialist-Communist 
revolution for the sake of the political "new social order" of atheist Karl 
Marx. In warning against the false prophets that shall "deceive the very 
elect," Christ said: "For wheresoever the carcass is there will the eagles be 
gathered." So Christian pacifists today, dead to the realization that they are 
cooperating with Jesus Christ's crucifiers when they cooperate with Marxians 
for the "pacifism" of civil war, merely serve as the carcasses for these revo- 
lutionary eagles to feed upon. 



. II. Pacifism and Its Red Aids 6S_ 

How earnestly Christ asked his disciples three times in the Garden of 
Gethsemane to watch with Him and to pray lest they fall into temptation! 
But three times He came to find them sleeping. The last time, sadly, He 
said (Matt. 26:45): "Sleep on now and take your rest: behold the hour is 
at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners." Then 
Judas approached with those who were to crucify Him and betrayed Christ 
to them with a kiss. So again today with the kiss of supposed friendship for 
Christ the Judas "Christian" worker for atheist Socialism-Communism 
betrays our Lord within His own sanctuary to the Socialists-Communists who 
wait only for the power to destroy the Christian faith. It is as unsuitable 
to yoke Christianity to Socialism as it is to yoke Christianity to atheism or 
to yoke Christ's teaching pf the indissolubility of marriage and the family 
unit to the Marxian teaching of "free love." The "class struggle" and "class 
war" of Karl Marx have nothing in common with "Love your neighbor as 
yourself" and frequent admonitions against coveting "anything that is his." 
Karl Marx very correctly stated, in respect to the success" of his own teach- 
ings, that the Christian "Religion is the opium of the people." It deadens 
people to the call of the "Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth" 
to follow the Marxian way of hate and lust and class war. Instead, the teach- 
ing of the "Light of the World" offers them "The Way, the Truth and the 
Life" everlasting. Christians should read the Parable of the Talents on the 
unworthiness of doing nothing, and be sure that they are aligned on God's 
side in this conflict to "fight the good fight" against satan's "whited sepul- 
chres," the Red pacifists. 

II. PACIFISM AND ITS RED AIDS 

Anyone willing to peruse the dry documentary evidence by reading, for 
example, the lists of Communist organizations and leaders named side by 
side with "Peace" organizations and leaders, as cooperating and official sup- 
porters of such Communist-organized and controlled affairs as the various 
Congresses against War (World, U. S., Youth, Student), cannot doubt that 
the Pacifist and Revolutionary movements are linked together by hoops 
of steel. 

One might wonder why revolutionaries support Pacifism. That they do 
back Pacifism with good hard cash is shown by reading the Garland Fund 
Reports. One sees, for example, that the Fund's directors: Communists 
Wm. Z. Foster, Robt. W. Dunn, Scott Nearing, Eliz. Gurley Flynn, and 
Benj. Gitlow (the first American Communist sentenced during the war), 
and their close associates and fellow directors Socialist Norman Thomas, 
Harry Ward, Roger Baldwin, etc., voted large sums of money in successive 
years to Jane Addams' Women's International League for Peace and Free- 
dom (see), which agitates against all R. O. T. C. and C. M. T. C. Camps, 
all military training and armament for the United States but advocated 
recognition of militaristic Russia and sweetly suggests abolition of property 
rights (Communism). 

One is surprised that a "peace" leader like Miss Addams could serve 
with these same men for 10 years on the national committee of the American 
Civil Liberties Union, 90% of whose efforts are in defense of Communist 



66 The Red Network 



revolutionaries, and not realize that their first plan is for bloody world 
revolution and not "peace." One may choose to believe either that Miss 
Addams was too dull to comprehend this, or that she believed a Communist 
revolution would aid peace eventually, or draw one's own personal conclusions. 

These same Garland Fund Communists and their associates voted "To a 
group of students at Northwestern University and Garrett Biblical Institute, 
Evanston, 111. April, 1924 for anti-militarist movement, $497.41," record- 
ing in the same official report sums given: to the Anarchist school at Stelton, 
N. J.; to the Communist press; to the American Civil Liberties Union for 
its Communist defense activities; to the communist Labor Defense Council 
to aid their own director Wm. Z. Foster and his fellow Communists arrested 
at Bridgman, Mich.; etc. 

In the 1925-28 Report, we see they voted: to the "Optional Military 
Drill League, Columbus, Ohio for one half expense of campaign against 
compulsory military training, $250"; to the "Wyoming State Conference 
Methodist Church, Laramie, Wyo. for publication of literature against com- 
pulsory military training, $300"; and to the "Committee on Militarism in 
Education, New York City (1) For preparation and distribution of pam- 
phlet on 'Military Training in Schools and Colleges in the U. S.' $5,400 (2) 
Toward general budget, $5,000," and later another $2,000; at the same time 
voting to the Young Communist League at Superior, Wis., $2,000; another 
$2,400 to Jane Addams' W. I. L. P. F. and $6,122.10 to the communist 
Workers School of New York City, which trains leaders for violent Communist 
revolution on the United States. Are these gifts for contradictory purposes? 

Pacifists frequently refer to Soviet Russia's disarmament proposal as a 
proof of its peaceful intentions. Maxim Litvinov, as Soviet "Peace Envoy," 
proposed to the League of Nations, in 1928, that all nations, including Russia, 
immediately and completely disarm. This Maxim Litvinov, who is Meyer 
Genoch Moisevitch Wallach (also alias Finklestein, Graf, Maximo vitch, 
Buchmann, Harrison), "In 1908 was arrested in Paris in connection with 
the robbery of 250,000 rubles of Government money in Tiflis. ... He 
was deported from France." The bomb thrown by Stalin in this robbery 
killed or injured fifty people. Litvinov's secretary Fineberg "saw to the dis- 
tribution of his propaganda leaflets and articles. At the Leeds Conference, 
2 June, 1917 (to hail the Russian Revolution to organize British Democracy 
to follow Russia, and establish Soviets to replace our Government), Litvinov 
was represented by Fineberg" (London Patriot, July 20, 1933). Litvinov was 
barred from England for his seditious activities ; admitted back under Ramsay 
MacDonald's Red Socialist government. Interception of Litvinov's mes- 
sages from Moscow caused the raid on Arcos, Ltd., and the severing of diplo- 
matic relations between England and Russia (resumed again under Ramsay 
MacDonald). 

Lord Cushendum, aware of the persistent and flagrant violation of Rus- 
sia's Trade Agreement to cease revolutionary propaganda in England ques- 
tioned Litvinov before the League of Nations, asking him whether his "peace" 
proposal of disarmament would include the cessation of Soviet government 
fomentation of civil war in all countries. To this Litvinov replied (N. Y. 
Herald Tribune, Mar. 23, 1928): "It had never occurred to us and we had 
no grounds for believing that the League intended to include under the ques- 



II. Pacifism and Its Red Aids 67 

tions of disarmament and security the prevention of civil war and the class 
struggle. I may say without the slightest hesitation that the Soviet govern- 
ment would never have agreed to participate with the British or any other 
government here represented in working out questions regarding the class 
war or the struggle against revolution. It would be naive to expect such work 
from a government which owes its existence to one of the greatest revolutions 
in history." 

The communist Daily Worker, in a thesis entitled "The Struggle Against 
Imperialist War and the Task of the Communists" (Jan. 3, 1929), empha- 
sized the point that this Soviet disarmament proposal was in harmony with, 
not opposed to, the world revolutionary movement, saying: The aim of the 
Soviet proposal is not to spread pacifist illusions, but to destroy them, not 
to support capitalism by ignoring or toning down its shady sides but to 
propagate the fundamental Marxian postulate that disarmament and the 
abolition of war are possible only with the fall of capitalism. The difference 
between the methods of combating pacifism employed by the proletariat in 
the Soviet Union and those adopted by the working class in capitalist coun- 
tries does not mean there is a contradiction between the two; nor does it 
follow that Communists in capitalist countries must not make use of the 
Soviet Government's declaration on disarmament in carrying on agitation 
among the masses. On the contrary the disarmament policy of the Soviet 
Government must be utilized for purpose of agitation much more energetically 
and to a wider extent than has been done hitherto ... as a means ( 1 ) For 
recruiting sympathizers for the Soviet Union the champion of peace and 
socialism ; ( 2 ) For utilizing the results of the Soviet disarmament policy and 
its exposure of the imperialists in the effort to eradicate all pacifist illusions 
and to carry on propaganda among the masses in support of the only way 
toward disarmament and abolition of war, viz., arming of the proletariat, 
overthrowing the bourgeoisie and establishing the proletarian dictatorship." 
(Emphasis supplied.) 

Under the title "What Is True Is True," Izvestia (official Soviet govt. 
organ), Mar. 1, 1928, quoted the accusation " 'As for Russia, in reality it 
is striving to destroy civilization in all countries of the world and at the same 
time proposes disarmament' From a speech by John Hicks," presenting 
below it a poem of reply by Damian Byedny, which, freely translated, was 
as follows: 

"What is true is true 

We admit without hypocrisy 

We carry on, and we will carry on agitation, 

And we will prevail rest assured! 

In having all the world bury 'civilization' 

Which is conceiving wars! 

I do not envy, Mister, your situation, 

You have come to a fateful syllogism, 

Communism leads to disarmament 

Disarmament to Communism." 

When military training was added to the program of the Young Com- 
munist League the communist Daily Worker, (Aug. 6, 1928) explained: 



68 The Red Network 



"Our Leninist position on militarism and war is very clear and certain. We 
are NOT against war and against militarism as such. We are against 
IMPERIALIST war; we are against BOURGEOIS militarism (i. e. the 
militarization of the proletarian and farmer youth to fight in the interests 
of the bourgeoisie). But we are in favor of REVOLUTIONARY wars (wars 
of oppressed colonial peoples against the imperialist powers, civil wars of 
proletarian revolution) ; we are in favor of the military training of the pro- 
letarian youth to learn to use arms in the interests of their class and against 
the bourgeoisie. 'An oppressed class that does not strive to learn to use 
arms . . . deserves to remain in slavery.' (Lenin.) We are therefore opposed 
to pacifism (which opposes, as a matter of principle All war and All military 
training) .... Our main task of course is to prevent the young workers who 
are being militarized from becoming traitors to their class; it consists in 
winning them for the proletarian class struggle and getting them to use their 
training for the benefit of the workers and not against their own class . . . and 
this attitude is in no contradiction to on the contrary it clearly falls in 
with our bitter and most determined struggle against new imperialist wars 
and bourgeois militarism. . . . We realize very well that under present con- 
ditions and for the next period of time, the chief way for us to obtain military 
instruction is in the military organizations of the bourgeoisie (regular forces, 
National Guard, military schools, R. O. T. C., C. M. T. C., etc.) ; of course, 
as Comrade Gorki points out (Jugend Internationale, May, 1928) the send- 
ing of our comrades into these bourgeois military institutions 'implies no 
rejection whatever of the attempt to set up a class organization of the pro- 
letariat to provide military training for young workers.' " 

The communist Daily Worker editorial of Sept. 30, 1933 was addressed 
to the Communist-called U. S. Congress Against War, then in session in 
N. Y. City, Earl Browder, nat. sec. of the Communist Party, and Henri Bar- 
busse, French Communist who came to America especially for this Congress, 
being the headlined speakers to share the platform (according to Daily 
Worker, Sept. 28, 1933) with Mrs. Annie Gray, speaking as director of the 
Women's Peace Society, Emil Rieve, A. J. Muste, Devere Allen of the World 
Tomorrow (War Resisters' organ}, and others; five delegates had been 
elected from the Pa. Branch of Jane Addams' W. I. L. P. F. to attend. (Sept. 
29, 1933 Daily Worker.) 

This editorial said: "The Communist Party urges upon the Congress a 
real united front on the basis of a fighting program against war a revo- 
lutionary working class program. . . . Serious systematic work must be under- 
taken in every factory, on every dock, on every ship, arousing these workers 
against war, exposing every detail of the war preparations for them, setting 
up Anti-war committees, hampering and working to prevent the manufacture 
and shipment of war material and munitions. . . . Phrase mongering, empty 
peace talk this is not the road. Mass action behind a revolutionary pro- 
gram is the road the congress should follow, starting now against the N. R. A. 
All the honest elements, all persons and organizations ready to fight can unite 
behind such a program." 

"The A. B. C. of Communism" (by N. Bukarin and E. Preobrazhensky, 
English translation by Eden and Adar Paul, issued by Communist Party of 



Socialist Party (and the New Deal) 69 

Great Britian) is a standard Communist text book used everywhere in Party 
schools. It states on p. 83: "The proletariat is fighting solely on behalf of 
the new social order. Whatever helps the struggle is good; whatever hinders, 
is bad." . . . "We must promote disintegration in an army which is ranged 
against the workers and is at the orders of the bourgeoisie, even though the 
latter consists of our fellow countrymen. Failing this the revolution will 
succumb ... a revolutionist who destroys the State apparatus of the bourge- 
oisie may consider that he is doing excellent service." On p. 129: "To think 
that the revolution can take place without civil war is equivalent to thinking 
there can be a 'peaceful' revolution." 

The formation of Soviet nuclei throughout our armed forces is covered 
under "Soviet Organization in the U. S." 

The seditious pronouncements of the Socialist Party and the jailing of 
numerous Party leaders during the war, the attempts of the Socialist Inde- 
pendent Labour Party of England (see "English Red's") to cause revolution, 
and present Socialist Party activities, are covered more fully under the title 
"Socialist Party (and the New Deal)." 

SOCIALIST PARTY (AND THE NEW DEAL) 

Because the Socialist Party generally favors the taking over of the gov- 
ernment first by legislative means, relying on a throat-cutting revolution 
principally as a finishing touch when it becomes necessary, it is called 
"yellow" by the Communist Party and "practical" by its followers. Chame- 
leon-like, the Socialist agitator colors himself to fit the group he is addressing, 
appearing asr a delicate-pink, "Christian" social reformer in Churches, and 
as a throat-cutting capitalist-hating revolutionary and a genuine Marxian 
atheist in militant labor circles. Since 1912 the Socialist Party has achieved 
practically its entire 1912 platform, passing hundreds of socialistic laws and 
"stealing" regular party elections by electing Socialists as regular party 
candidates, until now in 1933 the entire Socialist Party rejoices at the social- 
istic New Deal and radical "Roosevelt Appointees" (see). 

Under the heading "Longuet Urges All Socialists to Support N. R. A.," 
the Chicago Daily News, Sept. 15, 1933 reported: "Jean Longuet, French 
Socialist leader and grandson of the founder of socialism, Karl Marx, declares 
today in the French socialist organ Populaire that socialists everywhere 
should approve President Roosevelt's program because it is rapidly trade- 
unionizing the United States." Without more extensive unionization than 
America has ever had the Reds believe a general strike would be unsuccessful. 
Communists, anarchists and I. W. W.'s have always advocated the general 
strike as the prelude to revolution. Most revolutions are preceded by the 
general strike. The English general strike, altho planned to result in Red 
revolution, failed. The Daily News, Sept. 21, 1933 quotes Clarence Senior 
just home from the Second Internationale conference in Paris as saying: "For 
the first time in its history the Socialist and Labor internationale indorsed 
the general strike as a means of thwarting an outbreak of war." (Or turn- 
ing war into revolution.) 

Norman Thomas writing in the socialist New Leader, Aug. 19, 1933 issue, 



70 The Red Network 



says: "The Roosevelt program has achieved certain things . . . these things do 
not constitute Socialism but State capitalism, although a kind of State 
capitalism unquestionably influenced by Socialist influence and agitation. . . . 
The great hope of the New Deal is that it may make it a little easier ... to 
advance toward a truly Socialist society." Says the Socialist "World Tomor- 
row" (Aug. 31, 1933 issue): "When the aims of the Ickes-Perkins-Richberg 
forces at the Capital are compared to those of the previous Administration, 
the change is indeed breath-taking. Most of the pet nostrums progressives 
have advocated throughout the last two decades are now being tried on a 
huge* scale at Washington. To consider the formation of a new party at such 
a time, a party that seeks to fit in between Rooseveltian liberalism and that 
of the Socialist Party of America seems to us the sheer madness. . . . Whatever 
the weaknesses of the Socialist Party in the past or in the present, it has 
been making gigantic strides in the right direction." 

Upton Sinclair, active in both Socialist and Communist organizations, 
the press reports, is to run for governor on the 1934 Democratic ticket in 
California. Socialist La Guardia was elected as the "fusion" candidate for 
Mayor of N. Y. 

The Socialist and Communist Parties fight like brothers. Just as the 
Communist Party fights Socialist leadership everywhere, but at the same 
time cooperates with and works for the same ends as Socialists, so the Com- 
munist Party is now bitterly fighting the socialistic New Deal, in which it 
considers Socialists are sitting too prettily, and is insisting that the "revo- 
lutionary way out of the crisis" is the only way. Each Party accuses the 
other of disrupting the Socialist-Communist movement. 

Norman Thomas is one of the "militant" members of the National 
Executive Committee (N. E. C.) of the Socialist Party who voted in 1933 
for an immediate "united front" with the Communist Party, according to 
the May, 1933 issue of "The Communist" (p. 428), which states that of the 
N. E. C. members Norman Thomas, Albert Sprague Coolidge, Powers Hap- 
good, Darlington Hoopes, and Leo M. Krzycki voted for immediate formal 
cooperation with the Communist Party, while Morris Hillquit, James D. 
Graham, Daniel W. Hoan, Jasper McLevy, John L. Packard and Lilith M. 
Wilson, the "old guard," voted to wait for action by the two Internationals. 
The vote evidently went by a very close margin, 6 to 5, against immediate 
formal cooperation. So, April 17, 1933, Clarence Senior, exec. sec. of the 
Socialist Party, sent the following reply to the Communist Party which was 
printed in "The Communist" (same issue) : " 'The national executive com- 
mittee has voted to comply with the request of the Labor and Socialist 
International not to enter into united front negotiations with national sections 
of the Communist International until the L. S. I. and the Comintern have 
reached an agreement for an international united front.' (quoted in full 
C. A. H.)" (Clarence A. Hathaway.) 

The Socialist Party's New Leader, Apr. 8, 1933, stated: "In answer to 
a request by a committee of the Communist Party for a so-called 'united 
front' against fascism, the Conference stated that it lacked authority from 
any of its national and international parent bodies to unite with a party which, 
while making gestures in the direction of a united front, has since its incep- 



Socialist Party (and the New Deal) 71 

tion followed a policy of disuniting and disrupting the laboring elements of 
the world. As soon as the Communist Party 'discontinues its policy of 
destruction of our united strength, a united front will be possible not only 
against fascism but against all the forces of capitalism which are grinding 
down the strength of labor.' " 

"But Norman Thomas puts the case for the 'militants' most clearly," 
says "The Communist" (May 1933), and reprints Thomas' letter, which was 
sent out by the Socialist Party N. E. C., in which Thomas says (the voting 
was by mail) : "I am voting Yes on Comrade Krzycki's motion for the ap- 
pointment of a sub-committee to discuss with the sub-committee of the Com- 
munist Party the question of united front. I cannot too strongly urge the 
adoption of this proposal. I have recently been traveling rather extensively 
in New England and elsewhere and know that in our own Party and outside 
of it we shall suffer very considerable harm if we can be made to appear to 
be blocking any kind of united front action. Frankly, I am skeptical whether 
the Communists will undertake united action on honorable terms. But for 
the sake of our own members, especially our younger people, it must be made 
obvious that it is they who sabotage the united front, not we who disdain- 
fully reject it," etc. "The Communist" adds that the united front proposal 
"requires more than here and there a joint meeting or now and then a joint 
conference." Socialists and Communists have had these all along. 

Though jealous of each other, Socialists and Communists since their 
division in 1919 have worked together, intermingled, and quarreled like a 
family. When they split in 1919, Morris Hillquit, the "conservative" N. E. C. 
member, always a Socialist Party executive, said (New York Call, Sept. 22, 
1919, also Lusk Report): "Our newly baptised 'Communists' have not 
ceased to be Socialists even though in a moment of destructive enthusiasm 
they have chosen to discard the name which stands for so much in the his- 
tory of the modern world . . . they have not deserted to the enemy. The bulk 
of the following is still good Socialist material and when the hour of the real 
Socialist fight strikes in this country we may find them again in our ranks." 

In a letter appearing in the New York Call, May 21, 1919 (also Lusk 
Report, pp. 524-30), headed the "Socialist Task and Outlook," Hillquit 
referred to the Socialist-Communist impending split and said: "Let them 
separate honestly, freely and without rancor. Let each side organize and 
work its own way, and make such contribution to the Socialist movement in 
America as it can. Better a hundred times to have two numerically small 
Socialist organizations, each homogeneous and harmonious within itself, than 
to have one big party torn by dissensions and squabbles, an impotent colossus 
on feet of clay. The time for action is near. Clear the decks." 

When five Socialist members of the N. Y. State Legislature were expelled 
on the ground that the Socialist Party was not an American political party 
but a revolutionary organization, the 1920 Socialist Party national convention 
issued a report which "modified the relations with the Third Internationale 
of Moscow so as to permit association with that institution while giving to 
the Socialist Party in America the opportunity to carry out its campaign in 
this country by parliamentary methods" (Lusk Report p. 1780). 

Benj. Glassberg, a leading socialist Rand School instructor, in a letter 



72 The Red Network 



published in the N. Y. Call, July 26, 1920, commented on this Socialist Party 
report and "modification'' saying in part: "It has 'Albany' written all over 
it. It was framed, ostensibly, to meet the objections which were raised by 
Sweet against the Socialist Party so that the next delegation of Assemblymen 
will not be unseated. It is intended to paint the Socialist Party as a nice, 
respectable, goody-goody affair, rather than a revolutionary organization 
whose one aim is to overthrow a dying social order and replace it with a 
Cooperative Commonwealth." 

Morris Hillquit, speaking as a Socialist Party leader Sept. 25, 1920 (Lusk 
Report p. 1789), said of this supposed "change": "We have never at any 
time changed our creed. Never certainly to make ourselves acceptable to 
any capitalist crowd. ... As international Socialists we are revolutionary, and 
let it be clearly understood that we are out to overthrow the entire capitalist 
system." 

Eugene V. Debs, while in prison for seditious activities, was nominated 
as the Socialist Party candidate for President of the U. S. A. The Socialist 
Party bulletin for June 1, 1920 contained the official report of Debs' speech 
of acceptance upon notification of his nomination in which he said: "Before 
serving time here, I made a series of addresses, supporting the Russian Revo- 
lution which I consider the greatest single achievement in all history. I still 
am a Bolshevik. I am fighting for the same thing here that they are fighting 
for there. I regret that the Convention did not see its way clear to affiliate 
with the Third International without qualification." 

While the 1920 National Convention report (before referred to) "soft 
pedaled" its revolutionary program for expediency's sake saying it was 
opposed to the "Dictatorship of the Proletariat in the form of Soviet," it at 
the same time passed a resolution reading as follows: "Resolved, That this 
convention favor the election of representatives to all legislative bodies by 
industries as well as by geographical units," which is an endorsement of the 
Soviet form of government, which is "based upon territorial units and repre- 
sentation through industries" (Lusk Report). 

Press reports of the Socialist International congress held at Paris, France, 
Aug., 1933, stated that Maynard C. Krueger advocated the arming of the 
proletariat for violent revolution and that the American delegation was the 
most militant of those present. Aug. 21, 1933, the Chicago Tribune reported: 
"Comrade Levinson of the executive body will tell the congress how the new 
deal is going to lead to Socialism in America." 

Russia is honored as the first Socialist country. Its name is now the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics (U. S. S. R.) It is held up as the example of 
Socialism in action. Leaders of both Communist and Socialist Parties state 
that their principles and aims are identical but that they differ as to choice 
of leadership and tactics. 

The Socialist Party of America is not an American political party in the 
sense that the Democratic and Republican Parties are. Its control lies not 
solely with Americans but also with alien members in America as well as 
abroad. The opening statement in the Constitution of the Socialist Party 
(also Lusk Report, p. 563) says: "The Socialist Party of the U. S. is the 
political expression of the interests of the workers in this country and is part 



Socialist: Party (and the New Deal) 73 

of an international working class movement. . . . The workers must wrest the 
control of the government from the hands of the masters and use its powers 
in the upbuilding of the new social order the cooperative commonwealth. . . . 
To accomplish this aim it is necessary that the working class be powerfully 
and solidly organized also in the economic field to struggle for the same 
Revolutionary goal." 

The Preamble to the Socialist Party Constitution adopted in 1919 says: 
"The Socialist party seeks to organize the working class for independent 
action on the political field not merely for the betterment of their condition, 
but also and above all with the revolutionary aim of putting an end to the 
exploitation or class rule." 

When the U. S. declared war, the Socialist Party convention at St. Louis, 
April 7-14, 1917, adopted a lengthy disloyal resolution favoring seditious 
activities, saying: "The Socialist Party of the U. S. in the present grave 
crisis solemnly declares its allegiance to the principles of internationalism 
and working class solidarity the world over, and proclaims its unalterable 

opposition to the war just declared by the government of the United States 

As against the false doctrine of national patriotism, we uphold the idea of 
international working class solidarity. We brand the declaration of war by 
our government as a crime." (The U. S. Govt. was finally forced to jail 
many Socialists whose seditious activities were camouflaged as "peace" work.) 
"The acute situation created by the war calls for an even more vigorous 
prosecution of the class struggle and we recommend to the workers and pledge 
ourselves to the following course of action: Continuous and active public 
opposition to the war through demonstrations, mass petitions and all other 
means in our power. Unyielding opposition to all proposed legislation for 
military or industrial conscription. . . . Vigorous resistance to all reactional 
measures such as censorship Oif the press and mails, restriction of the right 
of free speech, assemblage and organization, or compulsory arbitration and 
limitation of the right to strike. Consistent propaganda against military train- 
ing and militaristic teaching in the public schools. . . . We recommend the 
National Executive Committee extend and improve propaganda among 
women." One delegate is reported to have said "If I knew we could sway 
the boys when they got guns to use them against the capitalist class I would 
be for universal training." 

The 1932 Socialist Party election platform similarly called for total dis- 
armament of the United States, no deportation or barring of alien Reds, free 
speech, free press, and "civil liberties" (for revolutionaries), recognition of 
militant bloody Soviet Russia, etc. 

The New York Call, June 28, 1921, printed the following Resolution, 
passed by the Socialist Party, which was offered by Morris Hillquit: "Re- 
solved that the incoming national executive committee be instructed to make 
a careful survey of all radical and labor organizations in the country with 
the view of ascertaining their strengths, disposition and readiness to coop- 
erate with the Socialist Movement upon a platform not inconsistent with that 
of the party, and on a plan which will preserve the integrity and autonomy 
of the Socialist Party." This was headed "Text of Hillquit Resolution that 
Ends Isolation of Socialist Party." With this, the "boring from within" other 



74 The Red Network 



parties began in earnest. (See under Internationals; also August Claessens, 
Victor Berger, Debs, etc.) 

Socialist Party National Hdqts., 549 Randolph St., Chicago. 

THE NEW DEAL AND ROOSEVELT APPOINTEES 

(See page 256 for facsimile of letter.) 

The average brainy American business man, whose capable concentrated 
efforts have raised the American standard of living to a preeminent place in 
the world's history, feels that he is too busy running his own business to 
bother with politics. He wants " George" to do it and a Red "George" has 
been working to do "it" and do him out of his business for a long time. 

Only, perhaps, when Red George and his political cronies step in to com- 
pletely run his business for him will he awaken to find time to attend to 
politics. 

Mr. Successful American bountifully endows Colleges teaching Socialism 
and supports ministers teaching Socialism, but objects to voting for a "crack- 
brained radical" on the Socialist ticket, as the radicals know. So they arrange 
matters so that he votes for the "crack-brained" Socialist on a conservative 
ticket. The Conference for Progressive Political Action (see) since 1922 has 
been successfully boring from within to "steal" elections for radical candi- 
dates. They are organizing more energetic and deceptive programs for future 
elections right now. 

Americans who are alarmed at the present Socialist administration, 
labeled as "Democratic," may easily turn out "Democrats" and vote in 
Republicans at the next election, but how many of the elected "Republican" 
officials will be radicals of the same stripe? 

Many of the radicals now making this Democratic administration a Social- 
ist one only left the Republican Party during the last campaign at the invita- 
tion of Mr. Roosevelt, their kindred soul. While the radicals have a keenly 
organized, well planned program, American conservatives have practically 
none. If they wait until election day, they may find themselves in the pre- 
dicament of having a choice between Tweedle-Dum and Tweedle-Dee, 
between Socialists, Communists, Democratic-Socialists, or Republican-Social- 
ists, because the radicals are also active within both conservative parties and 
"practical", short-sighted politicians seem to believe that by compromising 
with them and pampering them they are increasing the Party's hopes of 
success. "Marx versus Washington" will be the real issue in the next election, 
and this issue transcends former partisanship. If the fight were clear-cut, 
Americanism would win with the people hands down, but a fight with radicals 
is a fight with snipers. They do not fly their true colors willingly. 

The only propaganda now dinned into an American's ears is that, because 
of "emergency," or "collapse of capitalism," he must either accept Socialistic 
measures or have Communist dictatorship thrust upon him. (This is Socialist 
propaganda.) Why does almost no one propagandize a return to Wash- 
ingtonian principles which built this country's greatness? Bureaucracy and 
the load of governmental taxation have been steadily increasing of late years 
under Socialist manipulation, until under depressed trade conditions business 
came nearly to a standstill. Now, inside of a few months, more billions in 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 75 

taxation have been heaped upon American taxpayers than our share of the 
cost of the World War. How many years will it take to pay off the present 
load of indebtedness which this administration has only started to incur? 
During this process the American taxpayer is apt to lose his property as the 
Socialists intend that he shall. Between forfeited loans and heavy taxation, 
it is hoped to confiscate farms, homes, banks and utilities by legal means. 

As Communist V. F. Calverton says in "Recovery Through Revolution" 
(see) : . . . "what with the state practically supporting and subsidizing the 
industrial and financial set-up of the nation by means of monies afforded 
by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, in time, if such subsidies con- 
tinue, and the railroads and industries which have accepted them cannot 
meet the obligations that they necessitate, there will be no other recourse 
than for the State to take them over." (Our "peaceful revolution.") 

Wm. E. Sweet, whom the Conference for Progressive Political Action 
claimed credit for electing Governor of Colorado (See "Who's Who"), is 
one of Pres. Roosevelt's radical appointees in the Public Relations Division 
of the N. R. A. He was very prompt in having published in the Daily News, 
Oct. 30, 1933, his protest against a "white" Daily News editorial of Oct. 26. 
His was a lengthy letter sent from Washington, D. C., in which he said: 
"The editorial 'Back to the Constitution' printed on the front page of the 
Daily News, Oct. 26, would be highly important if it voiced the sentiments 
of any considerable inarticulate body of citizens as the Daily News seems 
to think it does. . . . Has the time come in America when a man may not do 
as he pleases with his oil? It has. But this is clearly unconstitutional. . . . 
The Constitution was based on security and privilege for the owners of 
property, but this is no reason for confusing it with holy writ. ... If these 
revolutionary changes in our economic system work out satisfactorily, they 
will be found to be constitutional. . . . When former Pres. Hoover made his 
concluding speech in Madison Square Garden he said: 'This campaign is 
more than a contest between two parties, it is more than a contest between 
two men, it is a contest between two fundamentally different theories of 
government.' Mr. Hoover rightly appraised the issues of the campaign. The 
people have placed their seal of approval for the present on the theory of 
government advanced by Franklin D. Roosevelt and they are following his 
leadership with loud acclaim. As yet there is no sign of any diminution in 
his popularity." (?) 

"The radicals you complain of have been chosen by the President. He 
may not agree with all their theories but he would rather have their counsel, 
noise and all, than that of the traditionalists, 'money changers,' and reaction- 
aries who surrounded and dominated his predecessor. Wm. E. Sweet, Wash- 
ington, D. C." 

Senator Warren R. Austin of Vermont said, (Sept. 18, 1933, Chgo. Amer- 
ican) : "Only one step further need be taken to destroy the Constitution and 
overthrow the government, namely, to remold the judiciary." And Senator 
Henry D. Hatfield of W. Va. declared, (Chgo. Tribune, Oct. 20, 1933): 
"President Roosevelt's executive order threatening N. R. A. violators with 
$500 fines and six months' imprisonment means that economic serfdom has 
become a grim reality in the United States." 



76 The Red Network 



The attitude of radicals with regard to the recent U. S. Supreme Court 
decision in the Minnesota mortgage moratorium case is clearly indicated in 
the following excerpts from the January 18, 1934 "World Tomorrow": 

"TOWARD PACIFIC REVOLUTION 

"The five-to-four decision of the Supreme Court of the United States 
in the Minnesota mortgage moratorium case enormously increases the 
possibility of revolution in this country without another civil war. If 
the principles enunciated therein are incorporated in forthcoming decisions, 
the NRA, the AAA and other aspects of the New Deal are likely to be 
upheld. In this event the creditor and property-owning class will lose 
billions and billions of dollars. The validation of recent state and national 
legislation by the Supreme Court will result in the redistribution of wealth 
on an almost unimaginably colossal scale. 

"The law under review authorized owners, when about to lose their 
property through foreclosure, to apply in court for a two-year extension 
of time in which to redeem their holdings. The invalidating decree of the 
district court was reversed by the Minnesota Supreme Court, and the 
latter 's decision was upheld at Washington." (Chief Justice Hughes and 
Justices Brandeis, Cardozo, Roberts, and Stone [radicals, three of whom 
were appointed by Pres. Hoover], against Justices Butler, McReynolds, 
Sutherland, and Van Devanter [Constitutionalists] ). 

"Pacifists who are struggling for radical changes in the present social 
order have reason to be encouraged by the Court's decision in the Minne- 
sota case. Once more it has been demonstrated that the Supreme Court 
tends to follow public opinion. Progress has often been slowed down, 
but the highest tribunal of the land is not likely to become a permanent 
barrier to revolutionary change. As a last resort its powers may be shorn 
or its decision changed by increasing the size of the Court and the appoint- 
ment of new Justices who are in sympathy with radical legislation." 
This last brazenly gives voice to a radical threat that has been propa- 
gandized under cover ever since Pres. Roosevelt took office and has reference 
to the emergency power which the President has of increasing the number 
of Supreme Court Justices. For example, it is alleged that in case of any 
adverse decision, say 5 to 4, against any phase of the "New Deal," the Presi- 
dent will appoint two more radicals (possibly Felix Frankfurter and Donald 
Richberg, or at least men of their persuasion) to the Supreme Bench, insur- 
ing a reversal or favorable decision of 6 to 5, in favor of the proposition 
when it again comes up for action. 

In passing, it should be noted that Pres. Roosevelt's "first assistant," 
Secy. Ickes, served on the National Campaign Executive Committee when 
Chief Justice Hughes ran for President in 1916. 

Norman Thomas in "Student Outlook" for Nov., 1933 (p. 5) proceeds 
to tell how N. R. A. must be turned into permanent Socialism. He says: 
"Only social ownership of natural resources and the great means of produc- 
tion and distribution, their management according to plan for the use of 
the great company of people and not for the profit of any" (true enough) 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 77 

"can fulfill the promise of N. R. A. . . . The codes must not only be improved 
but correlated under a general economic plan. 

"We can scarcely have experts plan for us unless we own the things 
which are vital to this plan. We must acquire rapidly our banking system, 
our coal, oil, electric power and railroads. Speedily we must add other nat- 
ural resources and basic industries and utilities. We should socialize market- 
ing machinery of what farmers buy and sell. The milk situation, for instance, 
cannot be solved without socially owned milk distributing companies in place 
of the present trusts. Taxation of incomes and inheritances in a transitional 
period should meet most costs of government, though the land values tax 
can and should be used to end private landlordism. A capital levy must be 
employed to help reduce debt, care for the unemployed, and facilitate the 
transfer of the industries to be socialized. In general, under present con- 
ditions, compensation for socialized industries usually in notes or bonds 
of these industries plus such taxation as I have outlined is likely to prove 
more equitable and practicable than piecemeal confiscation. For the imme- 
diate present we need a far bolder plan of unemployment relief and public 
works, including housing. Such a program plus social insurance will aid not 
only in terms of social justice but in economic recovery by its help in redis- 
tributing national income a little more equitably. 

"No program can be carried out merely by wishing. It requires effective 
organization. . . . The party which represents the workers is still to be built. 
It is that party which the Socialist Party wishes to help to create or become. 
There is an unfortunate tendency among radicals to spend in their own dis- 
cussions more time on an attempt to prophesy the degree of violence which 
will bring about a desirable social revolution than on working on a dynamic 
organization without which ballots or bullets are equally futile." 

This, then, is the Red program for confiscating private property and 
American liberty "under present conditions" and under the flag of patriotism. 
Later on well that is still another story. 

It is significant that Socialist Basil Manly (See "Who's Who"), long a 
noisy voice for public ownership of Muscle Shoals and kindred projects, who 
in 1927, announced (See People's Legislative Service) that proper strategy in 
the 1928 elections would secure radicals a real voice in the choice of President 
in 1932, is now Pres. Roosevelt's appointee as chairman of the Federal Power 
Commission, in charge of these very projects, now threatening extermination 
of the privately-owned competing power industries and saddling taxpayers 
with the extravagant expense of political ownership. 

Roosevelt, in his Detroit campaign speech, frankly told the American 
people he was as "radical as the Federal Council of Churches" (see), which 
meant a great deal more than the average person realized. 

John Boettiger, Washington correspondent of the Chicago Tribune, Oct. 
1, 1933, wrote: "One recovery policy seems to reduce while another pro- 
motes larger production. Millions are spent to take farm lands out of 
production. Millions are spent to put farm lands into production. Food and 
cotton are destroyed, while many people hunger and go ill-clothed. Prices 
are sky-rocketed and people are told to buy more. Water power is planned 
to take the place of steam while thousands of coal miners are jobless. Water- 



78 The Red Network 



ways are projected while the railroads go bankrupt and thousands of rail 
workers go jobless. . . . For all this the tax payers bear the brunt at both ends, 
paying processing taxes to pay the farmers for destroying produce; paying 
for the dole to feed the hungry ; paying for power plants whether their com- 
munities benefit or not; paying more and more taxes to support the ever 
growing bureaucracy, which invokes all the schemes at Washington. 

"These paradoxes and many others are held inevitable in a government 
which almost overnight has essayed to control farming, industry, finance and 
transportation, which is starting to spend three billions of public moneys 
for a thousand and one widely diversified projects, most of which are leading 
the government into endeavors to paternalism, government-in-business and 
socialism. 

"In a single year the consuming Americans must pay additional taxes 
aggregating approximately $364,500,000 for farm products. That money is 
to be paid to farmers in return for their agreement to curtail wheat acreages, 
plow-up cotton, send pigs and sows to slaughter, cut production of tobacco, 
butter, and cheese, to raise prices paid to farmers who are accused of increas- 
ing productively to get the federal funds. 

"Reclamation to make more arable land, and power projects for more 
electrical power than required, thus far approved by Secretary Ickes call 
for the expenditure of $166,000,000 . . . will compete with steam produced 
power for the cities of the northwest, and will drive more nails into the 
coffin of feeble old King Coal. 

"The Tennessee valley authority dream of Pres. Roosevelt and Sen. 
George Norris of Nebraska with $50,000,000 to spend this year, is a com- 
bination of these described paradoxes, bringing new lands into cultivation, 
creating new water power where there is insufficient demand for what is 
available." This, of course, will tend to force privately-owned utilities into 
ruin by governmental competition and thus into political ownership. 

The Chicago Tribune of- Sept. 16, 1933 says: "In the rate structure 
announced by David E. Lilienthal, director of the Tennessee experiment in 
charge of power, there is no provision for repaying to the federal treasury a 
net loss of $43,590,619 which the hydro-electric power plant at Muscle 
Shoals already has cost the tax payer. Besides waiving past expenditures as 
money already 'gone over the dam,' Director Lilienthal has computed his 
rates which undersell existing commercial companies by 75 percent on a 
quasi-socialistic basis ... by disregarding the original investment, making 
no provision for profits, avoiding taxes and computing interest at the low 
rate available to the government, the Muscle Shoals officials have given 
themselves a 75 percent advantage in rates over commercial companies. . . . 
These rate schedules . . . are being held up as models to commercial com- 
panies which have to meet all these costs." 

Radical "Unity" of Abraham Lincoln Center, Chicago, says (Sept. 4, 
1933) : "One has only to scan the newspapers these days to comprehend the 
stupendous magnitude of what is going forward in this country. . . . No such 
vast undertaking of industrial planning has ever been attempted in the world 
outside of Russia. ... It also means that success can only lead to new and 
final disaster, unless the administration sweeps straight on into Socialism." 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 7 

The subject of Curtis Reese's lecture for Jan. 7, 1934 was "Why Social 
Radicals Should Support the New Deal" (see "Who's Who"). 

The communist Daily Worker, Oct. 6, 1933, under the heading "A 
Socialist Invitation," said: "Yesterday Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of 
the United States, was invited to join the Socialist Party. . . . Over ten thou- 
sand New York workers heard Abraham Cahan, one of the oldest leaders of 
the Socialist Party, and editor of the Socialist paper, the ' Forward/ invite him 
in. Here are his actual words set down for every worker to see: 'The NRA 
has been handled in a democratic way, and the President has earned the 
gratitude of every thinking man in the country ... on the basis of his work 
so far he really should be a Socialist.' On one side of Cahan sat Norman 
Thomas. On the other sat the Tammany Police Chief. . . . This was the set- 
ting for the invitation to Roosevelt to join the party of Eugene Victor Debs. 
Thomas seconded the invitation with the typical Thomas reservations. 
Thus the Thomas 'left-wing' and the Hillquit-Cahan 'right-wing' of the 
Socialist Party joined hands. . . . Cahan's invitation is only the logical cul- 
mination of the congratulatory visit that Thomas and Hillquit paid Roose- 
velt at the White House in April. The Socialist leaders have looked 
Roosevelt over. And they find him good. . . Cahan sees in Roosevelt a fellow- 
socialist. He is right. They are both socialists of the same calibre. Of the 
calibre of Hindenburg, the fascist butcher." (Pres. Roosevelt sent his 
condolences to Mrs. Morris Hillquit when Hillquit died recently.) 

This last is typical of the insults Communists and Socialists hurl at each 
other. No insult could be more far fetched than the epithet of "fascist" or 
anti-Red applied to Socialists, whose leaders serve on the selfsame anti- 
fascist committees with Communists; but it conveys the intended meaning 
that the Socialism of Socialists is a farce, that only the Socialism of the 
Communist Party is the "pure goods". 

Why this continual horse play between Red parties with identical prin- 
ciples and objectives? Were it entirely due to bitter Party rivalry and jeal- 
ousy the Party leaders would not be on the close friendly terms that they 
are. The Garland Fund illustrates their chummy interlocking cooperation. 
The "hymn of hate" publicity policy is undoubtedly mutually understood. 
It helps to keep the rank and file members in separate camps, gives the dis- 
gruntled Red another place to go to help the movement, spurs members on 
to rivalry, confuses and ensnares some of the bourgeoisie into believing 
Socialism different from Communism, and enables the Parties, like two flanks 
of an army, to carry on separate, even apparently hostile, coordinated Red 
movements one penetrating, the other agitating. 

While the Socialist Party in a practical, gentlemanly manner has bored 
from within and secured governmental power and now guides NRA as far 
toward complete Socialism as the leash of legalism will stretch, sanctions de- 
stroying food and confiscating property, has forced upon the A. F. of L. its 
former enemy, the pro-Soviet Amalgamated Clothing Workers unions, and is 
aiding the A. F. of L. to unionize America in the expectation of using the 
enlarged organization as an instrument for the general strike as suggested by 
the Second International Conference at Paris 1933, the Communist Party has 
adopted the definite program of utilizing the deepening discontent NRA is 



80 The Red Network 



creating, and is agitating rabid hatred against the NRA "slave regime," 
and, with hundreds of violent strikes to its credit already within the past 
few months, hopes with increasing strikes to finally bring on a psychological 
moment of chaos and despair, in which that taut leash of legalism may be 
broken by a united front General Strike culminating in Red seizure of power. 
Then would Socialists and Communists hold this power together, and with 
violence. For, as Socialist Norman Thomas says in "Why I am a Socialist" 
(p. 11): "Socialists are not non-resistants. We want to minimize violence 
and place the onus of it when it comes where it belongs: On an owning class 
that will not give up while it can hypnotize anyone to fight in its behalf." 

Concerning the "General Strike" (the I. W. W. specialty), the Com- 
munist International, May 25, 1928, stated: "The task of the party (Com- 
munist) is to lead the working class into the revolutionary struggle for 
power. When the revolutionary tide is flowing, when the dominant classes 
are disorganized . . . and the masses are prepared for action and for sacrifice, 
the task of the party is to lead the masses into the direct attack upon the 
bourgeois state. This is to be achieved by propaganda in favor of all tran- 
sition slogans ... to which all other branches of party work must be subordi- 
nated. This includes strikes, strikes combined with demonstration, the com- 
bination of armed demonstrations and strikes, and finally the General Strike 
conjointly with the armed uprising against the political party of the bourge- 
oisie. This struggle must be subjected to the rules of military art; it must 
be conducted according to a plan of war and in the form of a military offen- 
sive. . . . Communists do not think it necessary to conceal their views and aims. 
They openly declare that their goal can be achieved only by the violent over- 
throw of the whole of the present social system." Both the Russian and the 
Cuban Red revolutions were preceded by a "General Strike". 

In the communist Daily Worker, Oct. 21, 1933, appears the headline 
"Roosevelt Invites Soviet Envoy, U. S. S. R. Decides to Send Litvinov," and 
an editorial saying: "The chief conflict in the present-day world is between 
the system of advancing Socialism and of decaying world capitalism. . . . The 
United States is now forced to step aside from its traditional policy of non- 
recognition and undertake diplomatic negotiations with the workers' father- 
land. . . . The Roosevelt regime now grasps for this market." Other captions 
are typical of Communist opposition to NRA and include: "New Revolt 
Looms As Miners Sense Deception of NRA"; "NRA Cuts Wages at Sheffield 
Steel Mills"; "Farms Rise in Strike Against NRA" this last over the gloat- 
ing announcement that "Government officials are unable to conceal their 
alarm at the unusual depth and prevalence of the farmers' bitterness against 
the Roosevelt regime"; and announcement that the next convention of the 
National Farmers Committee of Action would take place under Communist 
auspices Nov. 15-18 in Chicago (to stir up further strikes). 

Page 4 (same issue) is entirely devoted to the speech of the Communist 
Party general secretary, Earl Browder, before the Central Committee of the 
C. P. U. S. A., in which he said: "We point out the increased and more effec- 
tive participation in strikes" (against NRA) ; and, after covering the com- 
munist Anti-War Congresses and other Party activities, he terminated with 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 81. 

this advice: "An essential part of the whole propaganda of the revolutionary 
solution of the crisis, the proletarian dictatorship, is the example of the suc- 
cessful revolution and building of socialism in the Soviet Union. ... A large 
number of our leading comrades in many districts who think they can get a 
larger number of workers to join the Party by talking to them only about 
the immediate demands, and who soft-pedal the ultimate program of our 
Party in order to be popular, are making a big mistake. Precisely this line 
is what keeps workers out of the Party, because it doesn't give them the 
essential reason why the Party is necessary and why they must join ... it is 
essential to bring forward the revolutionary program, the revolutionary 
character of our Party, to propagandize the revolutionary way out of the 
crisis, the problem of seizure of power, the problem of building socialism in 
America as a problem of the next future of the United States." 

An article in the Daily Worker of Sept. 30, 1933 by Joseph Stalin, head 
of the Soviet government, of the Communist Party of U. S. S. R., and of 
the Third International, is entitled "The Peace Policy of the U. S. S. R." He 
states: "Our policy is a policy of peace and strengthening of trade relations 
with all countries" and refers to the U. S. S. R. as the "citadel of the revo- 
lution". Then in the adjoining column is this quotation from Lenin: 

" 'We do not only live in one State but in a system of States, and the 
existence of the Soviet Republic side by side with the imperialist States is 
inconceivable jor any considerable length of time. Eventually, one or the 
other must win' " (Emphasis in original), with the following comment: "The 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist International, under 
the leadership of Comrade Stalin, have worked untiringly for the realization 
of this bequest. To win over the workers and peasants of the imperialist 
powers, ... to obtain the sympathy of the petty-bourgeoisie and the intellec- 
tual middle class, to utilize the imperialist antagonisms in the interest of 
Socialist construction and the extension of peace, of the breathing space 
this has been, and still is, the meaning of the policy of the Soviet Union . . . 
because the peace policy of the Soviet Union was linked up with the 
realization of the First Five Year Plan, and the beginning of the realization 
and carrying out of the Second Five Year Plan." 

The "breathing space" is the Communist term for Russia's present period 
of preparation. Propaganda abroad and industrialization in the U. S. S. R. 
must both be supported in order that the Red Army's millions, now train- 
ing, may be supported when they step forth to fulfill their promise to the 
"Workers of the World" to aid them in overthrowing such capitalist govern- 
ments as have not by that time already been overthrown by means of revo- 
lutions inspired by Red propaganda. Communists everywhere confidently 
hope that if sufficient credits can be secured from capitalist governments 
particularly from rich Uncle Sam to aid in this preparation, that the end 
of the Second Five Year Plan will find Russia able to support its Red Army 
in the field. 

"Long live the American proletariat! Long live the Communist Inter- 
national, the general staff of the World Proletarian Revolution," says the 
Daily Worker in the column adjoining Stalin's article, while Rooseveltian 



82 The Red Network 



supporters are now flooding the press with the statement that Stalin now 
ignores the Third International which he heads, and the embargo against 
slave-made Soviet products (1934) has been lifted! 

Communist leaders long ago said that capitalists would commit suicide 
for the sake of temporary profits (on paper). American patriotic societies, 
I know, have flooded Pres. Roosevelt with information concerning the one- 
ness of the Soviet Government and Third International which spreads sedition 
in the U. S. A. for the purpose of overthrowing this government and setting" 
up a Socialist Soviet one. The U. S. S. R. has "cried" for recognition, as a 
baby cries for a bottle. It needs credits for industrialization and the sub- 
sidization of world revolutionary propaganda. It wants above all else this 
freedom in America, world prestige, and money to strengthen itself for our 
assassination, all of which recognition will give. 

Then why does Pres. Roosevelt, against all precedent, in effect say "Nice 
kitty!" to this man-eating tiger which would devour America's government 
and invite him over to feed and roam in America? Is he stupid, blind, badly- 
informed and played-upon by radicals, or well-informed and deliberately 
playing the Red game as socialist Ramsay MacDonald and every other clever 
socialist statesman plays it? 

The Literary Digest, Nov. 4, 1933, quotes the editor of "L'Echo de Paris" 
as stating: " 'Doubtless Roosevelt was influenced by members of the "brain 
trust" and by intellectual snobs who believe that Communism would be a 
diverting experiment.' " It must be assuring to our capitalistic Reds to read 
that Litvinov, the proletarians' spokesman, sailed for America occupying the 
Royal Suite on the Berengaria. 

Concerning Soviet Recognition, the Chicago Daily News, Oct. 24, 1933 
(Paul Mallon), says: "The real inside negotiations were handled by Wm. C. 
Bullitt, special assistant to Hull. He is the man who made a secret trip to 
Europe last spring. . . . Bullitt's real mission was to sound out European 
governments as to how they were getting along with the Reds. His report 
was favorable." It would be, as Pres. Roosevelt must have known. 

Bullitt, Roosevelt appointee as special adviser of the State Department, 
and now as Ambassador to the U. S. S. R., was, until recently, married to 
Louise Bryant Reed, widow of John Reed, a founder of the American Com- 
munist Party. Louise Bryant and Lincoln Steffens of the Anarchist-Com- 
munist group sent a joint telegram, quoted in the Lusk Report, asking Lenin 
and Trotsky to appoint a man in America with whom they could cooperate 
in aiding the Russian revolution. After this, Bullitt and Lincoln Steffens 
went over on a confidential mission to Russia. To quote magazine "Time" 
of May 1, 1933: "Wm. C. Bullitt went to Sweden on Henry Ford's Peace 
Ship in 1915. . . . In Feb., 1919, Diplomat Bullitt, with Journalist Lincoln 
Steffens, was entrusted with a confidential mission to Russia to make peace 
terms with the Soviet. . . . Mr. Bullitt spent a week in Moscow and came to 
terms with Dictator Lenin. On his return to Paris his peace proposal, involv- 
ing recognition of the Bolshevist regime was suddenly tossed into the waste 
basket by Messrs. Wilson and Lloyd George. ... He impulsively resigned from 
the Peace Commission after Pres. Wilson refused to give him an audience. 
An admirer of Lenin, he predicted that the Reds would oversweep all Europe. 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 



. . . Mr. Lloyd George referred to 'a journey some boys were reported to have 
made to Russia' and flayed the Bullitt report as a tissue of lies. After a Paris 
divorce in 1923 Bullitt married Anne Moen Louise Bryant Reed, widow of 
Red John Reed of Greenwich village who went to Russia and today lies 
buried in the Kremlin wall." 

Paul Mallon states in the Daily News of Sept. 13, 1933: "The Com- 
munists used to have no shoulder on which to weep in Washington. They 
have one now. It's Louis Howe's." (Roosevelt's secretary.) "A Washing- 
ton detective tried to cross-question several well-known Reds a few days ago. 
'We don't want to talk to you' they said. 'We are going to see Howe.' They 
got in. Howe is also credited with the appointment of two former leaders 
of the bonus army to the department of justice. What they do is not gen- 
erally known in the department, but they are on the payroll." The bonus 
army was Communist-led. Einstein, barred as a Communist from Germany, 
in Jan., 1934 was an over night guest of the President at the White House. 

Under the heading "An Alarming Appointment," Francis Ralston Welsh 
reports: "In 'Science' for Sept. 6, 1933 is the following notice: 'Prof. Vladi- 
mir Karapetoff, of the department of electrical engineering of Cornell Uni- 
versity, has been appointed Lieutenant Commander in the Naval Reserve 
and has been assigned to the Volunteer Naval Reserve for engineering 
duties.' " Karapetoff is and has been vice president of the League for Indus- 
trial Democracy, the left-wing Socialist organization spreading Socialist and 
Communist propaganda in schools and colleges. To quote Mr. Welsh: 
"Appointee Karapetoff should be kept under closest scrutiny." 

Under the heading "A Shameless Appointment," Mr. Welsh reports the 
appointment of Frederic Clemson Howe as chairman of the Consumers' Board 
of AAA. When Mr. Welsh brought about an investigation of Howe's activities 
when Howe was Commissioner of Immigration at the Port of New York, 
Howe resigned, but the Congressional investigation brought out letters show- 
ing Howe's close connection with Emma Goldman, Eliz. Gurley Flynn and 
other Anarchists and Communists and his aid to their cause. "Byron H. Uhl 
testified that he had issued orders to the Ellis Island officials to stop the 
circulation of radical literature among inmates of Ellis Island, but that this 
order was held up under Howe's regime and the circulating of I. W. W. and 
Anarchist literature permitted. Howe was shown also to have held up depor- 
tation proceedings against the Reds brought to Ellis Island and that various 
Reds were released without giving bail and permitted to travel about the 
country continuing their Anarchist and Communist work. The proceedings 
of the committee were reported at the time in the 'New York Times'. Just 
before Howe resigned as Commissioner, information came to me that he 
had been tipped off that there would be a Congressional investigation. This 
information came from inside the Berkman anarchist gang. From whence 
they got it is not disclosed." (Welsh) (See also "Who's Who"). 

"Miss" Perkins, who is the mother of Mr. Paul Wilson's daughter, follows 
the custom popular with Red married ladies who refuse to acknowledge the 
"private ownership" of marriage and show that they "wear no man's collar" 
by refusing to use a husband's name. The cry of the Socialists and Com- 
munists had long been "Down with Deportation Doak". Secy. Doak utilized 



84 The Red Network 



the machinery of the Department of Labor to deport and bar certain notorious 
Red alien agitators. "Miss" Perkins, his successor as Roosevelt's Secretary 
of Labor, ended this activity at once. Tom Mann, notorious English Red 
agitator, jailed in England, barred from Ireland, and previously absolutely 
barred from the United States, recently (1933) preached sedition and Red 
revolution in the United States, with his temporary visa extended, due to the 
new policy. Henri Barbusse, Communist agitator, has lectured in many 
American cities advocating Red revolution, and Frank Borich, vicious Com- 
munist agitator slated for deportation, has been turned loose to create vio- 
lence and disorder. 

Yet, because the smokescreen must ever be kept before the public, the 
Daily Worker of Oct. 5, 1933 actually "razzes" Secy. Perkins; to quote: 
"The lady, Miss Perkins, whom the wily Roosevelt chose as the liberal 
window-dressing for his cabinet" . . . "claims to have 'liberalized' the immi- 
gration regulations regarding the admittance of foreign visitors to the United 
States. The hypocrisy of her claims can find no better proof than the delay 
in granting Tom Mann's visa. . . . Mann's visa was not granted by the 
American Consul in London until too late for him to attend the U. S. Con- 
gress Against War"; and again, slightingly, the Daily Worker of Oct. 18, 
1933 refers to "Miss" Perkins as a former member of the Socialist Party. 
She was an executive and fellow worker with Mrs. Roosevelt in the New York 
National Consumers League. 

Of the Blue Eagle, which Senator Schall (Minn.) calls "the Soviet Duck," 
P. H. Hatch, writing in the Literary Digest of Nov. 4, 1933 asks: "I would 
very much like to know why the Soviet eagle is selected, that bears electricity 
in its talons, and is placed here, there and everywhere, instead of our Amer- 
ican eagle, carrying an olive branch, and which is shown on the obverse side 
of the great seal of the United States?" 

The Daily Worker, Sept. 8, 1933, found it necessary to take Communist 
Theodore Dreiser to task for not following the Party line of attack on NRA, 
saying: "Theodore Dreiser has come out with a statement of his conversion 
to NRA on the grounds that the New Deal comes to us direct from Moscow." 

Rexford Guy Tugwell (see "Who's Who"), whose radical speech on doing 
away with private business entirely is quoted under "National Religion and 
Labor Foundation," said in Chicago, Oct. 29, 1933: "We are passing through 
a fairly sensible mass revolution," to which the Chgo. Daily News replied 
with a great editorial, Nov. 1, 1933, headed "Did You Vote for Revolution?" 
He is Pres. Roosevelt's Assistant "Commissar" of Agriculture and one of 
the principle spokesmen for the administration. 

To quote Cong. Hamilton Fish's speech before the House of Repre- 
sentatives, May 2, 1933: "Mordecai Ezekiel, Economic Adviser to the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, is a real shadow of Prof. Tugwell so far as the Russian 
farm plan is concerned. He appears to be the Professor Einstein of the admin- 
istration and carefully elaborates the working of the 'new deal' to Congress 
by the use of logarithms, letting a hog equal X, the squeal equal Y, and the 
price equal Z. If it works out 'everything will be all right'. Prof. Ezekiel has 
visited Russia, where he made a considerable study of the Gosplan. . . . Here 
is a clipping from the greatest propagandist of Soviet Russia in the world, a 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 85 

writer for the N. Y. Times, Mr. Walter Duranty, who says that after IS 
years the agricultural plan in Russia has failed. . . . The heading of this article 
in the N. Y. Times is 'All Russia suffers shortage of food, supplies dwindle, 
two- thirds of people are not expected to get sufficient allowances for winter; 
crops below 1930; live stock reduced more than 50 percent from 5 years ago, 
with fodder lacking; new plans dropped'. These are the agricultural plans 
that were commended by Mr. Tugwell and probably are the plans now being 
suggested or copied from Soviet Russia in the pending farm bill. If its pur- 
pose is to reduce production of farm products, as has happened in Soviet 
Russia, then this farm bill ought to succeed at least in that respect, although 
that was not the intention of the framers of the Soviet Gosplan in Russia. 

"Where did the 'new deal' come from? ... is it possible that the 'new deaF 
was borrowed from the Socialist book 'A New Deal,' from which apparently 
a large part of the proposed legislative program has been taken? ... in which 
Stuart Chase says that 'in a way it is a pity that the road to revolution is 
temporarily closed'." I note that the last line of this same book is "Why 
should Russians have all the fun of remaking a world?" 

When Smith Wildman Brookhart, defeated radical Iowa Senator, Roose- 
velt's Foreign Trade Adviser of Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 
debated with Hamilton Fish in Chicago, 1932, under L. I. D. and A. S. C. 
R. R. auspices, with Prof. Paul H. Douglas, executive of both, presiding, he 
took the side of Soviet Russia and of Soviet recognition. He spoke in 
friendly familiar terms of his friend Boris Skvirsky, unofficial Soviet repre- 
sentative in Washington, and to judge by the plaudits of the audience he 
might well have been born in Russia instead of the United States. The hall 
was packed with Reds who cheered Brookhart and hissed Fish. 

Among other radical Roosevelt appointees is Robert M. Hutchins, self 
assured young president of the University of Chicago, under whose admin- 
istration the U. of C. has become a hotbed for Communist propaganda. The 
Student Congress Against War with Scott Nearing and Earl Browder of 
the Communist Party as speakers, mass meetings with Wm. Z. Foster, Carl 
Haessler, and others, advocating overthrow of our government in defiance 
of the Illinois sedition law, are not only held in University auditoriums, but 
the communist National Student League is an officially recognized U. of C. 
student activity. Hutchins, accompanied by Victor Olander of the Illinois 
Federation of Labor, Pres. Walter Dill Scott of N. U., etc., opposed me in 
testifying before the Illinois Legislative hearing at Springfield on the Baker 
Bills, aimed at curbing sedition in colleges. Jane Addams opposed me at the 
second Chicago hearing. I was in the unique position at Springfield, at 
Senator Baker's invitation, of being the only person to testify in favor of 
curbing sedition. The presidents of St. Viator's College, and Northwestern 
and Chicago Universities were pitted against me, with Mrs. Ickes, wife of 
Secy. Harold L. Ickes, leading Roosevelt appointee, applauding on the side- 
lines the remarks of the opponents of the sedition bills. 

When I showed documentary proof of my charges that Communism is 
allowed to flourish at the U. of C., young Hutchins came back with the very 
good answer that he did not know why Communism should not be a student 
activity at the U. of C., since Wm. Z. Foster and the Communist Party were 



86 The Red Network 



allowed on the ballot of the State of Illinois (and a scandal that it is true!), 
and that he taught Marxism and Leninism himself. Hutchins heads the Chi- 
cago Mediation Board of NRA. Jane Addams was invited to serve also but 
declined, but Victor Olander, his ally at the Springfield Hearing, serves under 
him, as does James Mullenbach (see "Who's Who") and John Fitzpatrick 
(appointed through Leo Wolman), president of the Chicago Federation of 
Labor and a member of the Chicago Committee for Struggle Against War, 
which put over the huge Communist mass meeting I attended Oct. 23, 1933 
in honor of Communist Henri Barbusse. Only the Red flag was displayed and 
the Internationale sung, and Revolution was cheered. Fitzpatrick's com- 
mittee were seated on the stage and a Communist pamphlet sold at the meet- 
ing stated that Fitzpatrick had been asked to address the meeting but had 
not dared do so as a representative of the A. F. of L. 

This Chicago Labor Board (according to the Chicago Tribune, Oct. 20, 
1933) was chosen from nominations submitted to Senator Robt. E. Wagner, 
chairman of the National Board. Wagner himself is a warm advocate of 
Russian recognition and a contributor to the radical Survey, Graphic and 
Nation. 

According to the Daily Worker of March 19, 1934, Sen. Brookhart 
praised Soviet agriculture at the New School for Social Research (Mrs. F. D. 
Roosevelt was on its Advisory Board, 1931) and said similar collectivisation 
could be achieved here by means of his Bill. To quote: " 'My Bill is the rev- 
olution. A couple of Bills like that and there would be no more Wall Street!' 
Brookhart suggested that the audience read Stalin's speech on agriculture 
mimeographed copies of which he distributed free." 

We are not surprised at Mrs. Roosevelt's lavish praise of Jane Addams, 
her friend, with whom she shared the program led by Newton D. Baker, in a 
drive for relief funds, Oct. 30, 1933 in Chicago, nor to read: "Mrs. Franklin 
D. Roosevelt and Mrs. Henry Morgenthau, Jr., motored from the summer 
White House at Hyde Park, N. Y., to pay a visit tonight to Miss Lillian 
Wald, welfare worker and sociologist. The President's wife and her com- 
panion joined Miss Jane Addams . . . and Dr. Alice Hamilton ... as dinner 
guests of the founder of Henry St. Settlement, New York." (Chicago Trib- 
une, Aug. 8, 1933.) 

The A. S. C. R. R., a Communist subsidiary, was formed at Henry St. 
Settlement. Lillian Wald and Mrs. Roosevelt served together on the Non- 
intervention Citizens Committee, 26 of the 75 members of which were out- 
right Socialists or Communists, and the others all more or less connected 
with the pacifist movement. Rose Schneidermann (see "Who's Who"), who 
has objected to the nickname, the "Red Rose of Anarchy," was also one of 
this committee and is a Roosevelt appointee on the Labor Advisory Board. 

Rose Schneidermann, Lillian Wald and Mrs. Roosevelt are associated 
together also in the National Women's Trade Union League (radical enough 
to merit Garland Fund support and the Garland Fund plainly states it gives 
only for radical purposes). 

"Miss" Frances Perkins was formerly executive secretary of the socialist 
National Consumers League, of which, in 1931, Mrs. Roosevelt, Jane Addams, 
Newton D. Baker and Alice Hamilton were vice presidents. 

Nor is it strange that Leo Wolman and Sidney Hillman, two outstanding 
radicals (see "Who's Who"), should be Roosevelt appointees to the Labor 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 



Advisory Board. They were both directors of the Garland Fund, which aided 
two of the organizations of which Mrs. Roosevelt is a member (National 
Consumers League and National Women's Trade Union League). 

Paul Douglas left his work at the U. of Chicago to go to Washington 
as Roosevelt's Adviser to NRA. His radical record (see "Who's Who") is 
lengthy. Sam Hammersmark, the head of the Chicago Communist Book 
Store at 2019 W. Division St. and a Communist Party district executive, 
knows him well enough to call him "Paul". A columnist quoted Douglas, 
commenting on the present change in administration, as saying: "And to 
think but a short time ago we were called radicals!" He left his wife and 
children in recent years and married the daughter of Lorado Taft, the 
sculptor. Taft now serves on the Red "Chicago Committee for Struggle 
Against War". 

Wm. E. Dodd (see "Who's Who"), a member of the executive committee 
of the Chicago A. C. L. U., is Pres. Roosevelt's appointee as Ambassador to 
Germany. How Hitler must love that! 

Harold L. Ickes, radical "Republican," is Roosevelt's Secretary of the 
Interior. He owns a gorgeous Winnetka, 111. estate and has been active in 
"reform" politics for many years. He is held up as the model "honest" poli- 
tician. He is in Paul Douglas' utilities-baiting, socialist Utility Consumers 
and Investors League and is either a member of or contributor to the A. C. 
L. U. His wife, a member of the Illinois Legislature, is said to be an ardent 
pacifist. 

Donald Richberg, another member of Paul Douglas' Utility Consumers 
and Investors League, is Pres. Roosevelt's General Legal Advisor of NRA. 
Said the Chgo. Daily News, Sept. 5, 1933: His position in NRA "can 
be measured by the fact he gets $12,500 while the others (including John- 
son) get $6,000." He was chairman of the resolutions committee of the 
radical Conference for Progressive Political Action in Cleveland, 1924, which 
"steals" elections for radical candidates (Am. Labor Who's Who). (See also 
this "Who's Who"). 

Henry Wallace, the radical Roosevelt Secretary of Agriculture, was a 
member of the Nat. Citizens Committee on Relations with Latin America 
and Nat. Save Our Schools Com. 

Sophonisba P. Breckenridge and Anne Guthrie (see "Who's Who") were 
U. S. delegates to the Pan-American Conference, Nov., 1933, with the 
official party. 

Wm. H. Leiserson, Secretary of the National Labor Board, is a fellow 
author with Norman Thomas and Harry Laidler of the book "Socialism of 
Our Times". His section is entitled "Socialist Theory and the Class Struggle". 

Prof. Raymond Moley, Roosevelt's appointee as Assistant Secretary of 
State, is a close friend of Wm. C. Bullitt. According to "Time" of May 8, 
1933: "At Western Reserve he is still well remembered as the professor who 
required his classes to read the New Republic when that journal of parloi 
liberalism was considered Red." (It is still considered Red). 

John F. Sinclair, of the Garland Fund Committee on Imperialism and 
of the A. C. L. U. national committee, was reported by the press to be engaged 
in confidential work for Pres. Roosevelt (Chgo. Tribune, May 9, 1933). He 



88 The Red Network 



was appointed member of the NRA review board, March 1934, with Clarence 
Darrow, chairman (See "Who's Who" for both). 

Heywood Broun and Joseph Wood Krutch, well known radicals (see 
"Who's Who"), were appointed as NRA industrial advisors for codes of 
fair competition in the theatre industry (Chgo. American, Aug. 8, 1933). 

If McKee, 1933 candidate for Mayor of New York, was, as he claimed, 
a Roosevelt man, and the accounts in the Daily Worker of Sept. 13, 15, 17, 
1933 concerning Pres. Roosevelt's aid to La Guardia are correct, then the 
non-Tammany voter indeed had a Tweedle-Dum and Tweedle-Dee choice 
between Rooseveltian candidates. To quote the Daily Worker; "Wm. J. 
Schiefflin, known as the founder of the Fusion movement, is a wily demagogue 
who has considerable distinction among capitalist politicians. On May 17, 
1931 Schiefflin paid verbal tribute to Norman Thomas. He said that Thomas 
was 'a man excellently capable and fitted for the office of Mayor. . . . But in 
the Fusion fight Schiefflin feared that Thomas might handicap his capitalist 
political wing through his Socialist tag." And then: "By Aug. 2" (1933) 
"the whole Fusion movement seemed to be at the point of collapse. It was 
then that Roosevelt's personal advisor was rushed upon the scene to save 
the day. Adolph A. Berle, Jr., a member of Roosevelt's so-called 'brain 
trust,' went into hurried conference. Another such gathering was called the 
following night and it was at this session that La Guardia was chosen as 
standard bearer. Since that time Roosevelt's personal advisor has helped 
La Guardia to draft the City Fusion Party platform. . . . Fusion's standard 
bearer is a former Republican, a former Socialist, a former Progressive, a 
former well paid advisor of the Tammany administration" (legal services in 
1923). "In the following autumn" (1924) "he entered the race for Con- 
gress on the Socialist ticket. ... As a Socialist La Guardia had often expressed 
his opposition to war . . . ," etc. 

The National Labor Tribune for June 22, 1933 states that Adolph A. 
Berle, Jr. and the radical Congressman Fiorello H. La Guardia wrote the 
Railroad Corporation Reorganization Bill. A. A. Berle, Jr. and Paul Blans- 
hard, for 15 years a leading Socialist, and an executive of the Socialist 
L. I. D., are now members of the La Guardia cabinet. 

The Daily Worker failed to give La Guardia credit for his Socialist con- 
sistency in boring from within these various parties and at the same time 
that he was the Fusion candidate for conservatives joining in issuing the call 
for the Conference for Progressive Political Action held in Chicago, Aug. 29, 
1933, to plan radical nation-wide action along the same political lines. 

A. A. Berle, Jr., Special Advisor of Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 
is the the son of A. A. Berle, who served on the executive committee of the 
Civil Liberties Bureau (Lusk Report, p. 1083). He was formerly in the law 
office of Louis D. Brandeis, radical Supreme Court Justice (see), whose 
decision in the Oklahoma Ice Case is cited by radicals as a victory for 
Socialism. 

Louis E. Kirstein of the National Advisory Board is the socialistic asso- 
ciate of Edward A. Filene of Boston. "Incidentally it was learned today that 
the Century Fund endowed by Edward A. Filene, Boston merchant, paid 



The New Deal and Roosevelt Appointees 89 

all the expenses of the industry control administration, including salaries of 
many publicity men, etc. . . . during the organization before the industrial 
control bill had been passed by Congress." (Chgo. Tribune, July 30, 1933). 

Judson King, Research Investigator for Tennessee Valley Authority; 
James P. Warbasse of the Consumers Board of NRA; Wm. F. Ogburn, 
resigned member of Consumers Advisory Board; David E. Lilienthal, con- 
nected with Tennessee Valley Authority; Henry T. Hunt, General Counsel, 
Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works (of Communist and 
Socialist committees) ; and Arthur E. Morgan, Director, Tennessee Valley 
Authority; all have radical affiliations listed in this "Who's Who," as has 
Felix Frankfurter, at whose request Jerome Frank was made Gen. Counsel 
of AAA, Wm. L. Nunn, Nathan Margold, Chas. Edw. Russell, etc. 

"The safety of the country rests on the provision it makes for adult edu- 
cation George F. Zook, United States Commissioner of Education, declared 
today before the Adult Educational Council of Chicago" (Chgo. Daily News, 
Oct. 20, 1933). (The Adult Educational Council provides Socialist and Com- 
munist lecturers for adult education which should make America safe for 
Socialism.) "Mr. Zook added that the orders of the Federal Employment 
Relief Service to the effect that public funds be made available for employ- 
ment of unemployed persons in adult education projects grew out of a con- 
ference sponsored by the education office and prompted in part by successful 
adult education projects in New York under Harry Hopkins, now Federal 
Director of Relief." 

The speech of Hopkins, who shared the program with Mrs. Roosevelt 
and Newton D. Baker at the Stevens Hotel, Chgo., Oct. 30, 1933 (as reported 
in the Chgo. Daily News, Oct. 31), may be summed up in his statement: 
"A new social order is to come out of the new deal." No socialistic speaker 
ever forgets that phrase "new social order," which of course differentiates 
Marx' social order from the American social order. 

The Roosevelt administration mouth piece "Today" (of Raymond Moley) 
said editorially, Jan. 27, 1934, concerning President Roosevelt: 

"To the Philippine Islands he sent Frank Murphy, the colorful and pro- 
gressive Mayor of Detroit. Frank Murphy, sharing some of Father Cough- 
lin's ardent progressivism, is, in his thinking, rather to the left" 

Father Coughlin, who said over the radio, Jan. 14, 1934, that he would 
rather live in Russia under the heel of Stalin than in America under the lash 
of Morgan, has been hailed with glee by the socialist Public Ownership 
League (see). His radio propaganda is deeply appreciated by radicals. 
Father John A. Ryan of the Public Ownership League and the national 
committee of the infamous Communist-aiding American Civil Liberties Union 
declares that Father Coughlin "is on the side of the angels," while other 
Catholic dignitaries have dubbed him a "rabble rouser". 

When Pres. Roosevelt was Governor of New York, he appointed Frank P. 
Walsh, one of the most valuable friends the Red movement has had, to the 
N. Y. Commn. on Revision of Public Utility Laws, June, 1929, and chmn. of 
Power Authority of the State of N. Y., May, 1931. The radical activities of 
Frank P. Walsh and Felix Frankfurter, one of the insiders of Pres. Roose- 



90 The Red Network 



velt's "brain trust," have been extensive. See Fred Biedenkapp (notorious 
Communist agitator) in "Who's Who" for aid given him by F. D. Roosevelt 
while Governor. 

The Chicago Daily News, Dec. 26, 1933, under the caption, "Hails 1500 
Yule Pardons As Victory for Free Speech," quotes the words of praise of Harry 
N. Weinberg, the attorney who defended Anarchist Emma Goldman, for the 
action of Pres. Roosevelt in extending pardon and amnesty to 1500 Reds, 
who had been convicted of seditious activities against the U. S. government 
a gesture of friendship following close upon recognition of Russia, not 
unappreciated by revolutionaries. It is noteworthy, however, that at the 
same time the nation's newspapers, after months of haggling, were still 
unsuccessful in securing a clause guaranteeing them "freedom of speech" in 
their NRA code. As a consequence, Emma Goldman, deported Anarchist- 
Communist and free love exponent, has now returned and is spreading her 
ulcerous doctrines again. 

Pres. Roosevelt recently pardoned Robert Osman, Brooklyn corporal, 
convicted in 1931 of communicating military secrets to Communists (see 
Louis Waldman in "Who's Who"). 

An Associated Press dispatch of Dec. 15, 1933, stated that "Raymond 
Moley, former assistant Secretary of State, criticized his former chief, Secre- 
tary of State Cordell Hull, for terming the administration's relief and recov- 
ery measures 'temporary and extraordinary' measures . . . saying that 'we are 
building permanently and not for a mere purpose of recovery/ urged the 
reconstruction of the Democratic Party to carry on the principles of the 
administration's recovery and relief measures." 

Pres. Hutchins, who shared the Sinai Temple program of Oct. 30, 1933, 
with Mordecai Ezekiel and Norman Thomas, pleaded for federal funds and a 
federal secretary of education in order that education might be more and 
more state subsidized and controlled. Norman Thomas, of course, supple- 
mented this socialistic idea with other Socialist plans and Ezekiel said that 
the long term aim of the U. S. agricultural program is to "place the best 
farmers on the best land," placing the surplus farmers in city factories. 

I think when Ezekiel comes to shifting farmers around, as Russia does, 
and telling a farmer who loves his home that he is a "surplus" farmer he 
may find that the "loud acclaim" which Wm. E. Sweet's letter asserts Roose- 
velt is receiving will change to something like the statements of Gov. 'Alfalfa 
Bill' Murray, as recently reported in the press. Having heard that the pan- 
handle section of his State's lands were to be declared unfit for farming and 
the settlers moved elsewhere, he declared he would call out the National 
Guard and "not one d settler would be moved". The residents them- 
selves declared they had lived on and loved their land for many years and 
knew more about its possibilities than the government appointees and did 
not care to be moved. Of course the more probable and smoother method 
of making the farmers move peaceably would be to pay for the land and 
load the bill onto the taxpayers. Any measure which raises taxes is a means 
of socialization or doing away with private ownership. 

Abraham Lincoln said that any issue should be judged not by whether 
it is all good or all bad, but by whether it is preponderantly good or bad, as 
no issue or individual is wholly good or bad. 



Capitalism Hewer and "Ckiseier" 91 

American government along Washingtonian lines has demonstrated its 
worth. It is as perfect a form of government for any age as human nature 
will allow it to be. It spurs initiative and offers incentive with a maximum 
of freedom and a minimum of coercion. Until recent years, when radical 
tamperers started saddling it with bureaucracy, it maintained its people at 
the highest level ever known. 

No former depression was able long to halt the upward surge of Amer- 
ican progress. Given back their real liberty, their freedom to work for some- 
thing except the tax collector, Americans would again down this depression. 
Socialism in Austria, England and Australia has kept those countries depressed 
for years by the vicious cycle of taxation, more unemployment, more unem- 
ployment, more taxation. For every rich employer "swatted," many wage 
earners were thrown on the dole, then more people on the dole required 
more taxation. 

The many thousands of middle class, or "bourgeois," American citizens 
who have a financial interest in the packing industry, or the public utilities, 
through the ownership of stock, bonds, life insurance policies, etc., may well 
look with apprehension upon the recently announced plan of the Roosevelt 
administration to take over the packing industry as a "basic industry." And 
yet, if quick, drastic and concerted action in opposition is not taken, that is 
what may possibly be done, as one of the various steps toward complete 
socialization of the Country under the guidance of "Commissars" Morgen- 
thau, Johnson, Perkins, Ickes, Wallace and Tugwell. 

A comparison between the Communist Manifesto's ten measures for 
socializing a state, the 1932 Socialist Party platform, and the Rooseveltian 
Bills passed by Congress 1933-4, is shocking. It is significant that Post- 
master General Farley, Administration spokesman and still head of the 
Democratic National Committee, insists (summer 1934) that every feature 
of the "New Deal" was conceived in the mind of Franklin Roosevelt before 
he was even nominated for the Presidency, and deplores the popular vogue 
of giving the credit (or blame) to the "Brain Trust." 

Not partisanship, but "Socialism versus Americanism" is the issue before 
America now. No Socialist-Democrat, no compromising willy-nilly Republican 
torn between innate American conservatism and internationalist radical- 
pacifism deserves support. We need a rockbound old American or an anti- 
Marxian Democrat (with a Congress to match) to lead America. Who is 
he? Even though he is found, he will not relieve individuals of responsibility 
in picking local election slates before "George" does it for them. 

Every American who values his home, his liberty and the future of his 
children should give himself heart and soul in the next election to the Party 
which gives proof that its candidates will uphold the American principles 
which have made America great and will offer American voters the opportunity 
to vote "Karl Marx" out of office. 

CAPITALISM HEWER AND "CHISELER" 
OF AMERICAN GREATNESS 

The slogan of socialism is "Production for use and not for profit," but 
the spirit of capitalism is production for use and for profit. Socialists every- 
where are as familiar with the Soviet cartoons and myths concerning the ugly, 
fat, heavy-jowled old man in the frock coat and high hat, greedily clutching 
bags of gold, whom they label "Capitalism" as we all are with cartoons and 



92 The Red Network 



myths about fat, jolly, old Santa Glaus with his pack of toys. The myths 
built up around each of these imaginary old gentlemen are childish, but no 
less satisfying to certain mentalities. 

What could be simpler in time of economic stress and bewilderment than 
to imagine a few greedy old fat capitalists clutching all of the nation's wealth 
in their money bags, while exulting maliciously over the hardships of the 
unemployed, the unemployed advancing upon them, cracking them over their 
heads and "re-distributing the wealth" in their bags to the needy? An end- 
ing as simple and happy as the arrival of Santa Claus with toys, with the 
added satisfaction of taking revenge on the villain. 

In reality millions of Americans, a greater proportion of the population 
than in any other country, own farms, homes, property, stock, savings, or a 
business of some sort and are capitalists on a larger or smaller scale. When 
a Socialist tells the "old one" about a half dozen or so capitalists controlling 
all of the wealth in the United States, he should be sent to read the volumes 
of names of owners of property listed on the tax books of various districts 
and to poll the store keepers and business men of any "Main Street" to ask 
them how many of their concerns are owned by the half dozen big, bad, 
capitalists, and how many are privately owned. 

Anyone who owns any investment, property, or business nowadays knows 
that profits are doubtful, dividends and interest are not being paid, taxes are 
almost confiscatory, that capitalists who have large holdings are distressed, 
tax eaten and gloomy, and that some of them commit suicide. The Socialists' 
mythical capitalist exulting over the present depression is not to be found 
in real life, nor is it conceivable that any capitalist would deliberately 
deprive himself of profits in order to deprive his employees of the prosperity 
wages paid when business is run at prosperity speed. 

Who, then, should be cracked over the head? How can wealth that is not 
produced be re-distributed? Property, tools, business, factories, cannot be 
eaten, hoarded in bags, or hidden under the bed. These produce wealth only 
when they can function at a profit for everyone. When they do not, their 
owners are "property poor." 

Russians are told they must suffer deprivation in order that the goods 
they produce may be exported abroad to pay for machinery (soon rusted 
through carelessness), to industrialize Russia. 

Ellery Walter, fascinating author and lecturer who, after living under the 
"planned society order" of Russia, became depinked, told how he stood 
looking at a long line of tractors which were out of commission and asked 
his Russian girl guide what was the matter with them. She said they had 
broken down from lack of greasing. Noting a peasant's cart rumbling along 
with a bucket of grease swinging from the axle, he pointed it out and said to 
her: "Those peasants know enough to grease their wagons. What is the 
matter with them that they don't know enough to grease the tractors?" She 
happened to know the peasant and merely replied, "O! that wagon belongs 
to him." 

America, the world's greatest industrial nation, industrialized itself under 
private capitalism, for use and for profit, not only without deprivation, but 
while enjoying increasing prosperity and highest wages. American suffer- 



Capitalism Hewer and "CMseler" 93_ 

ings started only when capitalism took sick. Like a sick horse, the decrepit 
economic system back of which we are now crawling along is not Capitalism 
himself, but a Capitalism loaded down with Socialism. Quietly, step by step 
since 1912, one socialistic measure after another has been passed, one state 
or federal bureau after another has been put into operation at the expense of 
the tax payer. It is estimated that a generation ago a man worked one day 
in every fifty to pay taxes, whereas just before the New Deal he worked one 
day in every five to pay taxes. A mere list of governmental activities run at 
the expense of the taxpayer would fill a good sized booklet. 

America's horse "Capitalism," or private industry, carried his steadily 
mounting load very well until recent years, when his back caved in alarm- 
ingly and his gait became labored. Promising to cure this overloaded back 
and slow gait by "balancing the budget," the New Deal has instead piled 
onto him a further load of billions of dollars in socialistic taxation. Social- 
ists gleefully predict that our horse will die. They exult that "Capitalism 
has failed." He probably will die unless he is rescued. If he does, it will 
not be his fault, but the fault of those deliberately aiming to kill him with 
Socialist burdens. Unload Capitalism and give him a sniff of oats for his 
profit, and he will trot along as he did before. He has proven what he can 
do in the past. 

What have socialistic experiments ever achieved, except deficits or failure? 
While Russia was primitive under the Czars, it danced on holidays and wor- 
shipped God with a full stomach. The Ukraine, now starving, was, in fact, 
called the bread basket of Europe. Famine, spy and shot gun ridden Russia 
now turns out more propaganda than produce. 

Dr. H. Parker Willis, Columbia U. professor, one of the authors of the 
federal reserve act, and a monetary authority, said before the American 
Economic Association, Dec. 28, 1933, that he had had difficulty in analyzing 
the recovery program because of "a lack of consistency and frankness on the 
part of those identified with its origin and administration. One fully 
accredited spokesman of the recovery administration stated that the New 
Deal was devised after a careful study of European Socialism, Russian Com- 
munism, and Italian Fascism. But almost at the same time, another equally 
high and equally authoritative spokesman denied that there was anything 
revolutionarv in the undertakings. 

"But taking the most recent and official exposition of the recovery, I 
find it based upon a fundamentally false premise. It rests upon the assump- 
tion that the depression was due to a breakdown of laissez faire. When did 
industry lose its freedom? Certainly not on March 3, 1933, but many years 
earlier. 

"As a matter of fact, the panic of 1929 grew out of the existence of too 
much interference with some industries and nursing, spoon-feeding, and 
coddling others. It is not true that uncontrolled excessive individualism has 
destroyed itself. What we are suffering from today is an undue govern- 
mental interference with business." (Chicago Tribune, Dec. 29, 1933). 

I listened to Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture, telling the 
world over the radio on Christmas morning that governmental "planning" 
under the New Deal must go on in ever broadening measure, to secure for 



94 The Red Network 



the people of America a more "equitable redistribution of wealth," to abolish 
the "profit motive," the "greed" and "rugged individualism" (all good 
Socialist phrases), which had ruined this country. He said that nothing that 
governmental "planning" could do in the future could fail as America had 
failed in the past, and that nothing it could do could ruin America as we 
Americans had already ruined it. 

I wondered if Mr. Wallace were unaware of the fact that America and its 
capitalism is the greatest success in history, that the "rugged individualism" 
of our American pioneering ancestors "chiseled" from the forests of a vast 
wilderness, no richer than similar vast wildernesses in South America, Africa 
and Asia, which remain, however, wildernesses today, a nation which is the 
envy of every nation on earth, and this in the space of only about 150 years. 
The freely released energies of those who fled the autocracies of European 
countries created the miracle of modern times America. 

I wondered how Mr. Wallace could call America a failure unless per- 
chance he had never seen the rest of the world to draw his comparisons. 
Anyone who has traveled over the world knows that the greatest part of 
its surface is still untouched by "Capitalism" or "rugged individualism," that 
its minerals lie unmined, that the feet of countless millions go bare, that 
mud or straw huts and a few rags remain in style century after century, 
for the majority of human beings, that insect-bitten, comfortless poverty 
on a bare subsistence level reigns unchallenged over the vast stretches of 
Africa, Asia, South America, and China, where famines also regularly kill 
off millions, that these millions never experience depressions because they 
never have any prosperity. They cannot drop because they remain down. 

Enroute to the Orient last year when I facetiously jibed a kerosene lamp 
salesman about his business being out of date, he came back with very exact 
figures on the millions of inhabitants in India, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands, 
etc., who have never had gas or electricity, could not afford it if it were 
available, who live countless miles from the few foreign settlements where 
it is available, and are now using far more primitive lighting devices than 
kerosene lamps. He assured me that his business was in its infancy! 

City Americans naturally look upon those who have had their gas and 
electricity shut off during the depression as sufferers. Yet our own parents 
had none. My mother, during Christmas holidays, was reminescing with an 
old friend about their youthful days in Ohio. She recalled the horse and 
buggy days. He, a prominent Chicago physician, said: "I go you one better. 
Remember you lived in northern Ohio, which with its lake port, Cleveland, 
developed ahead of Southern Ohio where I lived. I travelled by ox cart 
at a time when you, in northern Ohio, had advanced to horses and carriages." 

To "rugged individualism" and capitalism we owe machines, road and 
transportation developments, and countless other comforts unknown in any 
previous age. 

If capitalism and capitalists are a blight to humanity, then a land like 
Egypt where its sore-eyed fellaheens, who live in mud huts, till the fields 
with the same style crooked stick plows, raise water from the Nile with the 
same old water wheels, and sail the Nile in the same old model dahabeahs as 
are pictured on the walls of King Tut's tomb which was sealed centuries 
ago should be a happy spot. But the happiest event which has befallen 



Capitalism Hewer and "Chiseler" 95 

Egypt in many centuries came with the British "imperialism" and "capitalism" 
which built the Assuan Dam to control Nile floods, increase tillable land, 
and prevent famines. While the dam may have been built for the profit of 
British capitalism, it has, no less, profited the Egyptians by filling their 
stomachs with food. 

If capitalism is "greed" and a blight to humanity, then why are the 
savage and miserable lands which have no capitalism, not blessed? Why is 
the standard of living of the whole people in any land raised in proportion 
to the success and development of its capitalistic enterprises? 

How inconsistently the very people who welcome the advent of a factory 
to their home town and mourn its closing as a catastrophe, who glory in the 
memory of the $10 per day wages it once paid and the silk shirts, radios and 
Fords they were able to buy when capitalism was pulsing with life, who 
themselves hope for nothing so much as the legitimate chance to again make 
profits, and the sooner the better, will applaud the thrilling experienced 
"rabble-rouser," with his ever popular appeals to envy, when he denounces 
as the source of all evil the "profit-motive" of the capitalist who built or ran 
that factory for their mutual benefit. When he made profits they profited also. 

There is, of course, an alternative to the "profit-motive" for spurring 
human beings on to perform hard, worrisome, or distasteful labor. It is the 
shot gun. As Bernard Shaw put it: "Compulsory labor with death, the final 
punishment, is the keystone of socialism." Business men are not apt to volun- 
tarily get too "tired" working for the State, nor are laborers on public works 
noted for their over exertion. Try calling on a politician early in the day. 
"He is not down yet" is what you will probably be told. We may reward or 
punish people to make them work, "crack down" on them, employ a G. P. U. 
spy system to enforce Socialism, or return to the American Capitalistic prin- 
ciple of production for use and for profit. 

A capitalist business must efficiently produce goods for use or it can make 
no profit. State works on the other hand, need not be either useful, necessary, 
or efficiently run, since the tax payers pay the bills out of the proceeds from 
private efficiency. Even the U. S. Post Office piles up a large yearly deficit 
(112 million dollars in 1933). Capitalism is a system of spending which 
pumps profits into every part of society. Buying goods is spending for the 
products of industry, while buying investments is spending to maintain and 
develop industry. Even savings are loaned out to be spent for home building 
and business enterprise, or else the banker realizes no profit. New investment 
means new industry, new employment, new spending, new investing, and so 
on around the circle again. 

Have you ever had your wants completely satisfied? Other Americans 
have not had theirs satisfied either. There is no limit to new wants, new devel- 
opments, new possibilities, within America itself, while other lands have been 
scarcely touched with modern equipment. Wash bowls and pitchers formed 
the entire window display in a prominent London store when I visited there 
only a few years ago. There is no over-production and there never has been. 
Yet Rex. Tugwell, our "brain trust" leader, says new industry should not be 
allowed to arise unless it has first been planned for and considered probably 
desirable by the government. (See under Nat. Religion and Labor Found.) 

In Russia, where Marxism rules, employees do not receive the full value 



96 The Red Network 



of their products in wages, according to the accepted Marxian theory of 
value. Someone there, as everywhere, must take part of the sale price of 
products and spend it to develop processes, build and maintain the factory 
and tools, with which the product is made. The government is that someone in 
Russia or under Socialism anywhere. Individual owners are the "someones" 
under capitalism. Which is the more efficient? No capitalist can actually use 
for himself a great amount of the world's goods. As the old British jingle 
about being able to sleep in only one bed or wear one hat at a time goes: 
"You can only wear one eye-glass in your eye, 
Use one coffin when you die don't you know!" 

The rest of a capitalist's profits are not hoarded in bags, but invested, and 
that is spent, for further development of industry and further profits for 
others as well as himself. 

Many business men, now harassed by the evident animosity of socialistic 
"New Dealers" toward private business for profit, warned to keep prices down, 
wages up, hours of business long (for themselves), hours of employees short, 
to compute sales taxes and to expect to lose their blue eagle if they err, would 
gladly, but for the hope of future change, rid themselves of the worrisome bur- 
den of running a profitless business for others, and become employees them- 
selves. Many people who saved to buy investments for their own "old age 
security," which are now almost worthless, wish they had squandered the 
money instead. Even the movies portray all mortgage owners as villains. 
Many of these villains are widows, orphans, and aged people dependent for 
support on this income. Insurance policies depend largely upon mortgages. 

Many Chicago home owners, straining to pay preposterous state, county, 
sanitary district, and other taxes on their homes and furniture, would now 
gladly change places with renters of furnished apartments and give up the 
struggle of meeting taxes. 

When it no longer "pays" to own property or run a business, it means 
that capitalism or "private ownership" is being squeezed to death. Socialism 
is killing it. Only when Socialism is throttling legitimate profits does the 
big and little capitalist stop investing, that is, spending, and try to hide a 
little of his fast disappearing money from the tax collector, but "New Dealers" 
have devaluated even money now. The State seems about ready to gobble up 
all private ownership rights. 

In the face of all evidences of the success of capitalism and of the failures 
of Socialism, one can but marvel at the ever gushing zeal of Socialist propa- 
gandists. Their appeals to abolish the profit motive are as sweet as the rustle 
of angels' wings. Who could remain unmoved by the following from "Toward 
A New Economic Society" by Kirby Page and Sherwood Eddy? (p. 83): 
"What can religion as the champion of personality do to give our economic 
activities an ethical content and place them in their proper sphere? . . . The 
profit motive must be supplanted by the motive of service or production for 
use, which in turn means that ownership as soon as practicable, should rest 
in the hands of the community. . . . The Columbia Conserve Company in 
Indianapolis, owned and controlled by its employees, is a rare but enlightening 
example of this form of organization." (Soulful, is it not?) 

The Columbia Conserve Company, from a thousand pulpits, lecture plat- 



Capitalism Hewer and "Ctriseler" 97 

forms, and class rooms, has long been heralded as the most advanced form 
of industrial democracy, an example to youth, a reproof to the American 
business man. Yet, the socialist World Tomorrow (Dec. 21, 1933) itself 
publishes this story of its debacle: About 15 years ago Mr. Wm. P. Hapgood 
with the cooperation of his brothers, Norman and Hutchins, established a 
canning factory with the avowed purpose of demonstrating the possibilities 
of democracy in industry. A system was also devised whereby the ownership 
of the company would pass by stages into the hands of the employees. About 
a year ago, the quarrel between Mr. Hapgood and some of the ablest veteran 
workers became so acute that in February, with the consent of all parties 
concerned, Sherwood Eddy, Jerome Davis, Paul H. Douglas, and James Myers 
(all radicals) were requested to serve as a committee for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the whole situation. An agreement was reached which was to remain 
in force until April, 1934. Nevertheless, within two months Mr. Hapgood 
requested of the committee that the company be released from the agreement. 
Opposition was offered to this by a group of employees, etc. (Wm. M. Leiser- 
son, Roosevelt appointee as secy. Nat. Labor Bd., was chosen as arbitrator.) 

To quote from the reply of this Committee of Four who charged breach 
of faith and of contract: "During our own experience with the Columbia 
Conserve Company during recent weeks, we have observed with deep regret 
that Mr. Wm. P. Hapgood, although in his philosophy, democratic, seems to 
have proved autocratic in dealing with the workers. ... It seemed to the 
Committee that the leaders of those who dared openly to differ with the 
management were forced out or impelled to resign until effective industrial 
democracy had disappeared" (as in Russia). 

The socialist World Tomorrow draws from this "disappointing outcome 
of a notable experiment" the conclusion that "genuine democracy in industry 
cannot be achieved by isolated efforts. . . . Nothing short of the socialization 
of natural resources and basic industry will suffice. . . . Therefore it seems 
to us that deeper wisdom has been displayed by Powers Hapgood who left 
his father's plant to become a national organizer for the Socialist Party. The 
collapse of the experiment in industrial democracy at the Columbia Conserve 
Company is partly the result of the failure of the human spirit, but much 
more it is the consequence of an inadequate social philosophy and an incorrect 
social strategy." 

Jail or the shot gun is the "correct social strategy" in the Soviet Socialist 
paradise. These take the place of competition, under capitalism, in settling 
wage and other controversies. Had the United States been completely social- 
ized at the time this quarrel broke out, governmental forces would have been 
used to "crack down" on these disgruntled workers. 

Socialist appeals for complete Socialism, sharing, and abolition of the 
"profit motive" would be so much more winning if Socialists first voluntarily 
proved the success and practicability of their theories, instead of insisting 
upon the necessity for brute force to achieve and hold Socialism in power. 

One notes that even such a zealous "Christian" Socialist as Rev. E. F. 
Tittle of Evanston, while denouncing Capitalism and social inequality be- 
tween whites and negroes, yet continues to enjoy his capitalistic salary, home 
and car, instead of sharing them with poor evicted negroes, and sends his own 



98 The Red Network 



daughter through Roycemore, the most exclusive private school on the North 
Shore, although Evanston has good public schools. 

Morris Hillquit, national executive of the Socialist Party for many years, 
died recently, leaving a fortune of some $200,000, which according to his 
Socialist principles, should be "redistributed." He should have shared it 
long ago. 

Bernard Shaw, one of the world's most outstanding propagandists for 
Communism-Socialism, lives in England where he can enjoy the huge profits 
from his writings and other capitalistic ventures. Portly Maxim Litvinoff, 
who visited the United States while hunger was rampant in Russia, bore no 
marks of suffering, nor, as the Chicago Tribune remarked at the time, was 
there any direct evidence that he had been "especially fattened for the oc- 
casion." He demonstrated the well-known fact that political commissars, 
everywhere, eat, regardless of whether others starve or not. The cure for the 
temptations inherent in politics which give rise to its widespread corruption, 
is not more political offices, more temptation, more politicians, more political 
power, more graft, more taxes in other words more Socialism but less, and 
a return to the individualistic sense of responsibility, the private initiative 
and capitalism which has actually hewn and chiseled American greatness out 
of a primitive wilderness and given its people the highest standard of living 
of any people in history. 

The National Republic (Dec. 1933 issue) under the heading "The Failure 
of Socialism" states: 

"Persons socialistically inclined often point to the present world-wide 
depression as 'a failure of the capitalist system,' that is, of the system of 
private ownership of property and liberty and from this argue in favor of 
fundamental changes in the economic order as a means of improving the lot 
of the people. 

"But the present world-wide breakdown could more properly be charged 
to a collapse of the socialist system. Every important power in the western 
world today, except the United States, is under either socialist parliamentary 
control, or that dictatorship to which socialism leads as in Italy, Poland, 
Germany and Russia. 

"Beyond this effect of direct socialist control, the menace of political 
ownership of property and destruction of individual liberty and enterprise, 
and the meddling with the established monied systems, are the chief factors 
in the slowing down of business enterprise. It is not to be expected that 
productive enterprise will go ahead full steam when enemies of all private 
enterprise are busily engaged in trying to tear up the tracks and burn the 
bridges just ahead. 

"In western Europe, under the threat of socialism and bolshevism, money 
was withdrawn from productive enterprise in thousands of cases and went into 
hiding. In this country political demagogues and doctrinaires who are at 
heart socialists whatever their outward party profession, have been busily 
engaged in threatening all business enterprise, and hampering and ham- 
stringing it wherever possible. What they cannot immediately destroy by 
socialist legislation, they try to tax and restrict and handicap to the point of 
extinction. In this they are joined by those international adventurers of 



Fascism 99 



capitalism who seek by this method to kill off all independent enterprise in 
the belief that they may gain profits not only through national but world- 
wide mergers. . . . 

"The failures of socialism in the Old World are resulting in dictatorships. 
Socialism centralizes all power in the politicians. It hands over to them 
complete control of the life, property and liberties of the people. Thus it builds 
up a giant machine ready for the hand of dictators. Will we venture into 
such chaos?" 

FASCISM 

Fascism, the bitterest enemy of Socialism-Communism, resembles Socialism 
in the respect that it gives great power to the State and dictatorship over all 
industry, employment, education, freedom of the press, etc. The points of 
difference which make it violently hated by the Reds are: its opposition to 
the "class struggle" and the subjugation of the bourgeoisie by the dictatorship 
of the proletariat. Rather, it seeks a harmony between all classes and concedes 
to industrialists, white collar, professional, as well as laboring workers, a place 
in the social order as necessary parts, not "class enemies," of the whole, but 
under State control. It defends some property rights and religion. It opposes 
Marxist philosophy and the Communist and Socialist Marxian parties. Fas- 
cism in Italy is not anti-Semitic. The problem of the large number of revo- 
lutionary Russian Jews in Germany doubtless contributed toward making 
Fascist Germany anti-Semitic. 

Fascism arose in Italy and Germany as the result of the weakness of 
Democracy in combatting the Marxian poison which had been allowed to 
disintegrate the entire social fabric of these nations with agitations for strife 
and disunity. It took over power at a time in both countries when the choice 
lay between Fascist or Red dictatorship. It is the only enemy feared by the 
Reds, because it is the only system which opposes militancy with militancy 
and puts down one dictatorship by means of another. 

The price of Democratic freedom is eternal vigilance. When a people are 
too indifferent to the loss of their liberty, too blind to see that unchecked 
Marxism will result in complete chaos, disunity and national helplessness, too 
lazy to bother to protect their form of government, or to govern themselves, 
then some form of dictatorship will arise to take over the task for them. 

Unless large numbers of Americans shake off their present indifference to 
fast disappearing liberty and to danger from within, and combat Socialism- 
Communism vigorously, some form of Fascism will arise in America to do 
battle with Socialism for the dictatorship over the indifferent. As the strength 
of Socialism-Communism increases, the chance to preserve Democracy de- 
creases, until eventually Fascism becomes the only alternative to Socialism- 
Communism. It is late, but not too late to save American Democracy if 
Americans will awaken now/ Where are America's leaders? 



100 



The Red Network 



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PART II 



ORGANIZATIONS, ETC. 

Descriptive data concerning more than 460 Communist, Anarchist, Social- 
ist, I. W. W., or Radical-Pacifist controlled or infiltrated organizations and 
other agencies referred in the "Who's Who" (Part III) : 

A Unity Publishing Co., of Lincoln Center, 

also headed by Curtis Reese, publishes a 
weekly magazine, of which the editor is 
John Haynes Holmes, which has long had a 
reputation for radicalism. The Lusk Re- 
port in 1920 (p. 1129) said: "Such Uni- 
tarian ministers as J. M. Evans and A. L. 
Weatherly" (on Unity staff 1933) "can 
abjure God without leaving their ministry. 
John Haynes Holmes changed the name of 
his so-called church from 'Church of the 
Messiah' to 'Community Church' as an out- 
ward mark of his change of heart from 
Christianity to Communism. An insidious 
anti-religious campaign is being carried on 
by these men and their colleagues in such 
reviews as 'The World Tomorrow* (New 
York) and 'Unity' (Chicago)." 

"A Song of Revolt," a poem by Com- 
munist Robert Whitaker with his footnote 
explaining "how I can accept the Com- 
munist position with my opposition to 
War," appears in Sept. 4, 1933, issue of 
"Unity." To quote from page 12: "This 
significant fast of Gandhi to me is second 
in significance only to the crucifixion of 
Christ" (Gandhi is a pet of the Reds). 
Words of praise for Harry Ward's book on 
Russia are written by J. B. Matthews; 
another review says "Once again we are 
favored with a book from the pen of that 
fearless Methodist preacher, Ernest Fre- 
mont Tittle" (see this "Who's Who"). The 
"New Humanist" magazine featuring Harry 
Elmer Barnes (vice pres. atheist Free- 
thinkers Society) exchanges advertisements 
with "Unity" and a cut-rate is offered for 
subscriptions to both. 

Sidney Strong, radical, father of Anna 
Louise Strong (the Communist editor of 
the Moscow Daily News in Moscow) and 
of Tracy Strong (whose communistic ac- 
tivities in the Y.M.CA. were widely com- 
mented upon by the press), is one of the 
board of directors of Unity. In his article 
in the Sept. 18, 1933, issue he says: "More 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN CENTER 
"UNITY" 

Anyone reading the bulletins posted in 
the entrance hall of the six-story building 
entirely occupied by Abraham Lincoln 
Center (a social settlement) would believe 
that he had entered a Communist insti- 
tution. For example, in Sept. 1933, one 
placard read: "Enroll Now! Chicago 
Workers School, 2822 S. Michigan Av." 
(Communist school of revolution) ; another 
announced new issues of "New Masses" 
(Communist magazine) and said "You can 
get it from M. Topchevsky here at desk!" 
(M. Topchevsky teaches art at the com- 
munist Workers School) ; another headed 
"John Reed Club" (Communist club at 
1475 S. Michigan Av.) listed lectures to 
be given there, among others "Eugene Bech- 
told Sat., Sept. 23, at 8:30" (another 
teacher at communist Workers School) ; 
another notice addressed to "All Organiza- 
tions Save Our Schools Committee," etc., 
signed by Sam Lessitz, secretary of the 
communist National Student League, urged 
all those interested to come to a meeting 
to be held Sept. 22, 1933, at 3223 W. 
Roosevelt Road, Room 302, for the pur- 
pose of planning further agitations against 
Chicago school economies and pointed out 
that the National Student League "a non- 
partisan organization" ( !) was already re- 
sponsible for recent strikes in two schools. 
Lincoln Center is the meeting place for 
such Communist groups as the I.L.D., 
national convention of John Reed Clubs 
1932, etc. Players from Lincoln Center 
helped to form the communist Chicago 
Workers Theatre (see) of which Curtis 
Reese, head of Lincoln Center, is an official 
sponsor. The communist Workers' Labora- 
tory Theatre School (see) is conducted at 
Lincoln Center for the purpose of training 
actors for revolutionary plays. 



101 



102 



The Red Network 



than a year ago Litvinoff of the Soviet 
Republic made proposals that involved a 
drastic reduction of arms all around in 
fact at one instance he proposed that steps 
be taken towards total and general dis- 
armament" (see "Pacifism"). "Unfortun- 
ately his proposals were not heeded. . . . 
Everyone should be encouraged to take 
a personal stand to be a war resister. . . . 
Anti war congresses should be held. There 
cannot be too many public protests." 

The editorial in this issue voices the 
usual Red "anti-imperialist," anti-Ameri- 
can-government attitude in reviewing red 
Carleton Reals' book on Cuba, saying in 
part: "We are made to see our own coun- 
try, the United States, as the chief of- 
fender against the Cuban people. In 1898 
we did not free Cuba, but only transferred 
her from the bondage of Spain to the ex- 
ploitation of America. It is to the ever- 
lasting credit of President Roosevelt and 
Secretary Hull that they not only did not 
interfere with the revolutionists, but ac- 
tually gave them friendly counsel and as- 
sistance." 

In 1933, "Unity" lists the following: 
Unity Publishing Co., Abraham Lincoln Cen- 
ter, 700 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago, 111. John Haynes 
Holmes, Editor: Curtis W. Reese, Managing Edi- 
tor; Board of Directors: Mrs. Salmon O. Levinson, 
President; Mrs. E. L. Lobdell, Vice President; 
Mrs. Irwin S. Rosenfels, Treasurer; Mrs. Francis 
Neilson (Helen Swift Neilson, daughter of the cap- 
italistic packer, Gustavus F. Swift, and sister of 
Harold Swift, pres. of the bd. of trustees of the 
Univ. of Chicago, where Communism is a recog- 
nized student activity); Mrs. Ella R. Nagely; Mrs. 
O. T. Knight; Mrs. Irwin Rosenfels; Mr. Curtis 
W. Reese; Miss Mathilda C. Schaff; Mrs. E. E. 
Smith; Mr. Francis Neilson; Secretary, May John- 
son; Editorial Contributors: W. Waldemar W. 
Argow; Dorothy Walton Binder (Wife of Carroll, 
editorial assistant to publisher of the Chicago Daily 
News, which urged recognition of Soviet Russia); 
Raymond B. Biagg; Edmund B. Chaffee; Percy M. 
Dawson (advisor in Alex Meikle John's ultra radical 
Experimental College at U. of Wis., 1927-29); 
Albert C. Dieffenbach (chmn. for Boston of the 
Fellowship of Faiths "Threefold Movement"); 
James A. Fairley; Zona Gale; A. Eustace Haydon; 
Jesse H. Holmes; Louis L. Mann; Jos. Ernest 
McAfee (of Union Theological Seminary, dir. for 
John Haynes Holmes Church of "community serv- 
ice" since 1924); Henry R. Mussey; Max C. 
Otto; Alson H. Robinson; Robt. C. Scholler; Clar- 
ence R. Skinner; Sidney Strong; Jabez T. Sunder- 
land (of Union Theol. Sem.; Pres. of various 
Indian Freedom Organizations); Arthur L. Weath- 
erly; James H. West. Poetry Editors: Lucia Trent, 
Ralph Cheyney. Foreign Representatives: Australia 
Chas. Strong; Austria Stefan Zweig; Bulgaria 
P. M. Mattheff; England Harrison Broun, Fred 
Hawkinson, Reginald Reynolds; France G. De- 
martial, Remain Rolland (Communist) ; Germany 
Theodor Hahn; India Rabindranath Tagore; 
Japan Nobuichire Imaoka; Palestine Hans Kohn; 
Russia Alina Huebsch. 



ADULT EDUCATION COUNCIL 

(of Illinois) 
See Chicago Forum Council. 

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

A communist T.U.U.L. Union; rec'd 
$3,000 from the Garland Fund; A. E. 
Sanchez, 1643 Lawrence St., Denver, Colo., 
organizer of beet workers ; Donald Hender- 
son, sec. 

ALL AMERICA ANTI IMPERIALIST 
LEAGUE 

(ALSO INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE 

AGAINST IMPERIALISM) 
AA.A.IXg. 

Name now is Anti Imperialist League, 
American section of Moscow's Interna- 
tional League Against Imperialism; an 
"All America" Communist subsidiary which 
in 1928 had 12 sections established in the 
U. S. and 11 Latin American countries 
spreading "vicious and false propaganda in 
Mexico, Central and South American 
countries against the United States, depict- 
ing this country as a big bully trying to 
exploit Latin America. This campaign has 
been successful in arousing hatred among 
Latin Americans against the United States" 
(U. S. Fish Report) ; it agitates against the 
Monroe doctrine and forms "Hands Off 
Committees" (see) to propagandize against 
U. S. interference whenever the Commun- 
ists are endangering American lives and 
property by stirring up trouble and revolu- 
tion in Cuba, China, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
etc. This propaganda is echoed by such 
A.C.L.U. affairs as the Committee on Cul- 
tural Relations with Latin America, Non 
Intervention Citizens Committee, National 
Citizens Committee on Relations with 
Latin America (see), etc. Works in close 
association, though not affiliated, with the 
Chinese Students Alliance (mid- west sec- 
tion), Conference for Filipino Indepen- 
dence, Monsang (Chinese Waiters Union of 
Chicago), Sun Yat Sen Society, etc. The 
official report of the Communist Party's 
convention held in Chicago Aug. 21-30, 
1925 (then called Workers' Party), where 
it was formed, stated: "Under the present 
Central Executive Committee the Worker's 
Party of America has for the first time 
made anti-imperialist work one of its basic 
activities the most important step in this 
direction being the successful organization 
of the All America Anti-Imperialist 



Organizations, Etc. 



103 



League The A.A.A.I.Lg. was endorsed by 

the Comintern and Profintern." (page 19). 
The Garland Fund, in 1927 and later, not 
only donated $1,500 to the A.A.A.I.Lg. it- 
self but spent thousands and thousands of 
dollars for "research work on imperialism" 
and appointed and paid "the Garland Fund 
Committee on American Imperialism" 
(see) for its efforts along this line; Roger 
Baldwin, a director of both Garland Fund 
and A.C.L.U., went with Wm. Pickens of 
the N.A.A.C.P., Richard Moore (director 
of Communist Negro work) and Com- 
munist Manuel Gomez, Nat. Sec. of the 
A.A.A.I.Lg., to Brussels, Belgium, in 1927 
as a delegate to the communist World 
Congress Against Imperialism, which or- 
ganized Moscow's International League 
Against Imperialism, the coordinating body 
of all communist Anti Imperialist League 
branches throughout the world. (Daily 
Worker, Mar. 9-22, 1927). This Congress, 
according to Baldwin, "was conceived by 
the same Communists and near-Commun- 
ists who were active in the International 
Workers' Aid, working in close cooperation 
with the European representatives of the 
Kuomintang party and the Mexican work- 
ers." 

The AAA.I.Lg.'s first official report 
stated that "direct contact with Mexico 
was maintained through the visits of Com- 
rades Johnstone, Gomez, and Lovestone to 
Mexico." Lovestone was then head of the 
Communist Party of the U. S. A., called 
then the "Workers Party." 

Paul Crouch, the Communist convicted 
of sedition in Hawaii, has been an active 
leader. He issued a manifesto in behalf of 
the A.A.A.I.Lg. printed in the Daily 
Worker Nov. 2, 1928. Communist Manuel 
Gomez, who first headed the A.A.A.I.Lg. 
as nat. sec. and acted as active organizer 
in 1927, was replaced in 1929 by Wm. 
Simons, who is still nat. sec. (1933), and 
Communist Scott Nearing became nat. 
chmn. The Chicago hdqts. were at 156 W. 
Washington St. with the Federated Press 
and units were established in large cities 
like New York, Chicago, San Francisco, 
etc. 

Soon after the recent Communist- 
fomented Cuban revolution broke out, the 
"Daily Worker" headlined "Hands Off 
Cuba" and Wm. Simons and a delegation 
visited Pres. Roosevelt to protest against 
the sending of warships to Cuba (Sept., 
1933). The Mar. 1933 issue of National 
Republic reported that about 150 members 
of the A.A.A.I.Lg. took part in a demon- 



stration of 1,000 Reds in New York City 
and paraded before the Chinese consulate 
to protest against the imprisonment in 
China of a Communist leader Huang Ping. 

Members of committees supporting Wash- 
ington, D. C. conference of A.A.A.I.Lg. 
(Daily Worker, Dec. 14, 1926) were: 

Clarence Darrow, Waldo Frank, Scott Nearing, 
Frank Weber (pres. Wis. Fed. Labor), Henry Tei- 
gan (sec. Minn. Farmer-Lab. Party), R. C. Wiggin 
(Asst. City Atty. Mpls.), Albert F. Coyle (ed. 
Locomotive Engrs. Journal), Rev. J. H. Holmes, 
Robt. W. Dunn, E. G. Flynn (nat. chmn. I. L. D.), 
Manuel Gomez, Jac Frederick (Machinists' Un.), 
Guy Anderson (Electricians Un.), Ernest Unter- 
mann (edtl. writer Milw. Leader), Wm. F. Dunne 
(ed. Daily Worker), Paul Jones (Fell. Recon. as- 
soc. dir.), Prof. Ellen Hayes (Wellesley Coll.), 
H. W. L. Dana, Robt. M. Lovett, Carl Haessler, 
Wm. Pickens (N. A. A. C. P.), Dorothy Gary 
(chmn. Minn. State Fed. Lab. ed. dept.), John 
Stockwell, Arthur Fisher (sec. Emer. For. Pol. 
Conf.), Ex-Cong. Clyde M. Tavenner (ed. "Philip- 
pine Republic"), Mike Gold (New Masses), V. F. 
Calverton (ed. "Modern Quarterly"), Ralph Chap- 
lin (I. W. W.), Rev. David Rhys Williams, Eliz. 
Glendower Evans, Lucia Ames Mead (W. I. L. P. 
F.), Wm. H. Holly, Prof. H. S. Bucklin (Brown 
U.), Justine Wise (Yale U. Law Sch.), John F. 
Markey (U. of Minn.), "Bishop" Wm. M. Brown, 
Cirilo Mavat (Filipino Assn. of Chgo.), Marx 
Lewis (sec. to Cong. Victor L. Berger). Lawrence 
Todd (Wash. corr. Fed. Press), Rev. Sidney Strong 
(Seattle). 

The Daily Worker, April 18, 1928, stated 
concerning an A.A.A.I.Lg. conference: 

"The Conference voted unanimously for the im- 
mediate formation of a permanent All-America 
Anti-Imperialist League branch to be composed of 
the organizations present. The provisional execu- 
tive committee with many additional names was 
made the permanent executive of the Chicago 
League with William H. Holly as chairman, Ray 
Koerner as vice-chairman and Harry Cannes as 
secretary. 

"The complete committee of the Chicago All- 
America Anti-Imperialist League is as follows: 
Anacleto Almanana, Filipino Association of Chi- 
cago; Zonia Baber, chairman, Pan-American Rela- 
tions Committee, Women's International League 
for Peace and Freedom; John Bielowski, United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, Local No. 
1367; Clarence Darrow, lawyer and publicist; 
Henry Duel, League for Industrial Democracy; 
Arthur Fisher, Secretary, Emergency Foreign Policy 
Conference; Harry Cannes; A. Cans, Jewish 
Marxian Youth Alliance; Alice Hanson, secretary, 
Chicago Liberal Club; Sam Herman, Young Work- 
ers (Communist) League; Lillian Herstein, Teach- 
er's Union; William H. Holly; T. Y. Hu, Sun Yat 
Sen Lodge 492 ; Peter Jenson, pres. Machinists 
lodge 492; Arnulfo E. Jimenez, Sociedad Mutulista; 
Benito Juarez; Ray Koerner, secretary Boilermakers 
Lodge 626; Dr. John A. Lapp; Prof. Robert Morss 
Lovett, associate editor, New Republic; C. J. Mar- 
tell, Chicago Watch and Clock-makers Union; 
Walter Rienbold, president, Boilermakers 626; F. 
Scriben, Filipino Workers Club; Mordecai Schu 1 - 
man, Workmen's Circle 516; Arne Swabeck, Paint- 
ers Union; Otto Wangerin, editor, Railroad Amal- 
gamation Advocate; Dr. David Rhys Williams." 

The official organ (1933) is "Upsurge"; pub. by 
Wm. Simons; editor is Martin Kaye. Hdqts. 90 
East 10th St., N. Y. City. 



104 



The Red Network 



The letter-head, 1928, lists: 

"Secretary, Manuel Gomez; National Committee: 
Clarence Darrow, James H. Maurer, Alexander 
Howat, Roger Baldwin, Socrates Sandino, Charlotte 
Anita Whitney, H. H. Broach, Lewis S. Gannett, 
Harriet Stanton Blatch, Scott Nearing, John Brophy, 
William Blewitt, William Mahoney, S. A. Stock- 
well, William Z. Foster, Paxton Hibben, W. E. B. 
Du Bois, William Pickens, L. J. De Bekker, Louis 
F. Budenz, Robert W. Dunn, Albert Weisbord, 
Robert Morss Lovett, Arthur Garfield Hays, Pablo 
Manlapit, Ben Gold, Anacleto Almanana, Freda 
Kirchwey, Lillian Herstein, Hugo Oehler, Max 
Schachtman, Harry Cannes, Arthur C. Calhoun, 
Fred T. Douglas, Ernest Untermann, William F. 
Dunne, Harriet Silverman, Eduardo Machado, P. 
T. Lau. National office, United States Section 
39 Union Square, New York City." 

The International League Against Im- 
perialism, the parent organization, has 
branches in all parts of the world and is 
Moscow's agency for spreading revolution- 
ary doctrines among colonial peoples. It 
urges those still primitive peoples who are 
now united with and defended by strong 
civilizing powers such as the U.S., England, 
Holland and France, to throw off "foreign 
imperialism" in order that they may more 
easily be captured piecemeal for Moscow 
imperialism an imperialism which by 
comparison with the modern, liberal, so- 
called "imperialism" of the nations it 
attacks is like a penitentiary reform school 
compared with a Montessori Kindergarten 
(where freedom of "self expression" for 
each little personality is the rule). It not 
only urges the Philippines to break away 
from United States "imperialism," and 
Latin America to throw off the Monroe 
Doctrine, but it tries to persuade the citizens 
of all ruling countries that civilizing and 
keeping order in savage countries is brutal 
bullying "imperialism" on the part of their 
governments and that they should urge 
their governments to keep "Hands Off" 
regardless of danger to the lives or property 
of other nationals. Communist sympa- 
thizers naturally help this propaganda 
along. 

Willi Muenzenberg, German Communist, 
has been its head or international secretary. 
Bertrand Russell has been head of the Eng- 
lish section and Henri Barbusse, French 
Communist, head of the French section. 
Albert Einstein, Mme. Sun Yat Sen 
(China), Upton Sinclair, Willi Muenzen- 
berg, Maxim Gorki (U.S.S.R.), Sen. Kata- 
yama, artist Diego Rivera (then mem. 
cent. com. Communist Party of Mexico), 
Prof. Wm. Pickens, James Maxton of Eng- 
land, with various Negro and Asiatic Com- 
munist leaders from all parts of the world 
were photographed and featured as mem- 
bers of the League presidium and leaders 



of the Leagues' Anti-Imperialist World 
Congress held at Frankfort-on-Main, July 
20, 1929, by the Communist organ "Illus- 
trierte Arbeiter Zeitung" (of Berlin) 
(reproduced also in Hartley's "T.N.T."). 

The World Congress against War (Am- 
sterdam 1932), U.S. Congress against War, 
Student Congress against War (see) and 
their various off-shoots Anti-War Com- 
mittees, etc., etc., are controlled by the 
League Against Imperialism and its various 
leaders. See its Intl., American and Chi- 
cago Committees for Struggle Against War, 
Hands Off Committees, Mexican Propa- 
ganda. 

ALL WORLD GANDHI FELLOWSHIP 

Headed, since 1929, as president, by John 
Haynes Holmes; a radical pacifist organ- 
ization upholding "pacifist" Gandhi, whose 
agitations resulting in strikes, murder and 
violence, are so useful to Moscow; closely 
related to the Threefold Movement Union 
of East and West, League of Neighbors 
and Fellowship of Faiths (see) ; sponsors 
"Fellowship Center," opened 1933 as a 
"House of Retreat" for pacifists under the 
management of Wm. H. Bridge, at Crow 
Hill Road, near Mt. Kisco, New York. 

AMALGAMATED BANKS 

Of New York and Chicago, operated by 
the Amalgamated Cloth. Workers Unions; 
agents for Soviet American Securities 
Corp., which sells bonds of the Soviet 
government. 

AMALGAMATED CLOTHING 

WORKERS OF AMERICA 
Amalg. Cloth. Wkrs. of Am. 

A pro-Soviet labor union of about 
100,000 members organized, according to 
Jane Addams' book, at Hull House; "Like 
all other subversive organizations its tac- 
tics are those of the class struggle. Its 
ultimate object is to take possession of the 
industry. It has gained control of the 
clothing industry in the State of N.Y. and 
in many other of the industrial centers" 
(Lusk Report) ; formed by Socialist dele- 
gates, excluded because of extreme radical- 
ism from the A.F. of L. United Garment 
Workers Union convention Oct. 1914, who 
then constituted themselves a separate 
organization under Sidney Hillman, using 
the same name until legal action by the 
United Garment Workers forced them to 
choose a new name, Dec. 1914; formed 
Russian-American Industrial Corp. to aid 
and finance clothing industry in Russia; 



Organizations, Etc. 



105 



celebrate the Communist Labor Day May 
1 (A.F. of L.'s is in Sept.) ; predominantly 
Jewish; anti-American during the war; 
closely affiliated with Amalg. Textile Wkrs. 
and Intl. Ladies Garm. Wkrs.; official 
organ "Advance." Hdqts. address: Jos. 
Schlossberg, 11 Union Square, N.Y. (See 
Intl. Ladies Garment Wkrs.) ; joined with 
A.F. of L. 1933. 

AMALGAMATED CLOTHING 
WORKERS INDUSTRIAL UNION 
A Communist labor union; part of 
T.U.U.L. 

AMALGAMATED TEXTILE 
WORKERS OF AMERICA 
Amalg. Textile Wkrs. 

"An industrial union under the domi- 
nation of the Socialist Party and having 
a revolutionary objective is the Amalg. 
Textile Wkrs. of Am. This organization is 
an outgrowth of the Lawrence, Mass, strike 
in 1919, which was promoted and assisted 
by the Amalg. Cloth. Wkrs. of Am. The 
relationship therefore ... is very close . . . 
the principal agent sent there for that pur- 
pose was Paul Blanshard" (pp. 947, 951, 
Lusk Report) . "Wm. Z. Foster attended the 
first Congress of the Red Trade Union 
Intl., at Moscow, in June 1921, as a repre- 
sentative of the Amalg. Textile Wkrs. of 
Am." (Whitney's "Reds in Am.") 

AM.-DERUTRA TRANSPORT 
CORPORATION 

Official Soviet shipping agency; trans- 
port agents of Amtorg. 

AMERICAN ANTI-BIBLE 

SOCIETY, INC. 

Organized by 4A; Mr. Recht, who 
attended to the papers of incorporation, 
was the legal representative of the Soviet 
Govt. in this country (see N.Y. Herald- 
Tribune, Aug. 3, 1927); officers: pres., 
James I. Elliott; vice pres., O. H. Bailey; 
nat. sec., Wm. S. Bryan. It announces: 
"The object of the Am. Anti-Bible Soc. is 
to discredit the Bible. The budget for the 
first year calls for $83,000. Headquarters 
for Anti-Biblical Literature: If it's against 
the Bible we have it. Catalogue free on 
request"; 119 East 14th St., N.Y.C. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
ADVANCEMENT OF ATHEISM (4A) 

"The Fool hath said in his heart, There 
is no God." But the 4A, whose slogan is 



"Kill the Beast" (religion), says: "To Hell 
with compromise The 4A is here to ensure 
a complete job in the wrecking of religion. 
. . . Killing the Beast is rough work and 
those who are afraid of its claws might at 
least keep quiet. We shall ignore their wail- 
ings. We offer no apology for our tactics. 
We sneer and jeer at religion and shall con- 
tinue doing so until it is laughed out of 
existence. . . . The supernatural does not 
exist. There is no God. Religion deserves 
no more respect than a pile of garbage. 
It must be destroyed." 

Beneath this article on "Tactics" in the 
1929 Official Report of the 4A, appears 
the picture of the misguided youth, then 
national secretary of the Junior Atheist 
League of the 4 A, who has now returned 
to Christianity^Albert Dehner Bell. He 
tells me how he was drawn into Atheism 
and Communism by propagandists planted 
in the very Seminary in which he was 
studying for the ministry. 

A severe automobile accident which 
brought him to death's door and long 
semi-consciousness seemed also to bring to 
him the guilty consciousness of what he 
was doing. 

From Mar. 1929 to July 1931, he served 
as nat. sec. of the Junior Atheist League 
of the 4A, at the same time acting as N.Y. 
sec. of the Young Communist League 
under his Communist Party name (his 
own spelled backwards) of L. R. Trebla. 
During that time, he met many "Christian" 
ministers and others on the friendly terms 
of fellow opponents of Christ. ( !) His 
note book, kept to jot down the affiliations 
of office callers and correspondents, con- 
tains names which if published with proof 
should blow the lid off of certain Church 
organizations. He was shocked even before 
his conversion, he says, when a high official 
of the Federal Council of Churches (now 
serving openly on a communistic com- 
mittee) came in to his office and gave 
him, as secretary, a $50 donation for atheist 
Communist camps. 

He tells me that the 4A while main- 
taining its public offices and Atheist Book 
Store at 307 E. 14th St., N.Y.C., also 
maintains six floors of offices with unlet- 
tered doors at 347 Madison Ave.; that it 
has about 3,000 actual members, about 
500,000 contributors, and had an income 
of $2,200,000 in 1931, its official report of 
around $15,000 being the accounting only 
of its New York funds, as required of New 
York corporations. The 4A was incor- 
porated in New York in 1925. 



106 



The Red Network 



MISSIONARY WORK 

In conjunction with the World Union of 
Atheists, which it helped to form at Mos- 
cow 1931, it maintains atheist missionaries 
in various countries. The official 4A Re- 
ports say: "New Years day 1927 was sig- 
nalized by the sailing of our first foreign 
representative. On that day Mr. Edwin 
Bergstrom, who had organized a branch 
in British Columbia, left New York to 
spread the 4 A message in Sweden. A dele- 
gation was at the pier to see him off." 
The work of Chen Tsai Ting, 365 Hennessy 
Road, Hong Kong, and of Felix Borbon, 
director of the Spanish division, is also 
commented upon. The 1928 Report says: 
"We have established the Confederacion 
Americana del Ateismo with hdqts. in 
Mexico City. Nanni Leone Costelli, a man 
of extraordinary ability, already has done 
much in advancing Atheism. He is now 
organizing branches in all Central and 
South American countries. His address is 
Apartado Postal 1065, Mexico D. F., Mex- 
ico." . . . "We are pleased to have as a 
member Prof. Alphonse A. Herrera of 
Mexico City, director of Biological Studies 
of the Republic of Mexico and in charge 
of the National Museum. He has under 
his supervision a chimpanzee nearly old 
enough to be utilized in a hybridization 
experiment." (With a human, being). 
Elsewhere in the same Report: "To 
demonstrate the truth of Evolution and 
particularly to prove the kinship of man 
and ape a fund has been started to hybrid- 
ize the two by artificial fecundation. Mr. 
Geo. T. Smith has opened the fund with 
a $100 contribution." 

SOCIETIES FORMED 

These official Reports point with pride 
to the formation of many "Damned Souls 
Societies," "Liberal clubs," "Truth Seekers 
Societies," in high schools and colleges all 
over the U.S. The 1928 Report says its 
first "Damned Souls Society" was organized 
at Rochester University (N.Y.). The 
Junior Atheist League for high school stu- 
dents was established with many branches 
in 1927-8. The 4A divides the United 
States into areas. Each area has a director 
who is supposed to organize nuclei in 
schools of his area. The photo of Robert 
Conine, of Tulsa, appears in the 1930 re- 
port, for example, as director of the Fifth 
Area. 

Elated reports are made of the formation 
also of such sex and blasphemy societies 
as: the Thespian Society, an actors' guild, 



"to offset the Actors' Guild, a Catholic 
society"; Church Taxation League: "We 
must either tax ecclesiastical possessions or 
confiscate them"; Conception Control So- 
ciety, to "Conduct an aggressive propa- 
ganda for the repeal of Section 211 of the 
U.S. Penal Code and similar laws in 24 
States. . . . The next great battle will be 
for the elimination of venereal disease and 
greater sex freedom of which the Church 
has been and is the greatest enemy. . . . 
Free prophylactic stations should be main- 
tained in every city. Scientific sex instruc- 
tion should be given in every high school. 
There is ample room for another organ- 
ization opposed to ecclesiastical bigotry 
concerning sex." 

The Feb. 1928 Report stated: "The 
greatest achievement of the year was the 
founding in August by the officers of the 
Assn., together with other leading anti- 
religionists, of the American Anti-Bible 
Society. This new organization . . . has 
made a good beginning, and under the 
leadership of Tennessee's Grand Old Man, 
Wm. S. Bryan, historian and humorist, 
should soon make a laughing stock of the 
Christian fetish book, causing people to 
smile whenever it is named."; "Atheist 
Training School: The national office has 
established in New York a training school 
with meetings for the present once a week. 
Young men and women and boys and 
girls are given practise in public speaking 
. . . "; "Foreign Language Groups have 
been organized among the non-English 
speaking groups, such as the Russian, 
Lithuanian, Bohemian, which hold regular 
meetings." 

Virtually all branches conduct Forums, 
say the Reports; one at Communist Party 
hdqts. (see Red Army), 224 S. Spring St., 
Los A., Cal., having held meetings since 
1925. One of the best known of the Inger- 
soll Forums is in New York, "meeting in 
Pythian Temple (70th St., East of Broad- 
way) Sunday evenings the year round"; 
"The Atheist Society of Chicago under the 
direction of Mr. James E. Even ran two 
weekly forums during the past season." 
(One at Communist Party local hdqts., 
357 W. Chicago Ave.) "Regular meetings 
(Open Air) were held almost every week- 
day evening along Broadway (N.Y.) with 
a battery of speakers including Messrs. 
Smith, Teller, Bedborough, Murphy, Blan- 
chet, Wright, Mieler, Portal, Goldberg, 
Kewish, Goldsmith, Sklaroff, Peiser and 
others." (May 1932 Report). 

Phonograph records of parodies on 



Organizations, Etc. 



107 



hymns, atheist words to the tune of the 
International, etc. are made for the 4A 
and distributed by them. A gold "A" 
within a red five-pointed star on a back- 
ground of blue was adopted as the official 
4 A insignia in 1931. 

ATHEIST AIDS 

The A.C.L.U. is frequently mentioned as 
suing in behalf of, or cooperating with, the 
4A in suits. In the Anthony Bimba case 
(Communist Party functionary tried for 
blasphemy), the Garland Fund, A.C.L.U., 
and 4A all cooperated in his defense. 

The Socialist Debs Memorial Radio 
Station (W.E.V.D.) fittingly proved itself 
a true friend of Atheism, according to the 
Apr. 1929 Report: "We have outwitted 
the bigots and now broadcast regularly 
over Station W.E.V.D., New York (231.0- 
1300 K.C.), Saturdays, 6 P.M. The recent 
increase in this station enables us to reach 
a much larger audience. Because of our 
sending Atheism over the air through its 
transmitting plant, Franklin Ford of Sta- 
tion W.H.A.P. terminated his contract with 
Station W.E.V.D., which now has its own 
plant." The June 1930 Report says: "Mr. 
Kenneth Blanchet is the official broad- 
caster for the Association over Radio Sta- 
tion W.E.V.D., New York." 

ATHEIST LITERATURE 

"Tons of tracts" are sent out. The June 
1930 Report says: "At the last printing 
of leaflets and folders, a total of 300,000 
copies was run off. Previous to that and 
during the year 1929 we had printed 50,000 
copies of 'Uncle Sams Mistress' " (the 
Church), "100,000 copies of 'Read With- 
out Fear,' 20,000 copies of 'What is 
Religion?'" 110,000 copies of "The Bible 
in Balance" were sold. "Most of this 
literature is sold to members and friends 
at cost or less than cost and by them given 
away. . . . Now that we have a ground 
floor store on one of the city's busiest 
streets a considerable number of leaflets 
and folders is given away each day to 
passersby who are invited by a large sign 
to help themselves." 

Atheist literature specializes in obscen- 
ity. The title of an article in the Apr. 
1929 Report is "The Cohabitation of 
Church and State." "Uncle Sam's Mis- 
tress," the leaflet mentioned above, says 
in part: "The Church calls herself the 
bride of Christ. But as he does not sup- 
port her, she is forced into dishonorable 
relations. This kept woman of the State 
is supposed to repay those from whom 



the State collects money by looking after 
their morals. But what is the conduct of 
the Church worth as a moral example? 
We might as well hire one of those females 
called gold-diggers to train our daughters 
in virtue." 

The same Report reprints from its 4A 
organ "Truthseeker" two items which had 
aroused opposition from a minister. One, 
an obscene birth control suggestion for 
government supervised prostitutes, another 
a "Holy Ghost joke" which is typical of 
the atheist anti-religious literature of Jos. 
Lewis and his ilk: "A very pious young 
lady had died and had gained admittance 
into heaven. Saint Peter took her around 
and presented her to God, Christ and 
various other notables. Being left alone, 
she strolled around and admired the scen- 
ery, but noticed she was being followed 
by a very small, mean looking fellow, who 
kept bowing to her and was evidently try- 
ing to 'pick her up.' Much alarmed, she 
ran back to St. Peter, told him what had 
happened, and asked him who this little 
fellow could be. Looking up and seeing 
who it was, Peter replied: 'Oh, that's the 
Holy Ghost, but we don't introduce him 
to ladies since he had that little affair with 
the Virgin Mary.'" This draws a picture 
which reminds one of the blasphemous 
Soviet cartoons of Christ and the Holy 
Ghost which fill Russian Churches (see 
Proletarian Party). 
BEFRIENDING BLASPHEMY AND COMMUNISM 

Under the heading "Hypocrites Howl 
About Russia," the June 1930 Report tells 
how President Smith of the 4A, in defense 
of Soviet Russia's persecution of Chris- 
tians, addressed an audience of 15,000 at 
the N.Y. Coliseum, Mar. 16, 1930. 

"The First Annual Trial of God A 
Blamegiving Service held in New York 
Nov. 26, 1931, under the auspices of the 
4A, Inc., on the assumption for the day 
only that God exists. Blamegiving Day 
has been officially established by the Asso- 
ciation as a day of protest against Thanks- 
giving services. ... It is hoped and ex- 
pected many such services will be held 
in each State of the Union next Blame- 
giving Day and in coming years until 
Thanksgiving is abandoned." A parody of 
the Lord's Prayer to be said in unison 
follows and a Modern Doxology of nu- 
merous verses beginning: "Blame God 
from whom all cyclones blow, Blame 
Him when rivers overflow, Blame Him who 
swirls down house and steeple, who sinks 
the ship and drowns the people," and 
ending: "For clergy who with hood and 



108 



The Red Network 



bell, Demand your cash or threaten hell, 
Blame God for earthquake shocks, and 
then, Let all men cry aloud, 'Amen.' " 

The report of the mock trial for 1931 
follows, in which God is called "Public 
Enemy No. 1." Woolsey Teller opened 
it saying: "I am sorry to announce that 
God cannot be with us this afternoon . . . 
as there is a law in N.Y. state against his 
personal appearance on the platform. His 
son, Jesus, is absent also peacefully being 
digested in the stomachs of those pious 
persons who ate him this morning at early 
mass. We can picture Jesus today as being 
mixed up with turkey and cranberry 
sauce"; etc., etc. A verdict of guilty was 
rendered against God for his malevolence 
and another such trial was held 1932. 
"When recently the Ingersoll Forum, our 
N.Y. branch, announced that in a lecture 
by Mr. Woolsey Teller on ' Crazy Jesus' 
the Atheist would impersonate the New 
Testament character, the more clearly to 
demonstrate the absurdities of his actions 
and teaching, we were warned by our 
lawyer that representation of the deity of 
a religious sect is prohibited in this State." 
(1930 Report). 

CHRISTIAN SERMONS FROM ATHEISTS 

There is much food for thought on the 
part of Christians in the following dis- 
sertations taken from 4A Reports on the 
"Church Drift to Atheism." Ironically 
enough, they are powerful sermons from 
Atheists. 

"The religious forces have cause for 
alarm. Divided by internal strife, they 
possess neither the power nor the courage 
to expel heretics. Christians cannot agree 
upon anything except their name. Protes- 
tantism is breaking up, and whenever its 
adherents attempt to cooperate with 
Catholics they get a slap in the face." 

Atheism in America today may be 
likened unto a huge iceberg, of which the 
visible peak is but a small part of the 
submerged mountain. 

"Churches are becoming secular, preach- 
ing anything except the oldtime orthodox 
religion. They are becoming social centers 
with just enough of nominal religion to 
escape taxation. Sermons on books are 
more popular than those on the barbaric 
doctrine of the Atonement. The Clergy- 
men are bewildered. They do not know 
what to preach. Evolution explodes their 
doctrines. They are declining in number 
and quality. Church leaders now even 
oppose missionizing the Jews, thereby con- 
fessing, in effect, that Christianity is only 
a religion, not the religion." 



"The clergy are so honeycombed with 
heretics that they are powerless to expel 
known heretics. The only real cleavage is 
between the Modernists and Fundamental- 
ists. They cannot force the issue in their 
conventions and they dare not withdraw 
from the denominations. Most college 
graduates are godless. The number of 
churches is increasing in which the mono- 
logue called prayer is omitted." (Apr. 
1929.) 

"The spread of Atheism was never faster. 
It is not measured by the growth of Atheist 
groups but by the decline of religious 
belief as a controlling factor in the lives 
of men. The drift of the age is away 
from religion." (Is this the "falling away" 
and "spiritual wickedness in high places" 
prophesied for the era before Armaged- 
don?) 

"This loss of faith causes consternation 
among the Orthodox, who are powerless 
to arrest the movement. The reconcilers, 
the Liberals and the Modernists are 
heroically saving the ship of Christianity 
by throwing her cargo overboard. With 
what zeal the Fosdicks, the Matthews and 
the whole crew of rescuers toss out, first 
the Garden of Eden and the Flood, fol- 
lowed by the Virgin Birth, Atonement, 
and the Resurrection. Then they gain a 
victory by getting rid of Hell and Heaven 
and of the Devil and God, tho with much 
ado they keep the name of the last. They 
may save the vessel of ecclesiasticism, but 
how long will man sail the seas in an 
empty ship? They will go ashore and 
enjoy life with the Atheists. We wel- 
come the aid of the Modernists and pledge 
them our fullest cooperation in ridding the 
world of Fundamentalism of any serious 
acceptance of Christian theology." 

"The supreme literary honor was con- 
ferred last year upon an avowed Atheist, 
when the Nobel Prize was given to Sin- 
clair Lewis, author of 'Main Street' and 
'Elmer Gantry' ... a terrific indictment 
of evangelical religion." (Apr. 1931 
Report). 

"There is much Atheism in the Church. 
Heresy is rampant among the clergy, a few 
of whom openly express their rejection 
of religious dogma, without fear of expul- 
sion. Even the Methodist Church now 
tolerates clergymen, such as the Rev. 
James Hardy Bennett of N.Y., who preach 
that Jesus was physically the son of 
Joseph and Mary, who told the Virgin 
story to shield themselves." (Feb. 1928) 
"... Why do these men stay in the pulpit? 
Some of them must stay or starve. They 



Organizations, Etc. 



109 



know no trade. Among them are Atheists 
and even members of the 4A." A letter 
is then quoted from an atheist minister 
wishing to leave the ministry with this 
comment: "If any member or friend will 
contribute $200 for the special purpose of 
freeing this prisoner of the pulpit, the 4A 
will liberate him and announce his name." 

"Most denominational schools are hot- 
beds of heresy, as it is impossible for any 
educational institution to maintain any 
degree of dignity without teaching Evo- 
lution which inevitably undermines religion. 
These schools, even when controlled by 
Fundamentalists, are often compelled to 
employ Infidels, who are hypocrites from 
necessity. Members of the 4A are teach- 
ing in Catholic and Fundamentalist Col- 
leges." 

"The growth of what is called Human- 
ism, together with the establishment of a 
few churches and societies for its propa- 
gation, caused considerable discussion dur- 
ing the year. However much Humanists, 
for reasons of expediency shun the title 
'Atheist,' they are Godless. Consequently, 
we welcome their aid in overthrowing 
Christianity, and all other religions based 
on the supernatural." (June 1930 Report). 

"There is a marked increase in the use 
of the word Atheist to designate the 
opponent of religion. The change is for 
the better. Atheist is the logical title for 
whoever has no god. Formerly for weighty 
reasons the titles of Liberal, Rationalist 
and Freethinker were adopted because of 
their uncertainty of meaning. . . . Under 
cover timid Atheists are helping to under- 
mine religion by demanding a new con- 
cept of God. These critics profess to be 
searching for the true God. They might 
as well search for the true witch or a 
true hobgoblin." 

"Modernism is unworthy of serious 
notice. It is intellectual mush, a disgusting 
mass of figurative language. . . . The down- 
fall of Christianity is presaged by the 
passing of Hell which inevitably drags 
Heaven with it, since the two have the 
same foundation. If the one is figurative, 
so is the other." 

"Much as we dislike Modernists because 
of their illogical compromising, we must 
recognize that for many Modernism is but 
a stopover on the road to Atheism. Per- 
haps we should have a little more patience 
with these our weaker brothers who are 
unable to go straight from Orthodoxy to 
Atheism without resting at the camps of 
Liberalism along the way. Modernism be- 
ing no abiding place for a reasoning mind, 



some of them will yet arrive. For the 
present we should train our guns prin- 
cipally on such religious standpatters as 
the Roman Catholic Church and the 
Protestant hotbeds of Fundamentalism. 
The American Tract Society deserves spe- 
cial attention." 

"The Modernists seem to attack Atheism 
only to screen their own unbelief. No 
better proof of our contention that the 
Church is losing ground can be given than 
that the Modernists are now in control of 
all the larger Protestant denominations 
and, working from the inside, discredit 
the basic teachings of Christianity in the 
name Christianity. ... we now hear of 
that absurdity, 'a creedless faith' of per- 
sons who believe, without believing any- 
thing. Thus Christianity slowly dissolves. 
But the good work of Modernists not only 
does not lessen the need of Atheist propa- 
ganda ... the Advance Guard is always 
the most important unit in the army. We 
must continue to lead the way." (June 
1933 Report). 

"The Ten Demands of the 4A: 
(1) Taxation of church property. (2) Elimi- 
nation of chaplains and sectarian institutions from 
public pay rolls. (3) Abrogation of laws enforcing 
Christian morals and restricting the rights of Athe- 
ists. (4) Abolition of the oath in courts and at 
inaugurations. (5) Non-issuance of religious proc- 
lamations by chief executives. (6) Removal of 'In 
God We Trust' from coins and the cross from 
above the flag. (7) Exclusion of the Bible as a 
sacred book from the public schools. (8) Sup- 
pression of the bootlegging of religion through dis- 
missing pupils from religious instructions during 
school hours. (9) Secularization of marriage, with 
divorce upon request. (10) Repeal of anti-evo- 
lution and anti-birth-control laws." 

"The Five Fundamentals of Atheism: 
(1) Materialism: The doctrine that Matter, 
with its indwelling property, Force, constitutes the 
reality of the universe. (2) Sensationalism: The 
doctrine that all ideas arise out of sensation, and 
that, therefore, man can have no conception of 
an infinite God, or of ultimate causation, or that 
absolute moral imperative which certain philoso- 
phers have made the foundation of Theism. (3) 
Evolution: The doctrine that organisms are not 
designed, but have evolved, mechanically, through 
Natural Selection. (4) The existence of Evil: The 
patent fact that renders irrational the belief in a 
beneficent, omnipotent being who cares for man. 
(5) Hedonism: The doctrine that happiness here 
and now should be the motive of conduct." 

The Report of May 1932 (officers same 
in 1933) lists: 

Officers: Pres., Chas. Smith, Vice Pres., Woolsey 
Teller; Gen. Sec., Freeman Hopwood; Treas., 
Freda Rettig; Board of Directors: O. H. Bailey, 
Ohio; Geo. Bedborough, N.Y.; Wm. S. Bryan, 
Mo.; Louis J. Bergson, Pa.; Felix Borbon, Mich.; 
John A. Bremner, Wash.; Ira D. Cardiff, Wash.; 
Stanley J. Clark, Okla.; J. Howard Cummins, 
Tex.; N. Louis Dorion, N.Y.; Mary E. Elliott, 
N.Y.; Howell S. England, Mich.; James E. Even, 



110 



The Red Network 



NATIONAL COMMITTll 
CMAILIS F. AumoH 
HAUT Eum B**NOi 
HKWUT S. BKILOW 
EDWIN M. BOCCNACD 
RiCMAto C CAMY 
JOHNS. COMIAN 



Sfxerh 



AttenMtgt 



JOHN D^wrn 
JAMU H. DiLLAto 
ROUIT W. DUNN 



EUZAMTH GiXMDowra EVAN* 
JOHN F. F ::ai T 

EuXAMTH GUILKV FlVW 
WLTBH FtANK 
FLU FtANKFUUIB 

EtKtr FIIUHD 
KAT CBANS CKMTL 
NOMIAN HAMOOO 
PowmHAPOOoo 



JOHN HAVND HOLV 
FuonicCHowi 



Gioci W. KIKMWBT 
JOHN A.Uw 
JUUA C LATKM 



AITHUI LcSutu* 
Htmv R. LINVILL 
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MABY E McDovELL 



Hirnr R. Munav 
A. J. Musn 

WALTM NELLBS 
WILLIAM L. NUNM 
JUUA & OtToNNOt PAM 



AMOI PINCHOT 
JIAHMBTTI RAMUM 
EOVAW A. ROM 



JOHN A. RTAN 
JOMH N.VIH SATM 
WILLIAM SCABUTTT 
JotpM SCMLOSSOSWS 
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AMA HU.LB. Sitvn 
JOHN F. 



No4AN M. THOUAI 
EDWAU> D. TiTIMANW 
MILL* R. TUMWU. 
WM.UAM S. (JRw 
OCWALO GAUIMN 
B. CNAM^T VLAO 
OAB> W 



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American Civil Liberties Union 

100 Fifth Avenue. New York City 



February 27, 1932. 



orrtcEu 

Ch*t 
HAM. F. WAU 



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JAUBJ R MAum 

FMMONTOlMDI 

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Roan N. BALDWIN 
FOMMT BAILBT 

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ABTMUI GAIFULD HAV* 
MonL.EMr 

Ktttach Sttrtttn 
l.ucn-u B. MILND 



To the members of the Senate and 
House Immigration Committees. 

Gentlemen: 

We send you herewith a pamphlet in 
regard to a bill pending before you intended 
to carry into effect the opinion of Chief Just- 
ice Hughos in st case recently decided, 5 to 4, 
by the U.S. Supreme Court. Justice Hughes' 
opinion is set out almost in full. 

We trust that the proposed change 
in the law in accordance with Justice Hughes' 
opinion may have your support. 

Very truly yours, 



yr* 



EDMUND D. CAMPDIUL 

Attvnr,! -mj rerrtipom. 
Jtntt m ItfJing ciiin 



Cheirnan 



JHH/IE 
Enc. 



Facsimile of a letter typical of constant efforts of A.C.L.U. to influence legislation favored by radicals. 
Signed by John Haynes Holmes, acting Chairman while Harry F. Ward was in Russia. Note names of 

National Committee and Officers. 



Organizations, Etc. 



Ill 



III.; Linn Gale, B.C.; E. Haldeman-Julius, Kans. 
Robt. F. Hester, S.C.; John T. Kewish, N.Y. 
Geo. T. Marclay, N.Y.; Philip G. Peabody, Mass. 
M. A. Stolar, 111.; Walter Van Nostrand, N.Y. 
Clark H. Yater, N.Y. Organ: "Truthseeker," 49 
Vesey St., N.Y.; 4A Hdqts. 307 E. 14th St., 
N.Y. City. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
LABOR LEGISLATION 

Am. Assn. Lab. Legis. 

"There are doubtless many people who 
have contributed to the support of the 
Am. Assn. Lab. Legis. who are far above 
the charge of consciously desiring the suc- 
cess of a subversive movement. If we 
subtract these . . . there remains a large 
number who are prominently connected 
with the radical movement and in some 
instances indirectly with the Communist 
Party of America. ... It beseeches legis- 
lators for the adoption f social insurance 
by the state. To it we owe the present 
workmen's compensation laws which are on 
the statute books of the various states. 
Compulsory health insurance is a part of 
its legislative program. . . . 'En passant' 
it should be said that these measures were 
born of revolutionary Socialism in the dec- 
ade following 1860. The effect of its 
adoption means a lightening of responsibil- 
ity on the part of labor in the maintenance 
of a healthy, well balanced society, and 
quick adaptation of the working classes to 
the idea of dependency on the state. 
Samuel Gompers, at one time a member of 
the Am. Assn. Lab. Legis., resigned, repu- 
diating all its words and works. Social 
insurance legislation is class legislation and 
socialistic. . . . Among its conspicuous offi- 
cials are or have been in the past such 
well known radicals as Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, organizer and pres. Worn. Tr. Un. 
Lg. . . . her associates Miss Agnes Nestor 
and Miss Mary Anderson; the Rev. John 
Haynes Holmes, the radical pacifist, and 
his friend and co-worker Stephen S. Wise; 
Owen Lovejoy . . . Miss Lillian Wald . . . 
Miss Jane Addams . . . and a host of others 
of like thought. In general there is a 
mutual sympathy for the objects which 
this class of organizations desire to attain, 
an Interlocking personnel in the director- 
ates, and programs which dovetail into 
each other that suggest common inspiration 
and mutual financial resources. They pre- 
sent the appearance of a united front, and 
might be deemed the shock troops of an 
insinuating army of borers, whose province 
it is to wedge ignorant inertia aside and 
make room for advancing Communism. 
To call such organizations 'socialistic' as 



opposed to communistic is in reality a dis- 
tinction without a difference. These sys- 
tems differ in degree and not in principle." 
(Whitney's "Reds in America," p. 182); 
similar to A.A. for O.A.S.; hdqts.: John 
B. Andrews, 131 East 23rd St., N.Y. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
OLD AGE SECURITY 

AA. for O.A.S. 

Organized to promote old age pensions 
at the expense of state and nation, among 
the immediate objectives of the Socialist 
program which aims ultimately to put 
every possible human activity, as well as 
all property, under state (political) con- 
trol. (See Am. Assn. Lab. Legis.) Officers 
1931: pres., Bishop Francis J. McConnell; 
exec, sec., Abraham Epstein; treas., Nicholas 
Kelley; exec, com.: Eliz. Gilman, Agnes 
Brown Leach, Mary K. Sinkovitch, 
Stephen S. Wise; vice presidents: Jane 
Addams, Herbert S. Bigelow, Edw. T. 
Devine, Glenn Frank, John A. Lapp, James 
H. Maurer, Wm. A. Neilson, I. M. Rub- 
inow, John A. Ryan; hdqts.: Abraham 
Epstein, 22 East 17th St., N.Y. 

AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL 
LEAGUE 

Interaligns with the atheist movement; 
cooperates with other radical groups; aid- 
ed by Garland Fund; pres., Margaret San- 
ger. 

AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 
A.C.L.U. 

"FREE SPEECH" 

"Your actions speak so loud I can't 
hear what you say!" said Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, and this quotation exactly fits 
the A.C.L.U., which says it is a non-com- 
munist organization interested only in 
maintaining the rights of "free speech, free 
press and free assembly as guaranteed by 
the Constitution of the U.S." while drown- 
ing out its words by its actions. Any 
one who has taken the trouble to investi- 
gate what the A.C.L.U. is and does, knows 
that it is directed by Communist and So- 
cialist revolutionary leaders and their sym- 
pathizers, and that it works untiringly to 
further and legally protect the interests of 
the Red movement in all of its branches 
Red strikes, Atheism, sex freedom, disarm- 
ament, seditious "academic freedom," de- 
portation and exclusion of Reds, rioting, 
etc., constantly supporting and cooperating 
with Moscow's open legal defense agency, 



112 



The Red Network 



the I.L.D., for this purpose. It plays the 
"white collar" role in the movement. 

One is amused at the A.C.L.U. high- 
brow appeals, its constant cries for un- 
limited "freedom of speech" for Reds "as 
guaranteed by the Constitution," which 
the Reds aim to destroy, while at the same 
time it is suing for libel, patriotic anti- 
Red defenders of this Constitution who 
make comparatively petty criticisms of its 
own members. 

The sort of "freedom of speech" defended 
by the A.C.L.U. seems to cover the Red's 
right to conduct a libelous, obscene, and 
seditious press against our American gov- 
ernment and its loyal supporters, the right 
to not only advocate sedition, violence and 
murder but to commit these deeds as well, 
for after a Red commits these crimes the 
A.C.L.U. redoubles its efforts to secure his 
release. The statement of Tom McKenna, 
a busy little spectator at Communist riots 
and secretary of the Chicago A.C.L.U., 
that the Chicago Committee had devoted 
one day a week and reviewed some 1300 
cases, practically all Communist, in Cook 
County during 1932, taking part of these 
cases up with Police Commissioner Allman 
and filing suit in behalf of some, would 
indicate a more than mere theoretical 
interest in "free speech" on the part of the 
A.C.L.U. It is impossible to believe that 
A.C.L.U. bureaus and lawyers all over the 
United States are maintained at great 
expense for the purpose of fighting count- 
less legal battles in behalf of Reds merely 
because of a love for defending "free 
speech" for everyone including "those with 
whose opinions we disagree," particularly 
in view of the A.C.L.U. petty libel suits 
against Anti-Reds who actually dare to 
disagree with the A.C.L.U. 

The U.S. Fish Report says: "During the 
Gastonia strike there was a bloody con- 
flict between the communist-led workers 
and the police, in which the chief of police 
was shot and killed and two of his 
assistants wounded. Seven communists 
were sentenced to long terms in prison. . . . 
During the trial of the communists at 
Gastonia, not for freedom of speech, of 
the press, or assembly, but for conspiracy 
to kill the chief of police, the A.C.L.U. 
provided bail for five of the defendants, 
amounting to $28,500, which it secured 
from the Garland Fund. All of the defend- 
ants convicted jumped their bail and are 
reported to be in Russia. The $28,500 bail 
was forfeited, including $9,000 more ad- 
vanced by the International Labor De- 
fense" (Communist), 



Chief Aderholt was murdered by the 
Communists and the murder was planned 
three days before the event, yet the 1929- 
30 A.C.L.U. Report jauntily and brazenly 
says: "The only violence by strikers oc- 
curred in a shooting affray on the strikers' 
lot in Gastonia in which Chief of Police 
Aderholt of Gastonia was killed and one 
policeman and one striker were wounded; 
and at Marion where a few strikers were 
caught dynamiting private property with- 
out however injuring any person" (A mere 
trifle, of course, compared to bloody Red 
revolution). And this same Report adds 
with pride: "The Civil Liberties Union 
was active from the beginning of the 
trouble in the cases both at Marion and 
Gastonia." 

The N.Y. State Lusk Report says: "The 
American Civil Liberties Union, in the last 
analysis, is a supporter of all subversive 
movements; its propaganda is detrimental 
to the State. It attempts not only to pro- 
tect crime but to encourage attacks upon 
our institutions in every form." To this 
indictment, based upon barrels of incon- 
testable documentary proof, the A.C.L.U. 
leaders blithely answer: "O! the Lusk 
Report is discredited" (by the A.C.L.U.). 
Asked for proof, they have and offer none. 
Financed by the Red Garland Fund, the 
Reds campaigned while patriots slept and 
secured the repeal of the N.Y. State Crimi- 
nal Syndicalism Law which had been spon- 
sored by the Lusk Committee and since 
that repeal N.Y. has become one of the 
great centers of World revolutionary activ- 
ity. South American Communist work is 
controlled from N.Y. Meetings of 22,000 
Reds are held in N.Y. City nowadays. 

The U.S. Committee appointed by the 
71st Congress to investigate Communist 
Propaganda, headed by Hon. Hamilton 
Fish, officially reported Jan. 1931: "The 
A.C.L.U. is closely affiliated with the com- 
munist movement in the United States, 
and fully 90% of its efforts are on behalf 
of communists who have come into conflict 
with the law. It claims to stand for free 
speech, free press, and free assembly; but 
it is quite apparent that the main func- 
tion of the A.C.L.U. is to attempt to pro- 
tect the communists in their advocacy of 
force and violence to overthrow the gov- 
ernment, replacing the American flag by 
a red flag and erecting a Soviet Govern- 
ment in place of the republican form of 
government guaranteed to each State by 
the Federal Constitution." 

"Roger N. Baldwin, its guiding spirit, 
makes no attempt to hide his friendship 



Organizations, Etc. 



113 



for the communists and their principles. He 
was formerly a member of the I.W.W. and 
served a term in prison as a draft dodger 
during the war. This is the same Roger N. 
Baldwin that has recently issued a state- 
ment 'that in the next session of Congress 
our job is to organize the opposition to 
the recommendations of the Congressional 
Committee investigating communism.' In 
his testimony before the Committee he ad- 
mitted having said at a dinner in Chicago 
that 'the Fish Committee recommendations 
will be buried in the Senate.' " (And they 
have been, and are!) 

"Testifying on force and violence, mur- 
der, etc. the following is quoted: The 
chairman: Does your organization uphold 
the right of a citizen or alien it does not 
make any difference which to advocate 
murder? Mr. Baldwin: Yes. The Chair- 
man: Or Assassination ? Mr. Baldwin: 
Yes. The Chairman: Does your organ- 
ization uphold the right of an American 
citizen to advocate force and violence for 
the overthrow of the Government? Mr. 
Baldwin: Certainly; in so far as mere 
advocacy is concerned. The Chairman: 
Does it uphold the right of an alien in 
this country to urge the overthrow and 
advocate the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment by force and violence? Mr. Baldwin: 
Precisely on the same basis as any citizen. 
The Chairman: You do uphold the right 
of an alien to advocate the overthrow of 
the Government by force and violence: 
Mr. Baldwin: Sure; certainly. It is the 
healthiest kind of thing, of course, for a 
country to have free speech unlimited." 

Both Communist and Socialist Party 
platforms stand for this same unlimited 
"free speech" (for Reds) and so it seems 
very picayunish, to say the least, that 
Maynard C. Krueger, member of the So- 
cialist Party executive committee, should be 
suing, as is now reported, the Chicago 
Tribune for calling him a "jackass" and 
that the A.C.L.U. should be suing Mr. 
Jung of the American Vigilant Intelligence 
Federation for calling one A.C.L.U. mem- 
ber, Karl Borders (see Who's Who), a 
"propagandist of the Bolshevik murder 
regime" and John Haynes Holmes, another 
A.C.L.U. member, an "exponent of free 
love." If I believed the Constitution guar- 
anteed unlimited free speech to everyone 
to advocate force, violence and assassi- 
nation I would certainly not be so fussy 
as to sue anyone for using his Consti- 
tutional right to call me a mere "propa- 
gandist" or an "exponent" of an idea. 
Instead I would be flattered that he had 



not advocated boiling me in oil, cutting 
my throat, or assassinating me. Of course, 
every organization hews to its own line. 
Perhaps if those whom the A.C.L.U. sues 
would fall into line and advocate assassi- 
nating the A.C.L.U. and its members in 
cold blood, the A.C.L.U. would feel more 
sympathetic and be impelled itself to 
defend them (?). This would be an intri- 
guing and novel experiment for patriotic 
Americans who, ordinarily, consider murder 
and its advocacy a little out of their line. 
What possible interest could such Mos- 
cow-directed Communists as Wm. Z. Foster, 
Robt. W. Dunn, Scott Nearing, Anna 
Rochester, etc., etc. (who help direct the 
A.C.L.U.), have in merely promoting free 
speech for everyone, since their chosen 
career is to work for a Soviet United 
States barring free speech? The A.C.L.U. 
nicely explains this fight for "free speech" 
in its 1929-30 Annual Report, p. 5: "Our 
services are essential for whatever degree 
of tolerance we can achieve, and will be 
until a political and economic opposition 
arises strong enough to defend its own 
rights. . . . These early months of 1930 
have produced a larger crop of court cases" 
(for the A.C.L.U. to defend) "involving 
civil liberty than any entire year since the 
war. This is due to the wave of suppres- 
sion by officials of the militant activities 
of the Communist Party and left-wing 
strikes." In other words, under the guise 
of free speech, etc., by means of legal 
battles, revolutionary Communism-Social- 
ism must be defended until it gains power, 
and the large crop of A.C.L.U. cases was 
due to defense of Communist militant 
activities. "Minorites" is also a favorite 
A.C.L.U. term for revolutionaries. 

WHAT THE A.C.L.U. SAYS OF ITSELF 
One need not accept the conclusions of 
the U.S. Fish Report, N.Y. State Lusk 
Report, Better America Federation, or 
other expert reports concerning the A.C. 
L.U. One who carefully reads the daily 
newspapers or who reads the Communist 
press may gain constant evidence of A.C. 
L.U. activities in support of the Red move- 
ment. 

Doubting Thomases should read for 
themselves the official yearly Reports of 
the A.C.L.U. Since a 40-60 page pamphlet 
is required each year to report merely the 
outstanding cases handled by the A.C.L.U. 
and its branches in the United States, it is 
obvious that only a smattering of these 
can be given in this article. Each Report 
might easily have a volume written about 



114 



The Red Net-work 



its cases. Each case aids some phase of 
the Red program, while 90% are out-and- 
out Communist-defense cases. Patriotism 
is always sneered at by the A.C.L.U.; hence 
the 1931-32 Report is sarcastically entitled 
"Sweet Land of Liberty." To quote 
from it: 

"Among the professional patriots, the 
American Legion and the D.A.R. stood out 
as the most active inciters against pacifists 
and radicals." . . . "Local patriots continue 
to function, often to our annoyance. In 
Chicago the Vigilant Intelligence Federation 
continually prods the authorities to bring 
proceedings against Communists and sym- 
pathizers, but with much less open and 
reckless charges since libel suits were lodged 
against its secretary by John Haynes 
Holmes and Karl Borders" (filed by A.C. 
L.U. against H. A. Jung). 

"The professional patriots were particu- 
larly active in attacking in Congress the 
bill to admit alisn pacifists to citizenship 
and in pushing the bill for deportation of 
Communists as such. . . . John W. Davis 
of N.Y., former Ambassador to Great 
Britain, who served as Prof. Macintosh's 
personal counsel and who appeared before 
the Senate Committee to argue for a change 
in the law, was attacked by these organ- 
izations as unpatriotic, along with the other 
spokesmen at the hearing Bishop Francis 
J. McConnell of the Federal Council of 
Churches, Rabbi Edward L. Israel of Balti- 
more, and the Rev. Richard A. McGowan 
of the National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference." 

"Conflict between Communists, sym- 
pathizers, and the Philippine government 
continued, with prosecutions for sedition 
etc. The Civil Liberties Union has 
endeavored to aid at long distance and has 
lodged protests with the War Dept. at 
Washington and with the Philippine Govt. 
A representative of the Union in the Philip- 
pines, Willard S. Palmer, aids in cooperation 
with Vincente Sotto of Manila, Attorney 
for the Communists and their sympath- 
izers." Under "New Loans made 1931," is 
listed: to "Philippine representatives of 
Civil Liberties Union for defense of 
sedition cases $500," and under "Expendi- 
tures": "For defense of sedition cases in 
Philippines $571.50." (Good practical sup- 
port of "civil liberties," that!) 

Concerning these "civil liberties," a 1932 
New York Times dispatch (reprinted in 
Chgo. Tribune), headed "Rioting Spreads 
in Philippines; Revolt Feared Manila, 
P.I., May 19," said: "Unrest, rioting and 
the threat of a Communistic uprising in the 



northern Luzon provinces took a more 
serious turn today when Secretary of the 
Interior Honoris Ventura ordered provincial 
constabulary commanders at Bulacan, Pam- 
panaga and Nueva Ecija to report instantly 
at Manila to check the threatened danger 
in which arson and a general revolt is 
threatened. Fourteen Communists, con- 
victed of Manila sedition, free on appeal 
and assisted by the American Civil Liberties 
Union, are declared to be leading general 
agitation in Nueva Ecija which has already 
resulted in destruction of property of those 
refusing to join the movement. ..." etc. 

Perhaps the newly appointed Gov. of the 
Philippines, Ex-Mayor Murphy of Detroit, 
the Roosevelt appointee, will establish an- 
other record for non-interference with com- 
munists' "civil liberties" and relieve the 
A.C.L.U. of its tasks. The A.C.L.U. Re- 
port (p. 41) eulogizes Murphy saying: "A 
break in the year's record of Detroit under 
Mayor Frank Murphy's administration in 
no police violence against street meetings 
occurred in November while the Mayor was 
out of the city. Police attacked a Com- 
munist meeting at a point where they had 
been accustomed to assemble, but for which 
permits had been refused. Protests of the 
committee resulted in an order by the 
Mayor changing the system from permits 
to mere notification to the police, except 
at a few designated points." 

The A.C.L.U. cooperates with the 4 A 
and Freethinker Atheist societies in their 
attacks on religion. The destruction of 
religion is an objective of Socialism-Com- 
munism. Supposed ministers of Christ who 
serve on the A.C.L.U. boards must be un- 
decided as to which master they are serving. 
No minister could convince me that he can 
both be yoked together with atheist Com- 
munists and aid in filing suits for atheists 
and atheist Communists and be serving 
Jesus Christ. The letter of Joseph Lewis, 
the self-styled "Enemy of God," threaten- 
ing suit to stop Bible reading in N.Y. 
public schools appears in this book under 
"Freethinkers of America." The A.C.L.U. 
Report, p. 34, says: "An attempt to stop 
Bible reading in the public pchools through 
a suit in court was lost in N.Y. City when 
the Freethinkers of America raised the 
constitutionality of a charter provision of 
New York City." (which permits Bible 
reading in schools) . "The Civil Liberties 
Union supported the suit. The Court of 
appeals upheld the provision. A directly 
contrary provision in the constitution of 
the State of Washington prohibiting the 
reading of the Bible in the schools was sus- 



Organizations, Etc. 



115 



tained by the State Supreme Court and 
review was refused by the U.S. Supreme 
Court" (a triumph for the Atheists). 

The Atheist 4A Report of 1932 states 
that seven atheists in the New Jersey 
Levine case who refused to take an oath, 
since they deny the existence of God, were 
barred from testifying, and that the 4A 
and A.C.L.U. were sharing costs of an 
appeal. The A.C.L.U. Report under 
"Expenditures" lists: "Appeal in test case 
New Jersey on rights of atheists as wit- 
nesses $206.35." 

The Atheist 4 A Report for 1927-8 
(p. 11) said: "Last spring Meyer Konin- 
kow and Meyer Applebaum members of 
the Society of the Godless, the Greater N.Y. 
branch of the Junior Atheist League, wrote 
Miss Christine Walker, Nat. Sec. of the 
League, asking for her assistance in free- 
ing them from compulsory attendance at 
Bible reading in the high school assembly. . . 
Harold S. Campbell, Supt. of High Schools, 
refused to excuse Applebaum and on his 
remaining away expelled him. But a threat 
of Court action with the aid of the Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union recalled the 
school officials to their senses . . . they rein- 
stated young Applebaum. The victory 
reestablished a valuable precedent." 

The A.C.L.U. promised to send Arthur 
Garfield Hays to Little Rock, Ark., to 
fight against Arkansas anti-Atheist laws, 
says the 4A April 1929 Report. Also when 
the contract for use of the Huntington, 
West Va., auditorium for an Atheist lecture 
by Chas. Smith, Pres. of 4A, was cancelled, 
the A.C.L.U. wired protests, according to 
the 4A 1927-8 Report. "A Court Victory 
for Atheists" is the heading of the account 
in the 4A 1931-2 Report of the case won 
Mar. 23, 1932, "argued by Mr. Albert E. 
Kane of 381 Madison Ave., a rising young 
New York lawyer . . . who represented the 
American Civil Liberties Union" (Chas. 
Smith, Pres. of the 4 A, had been arrested 
for conducting Atheist street meetings with- 
out a permit). To quote: "As a result of 
our reopening the streets for Atheist propa- 
ganda numerous free lance speakers began 
holding anti-religious meetings of their 
own all over the city. This spread of Athe- 
ism caused the city authorities to attempt 
to suppress it by one of the most absurd 
prosecutions ever instituted." The A.C.L.U. 
Report also jubilates and lists under the 
heading of its "Gains": "6. Decision of 
Court of Appeals in New York that athe- 
ists' street meetings are not religious gath- 
erings within the meaning of the law and 
require no permit." 



In suits like this, as a 4 A Report said 
of a similar contest, "Not Mr. Smith, but 
Atheism is on trial." The A.C.L.U. rejoices 
and "Gains" when Atheism wins, evidently. 
Concerning violent Red revolutionary 
agitation in the Kentucky Coal fields, the 
A.CJL.U. Repart says (p. 26) : "The Civil 
Liberties Union early in the struggle in 
1931, raised money and aided the defense 
committees both of the I.W.W. and the 
International Labor Defense" (Communist). 
"The Civil Liberties Union sent into this 
district in July, 1931, Arnold Johnson, a 
Union Theological student, who after a few 
weeks of activity was arrested and held 
under bail on a charge of criminal syndical- 
ism." "The Union also took charge of a 
proposed damage suit by Tom Connors, 
I.W.W. organizer, against the sheriff of 
Harlan County. . . . Finally when repeated 
efforts to establish civil rights in the area 
had failed the Civil Liberties Union under- 
took a mission of its own. A party headed 
by our general counsel, Arthur Garfield 
Hays, announced its intention to go into 
Bell and Harlan Counties. The prosecuting 
attorney of Bell County at once countered 
with threats of violence to the party. The 
Union thereupon sought an injunction in 
the federal court in Ky. to restrain violence 
to the party. ... He denied the injunction, 
warned the party to stay out and held that 
Bell and Harlan Counties had a right to be 
'protected from free speech.' The Union 
has taken an appeal. The party made an 
effort to go into Bell County, but was 
blocked by force at the boundary. Mr. 
Hays, returning to the seat of the Federal 
court, sued the county officials for dam- 
ages" (Atty. Smith of Bell County chal- 
lenged the A.C.L.U., calling it an egotistical 
atheistic communistic menace, to dare 
spread their propaganda in Bell County. 
He said Bell Co. had as much right to 
be protected from Communism as it had 
from a mad dog. The A.C.L.U. so far has 
not dared pass him!). 

(p. 19) "The Civil Liberties Union works 
on the Mooney-Billings case from our 
office, and particularly this year through 
attorney Aaron Shapiro . . . spending some 
$1500 more than the A.C.L.U. raised 
toward his expenses" (for freeing the 
AnrtrrMct-Communist dynamiter Mooney). 
Jubilantly the A.C.L.U. lists as "Gain's": 
"The parole of two of the remaining six 
men in Centralia, Wash., I.W.W. case" 
(convicted of murdering six Legionnaires in 
an Armistice Day parade). Says the A.C. 
L.U.: "The State Board of Parole is evi- 
dently slowly releasing the men one by one 



116 



The Red Network 



in order not to arouse political opposition 
from the American Legion" (Harry Ward 
and Bishop McConnell, of both Federal 
Council of Churches and A.C.L.U., have 
long kept up a campaign for the release of 
these Reds). 

(p. 16) "The chief campaign in Congress 
revolved around bills aimed at aliens backed 
by the professional patriots. The fight cen- 
tered on registering aliens, on deporting 
Communists as such, and on the admission 
of alien pacifists to citizenship. The Civil 
Liberties Union mobilized its forces against 
the proposal to register aliens and to deport 
Communists as such, enlisting the support 
of well-known men and women through- 
out the country in opposition to both 
proposals. Neither has passed." (True 
enough. And where the alien registration 
law did pass, in Michigan, the newly- 
elected Atty. Gen. O'Brien, an A.C.L.U. 
atty., immediately aided in nullifying it.) 

The case of "Twenty-seven Communists 
arrested at Bridgman, Mich, on criminal 
syndicalism charges, and still awaiting 
trial" is listed under "Defense Cases Await- 
ing Trial in the Courts" (Atty. Gen. 
O'Brien after his election called these cases 
and aided in having them dismissed. About 
$100,000 in bond money which had been 
held by the State was thus released for the 
use of the Communist Party.) (See Bridg- 
man Raid.) 

The A.C.L.U. lists in its Report as 
"Issues Pending June 1932": its "Appeal 
from order upholding indictments against 
six Communist organizers in Atlanta, 
Georgia on charges of 'incitement to insur- 
rection' and 'distributing insurrectionary 
literature.'" (See "Nat. Com. for Defense 
of So. Political Prisoners," formed to defend 
them) ; its "Argument in the U.S. Supreme 
Court against the conviction of seven 
Negro boys at Scottsboro, Alabama" 
(Case being handled largely by the com- 
munist I.L.D. and used as Communist 
propaganda to incite Negroes against Amer- 
ican "justice" and government) ; its 
"Appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court to 
review the deportation order against Edith 
Berkman, National Textile Workers Union 
organizer" (a most virulent Communist 
organizer of a Communist union) ; its 
"Appeal from the conviction for sedition 
at Media, Pa. of two young Communists 
for a speech hi the 1931 election campaign"; 
its "Appeal from decision of Common 
Pleas Judge Wanamaker holding Ohio 
criminal syndicalism law constitutional 
in case of Paul Kassey." (This Hungarian 
Communist was caught, and admitted 



sabotaging the U.S. airship Akron. He was 
declared liable under the criminal syndical- 
ism law, which the Ohio Supreme Court 
later upheld, but in the meantime by some 
unknown means and unknown influence 
Kassey was not prosecuted and secured a 
passport and skipped the country in the 
Spring of 1933.) 

Among A.C.L.U. "Defense Cases Await- 
ing Trial in the Courts" listed are: "Twenty 
Philadelphia May Day demonstrators 
charged with inciting to riot, assault and 
battery, parading without permit, etc." 
(May Day, the Reds' labor day in cele- 
bration of the anarchists' Haymarket Riot, 
is a day of Communist violence.) 

"Kentucky coal miners and sympathizers 
for 'conspiracy to murder,' 'criminal 
syndicalism' and other charges." (Com- 
munists I.W.W.'s.) 

"Fifty-eight charged with riot and inciting 
to riot at Melrose Park, May 6th, 1932." 
(Communist riot called and advertised by 
the I.L.D. and carried out in defiance of 
the police. When the Reds attacked, the 
police shot several in the legs. The Chi- 
cago A.C.L.U. is also suing Melrose Park 
for injuring these Communists. The police 
undoubtedly did make a mistake in shoot- 
ing the Reds in the legs.) 

"Two members of the Young Commu- 
nist League, arrested in July, 1931 on 
sedition charges for distributing literature 
at Fort Logan military camp" (trying to 
make Red traitors of our soldiers). 

"Seven Communists indicted in Franklin 
County, 111. for criminal syndicalism in 
connection with coal strike activities." 

"Three Communists held for 'inciting 
to riot' at a demonstration at New York 
City Hall in April." 

"Two I.W.W.'s arrested in Ohio, June, 
1931, for criminal syndicalism for distribut- 
ing literature." 

Under "Damage Suits Handled Through 
the A.C.L.U." listed are: "Against the 
village of Melrose Park, 111. in behalf of 
nine persons shot by police on May 6th at 
a meeting."; "In behalf of Paul Brown, 
representative of the Unemployed Council" 
(Communist) "and his friend John Kaspar, 
against Chief of Police Cornelius J. O'Neill 
. . . "; "In behalf of Russian Workers 
Cooperative Association in Chicago. ..." 
(16 suits listed.) 

Activities in behalf of "Political Pris- 
oners" listed include: "Campaign for par- 
don of Tom Mooney and Warren K. 
Billings" (Anarchist-Communist dynamit- 
ers) ; "Parole of the four remaining Cen- 
tralia I.W.W. prisoners" (murderers of 6 



Organizations, Etc. 



117 



Legionnaires) ; "Pardon application for 
Israel Lazar, also known as t>ill Lawrence, 
sentenced to two to four years under the 
Pennsylvania sedition act"; "Pardon appli- 
cations for two Pennsylvania prisoners 
serving two-year sentences for 'inciting to 
riot' at Wildwood in the 1931 coal strike"; 
"Parole instead of deportation for Carl 
Sklar, Russian-born, and voluntary depar- 
ture to Russia for Tsuji Horiuchi, Imperial 
Valley, Calif, prisoners whose terms expire 
July 1932." (Sklar was a convicted Com- 
munist revolutionary agitator. A Japanese 
Communist deported to Japan would be 
jailed; hence the A.C.L.U. request for his 
"voluntary departure to Russia"). 

Exultantly, the A.C.L.U. lists under its 
"Gains" for the year: 

"Decision . . . permitting Tao Hsuan Li, 
Chinese Communist, and Guido Serio, anti- 
Fascist Communist, to go to Soviet Russia 
instead of to certain death or imprisonment 
in their home lands. Eduardo Machado, 
slated for deportation to Spain, also was 
granted voluntary departure to Russia." 

"Ruling of U.S. Judge Woolsey that Dr. 
Marie C. Stopes book 'Contraception,' is 
moral and can legally be imported ... the 
first book on specific birth control infor- 
mation admitted since 1890. The Courts 
overruled the Customs Bureau in admitting 
it. It cannot however be sent by mail." 

"The acquittal of Communists held in 
East St. Louis, arrested for meeting in pri- 
vate house, and the establishment of the 
right to hold Communist meetings with- 
out interference." 

"Final discharge of ten Communists held 
in Portland a year under the Oregon crimi- 
nal syndicalism law." 

"Frank Spector freed from prison, his 
conviction in Imperial Valley, Calif., strike 
criminal syndicalism case having been 
reversed." (Communist organizer.) 

"Defeat of bills sponsored by the D.A.R. 
in Mass, and Minn, for special oaths of 
loyalty by school teachers." (Reds do not 
wish to take an oath of loyalty to this 
government.) 

"Alabama Syndicalism bill designed to 
outlaw Communists rejected in Committee." 
(A "Gain" indeed for the Reds.) 

"Decision of New Jersey Vice Chan- 
cellor upholding rights of Communists to 
utter views." (No Red movement without 
Red propaganda is possible.) 

"Release of Theodore Luesse, Commu- 
nist, confined on an Indiana prison farm 
in default of $500 fine, for Unemployed 
Council activities." 

"Refusal of U.S. Supreme Court to re- 



view a case from Washington in which 
Bible reading in public schools was sought 
to be established." (No Bible reading, say 
the Reds.) 

The A.C.L.U. lists among its "Setbacks": 
"The violent police attacks on street 
demonstrations, Communist-led, before 
offices of the Japanese government in Chi- 
cago and Washington," but does not men- 
tion the fact that the only real violence 
in the Chicago Japanese consulate riot was 
the shooting by a Communist of thr ,e 
policemen merely performing their ducy 
in dispersing a Red army of rioters. The 
Reds were bent on violence against Japan- 
ese officials in protest against Japan's war 
on Communist China. Banners were car- 
ried saying "Defend the Chinese Revolu- 
tion," "Down with Japanese Imperialism," 
etc. Three policemen were seriously 
wounded by Communist "Chuck," who was 
given only two years in prison for this. 
I met one of the policemen recently who 
is still under treatment as the result of 
three vicious wounds inflicted by this Com- 
munist. The A.C.L.U. boasts that it has 
Chicago Police Chief Allman behaving 
nicely and considerately toward the Reds 
nowadays, so much so that some police- 
men are wondering which pays the best: 
to be the Red who smashes in Relief Sta- 
tions and yells for Red revolution and is 
treated as an innocent martyr by "leading 
Chicagoans" of the A.C.L.U. Committee, 
or to be the Police defender of law and 
order and be cut with razor blades, have 
red pepper thrown in one's eyes, have one's 
word discounted at Court, be sued for 
"roughness" to Communists by the A.C. 
L.U., and be shot by Reds, without receiv- 
ing thanks and without appropriate pun- 
ishment being given the Reds. No protest 
committee ever waits on Chief Allman 
when the Reds fracture a policeman's skull, 
as they do frequently. 

The legislative program of the A.C.L.U. 
is stated as: 

"1. To enact in each state a model anti- 
injunction bill along the lines of the new 
federal bill." (Sponsored by the A.C.L.U. 
It gives Red strikers freedom to make 
employers helpless.) 

"2. In New York State to repeal the 
moving picture censorship, the theatre pad- 
lock law" (allowing padlocking of a 
theatre for showing obscene plays), "to 
take away special police powers from the 
Vice Society" (why repress vice?), "and 
in Massachusetts to set aside free speech 
areas in public parks; to take away from 



118 



The Red Network 



Boston officials the power of censorship 
over meetings in private halls and over 
theatres." (Then Red, atheist and obscene 
affairs in parks and theatres could not be 
interfered with.) 

"3. In Pennsylvania, to repeal sedition 
act" (against Reds), "to take police out of 
strikes, to abolish the coal and iron police 
and to force the incorporation of company 
towns." (This would put Red strikers in 
power.) 

"Among other issues tackled by the Chi- 
cago Committee were the barring of minor" 
(Communist, etc.) "political parties from 
the ballot in Illinois, compulsory military 
training at the State University ..." etc. 
(Weakening national defense is a Red 
objective.) 

Significant indeed is the Report of the 
A.C.L.U. "Bail Fund" and "Expenditures." 
To quote: "Bonds amounting to $29,050 
were cancelled in 22 cases, 18 of which 
involved Communist defendants, and 4 
I.W.W.'s . . . Bail bonds amounting to 
$16,750 are still outstanding. $13,000 of 
these are placed on six defendants in the 
Atlanta, Ga. insurrection case. Of the 12 
persons now bonded, 8 are Communists, 
2 are members of the I.W.W. and 2 are 
independent of any affiliation." 

"Expenditures for the ordinary oper- 
ations of the Union were $25,300, against 
$24,808 the year previous." 

"Special Fund expenditures totaled 
$23,300. . . . $15,589 went to carrying the 
expenditures in excess of receipts of the 
three auxiliary organizations created by 
the Union, the National Mooney '-Billings 
Committee, the National Committee on 
Labor Injunctions, and the National Coun- 
cil on Freedom from Censorship. The 
remainder of the special funds outside of 
the specific grants from the American 
Fund for Public Service" (Garland Fund) 
"went into court cases." 

Under "Loans" are listed: to "General 
Defense Committee $500" (I.W.W.); to 
"International Labor Defense, national 
office $1518.30, Philadelphia office $450, 
Boston office $50." (Communist.) 

"Expenditures" for: "Cases of Ky. 
Miners and sympathizers, defense in court 
$1269.55." (Communists and I.W.W.'s) ; 
"Toward expenses of appeal to U.S. 
Supreme Court conviction of Yetta Strom- 
berg in the California anti-red flag law 
$263.25." (The leader of a Communist 
camp for children teaching sedition, athe- 
ism, etc., was convicted of displaying the 
Red flag) ; "Defense of National Miners 



Union members, West Va. $250." (Commu- 
nist union) ; "Court costs, deportation case 
against Guido Serio $526.95." (Commu- 
nist) ; "Suit against Glendale, Cal. police 
and American Legion $100" (for breaking 
up a Red Socialist's meeting) ; "For appeal 
from convictions of two Communist girl 
leaders at a Children's summer camp, Van 
Etten, N.Y. $71.35"; etc., etc., etc. 

Concerning its branches the A.C.L.U. 
Report states that: 

"In Pennsylvania, the work is organized 
on a state-wide basis with headquarters at 
Harrisburg, in charge of Allan G. Harper, 
state secretary, and local committees at 
Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and other centers. 
The committee tackles repression on many 
fronts by legislative act, public and pri- 
vate police and by local officials . . . The 
Committee won pardons for two men 
serving five-year sentences under the sedi- 
tion act. Other sedition convictions in 
which men are serving sentences will be 
taken before the board," etc. 

"In Seattle a local Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee was formed in 1931 with Edward E. 
Henry as secretary, and has since been 
active in efforts to get downtown meeting 
places and permits to parade for Commu- 
nist-led organizations . . . The Committee 
has participated in defense of deportation 
cases; . . . and has taken part in the 
movement to abolish compulsory military 
training at the state university." 

"In Cincinnati the local committee with 
Mrs. Mary D. Brite as secretary took 
part in the protest against the expulsion of 
Prof. Herbert A. Miller from the state 
university" (for radicalism) "and later had 
him as speaker at a meeting; has backed 
repeal of the criminal syndicalism law, and 
aided in obtaining dismissal of cases brought 
in Cincinnati under that law. A protest 
meeting against treatment of" (Commu- 
nist) "Kentucky coal miners was held. The 
attitude of the present City Manager of 
Cincinnati toward public meetings by 
radicals is such that no issue has arisen 
during the present year." (Nice man!) 

"A small committee was formed in 
Wash., D.C. to aid in work with Congress 
and the departments as occasion demands." 

"The Union continues to prepare a page 
for the monthly issues of the Arbitrator, 
published by Wm. Floyd, thus reaching a 
large number outside the Union's member- 
ship." (Wm. Floyd is one of the gentle 
"pacifists" who decry violence so earnestly 
that they oppose all national defense for 
the U.S.) 



Organizations, Etc. 



119 



WHAT THE BETTER AMERICA FEDERATION 
SAYS OF THE A.C.L.U. 

Among the numerous Red pamphlets and 
publications put out by the A.C.L.U. is 
"Professional Patriots," edited by Norman 
Hapgood. Its distribution was reported as 
A.C.L.U. "Work in Hand" for 1927, and 
the Communist Daily Worker published 
it serially as good Communist propaganda. 
It took the customary shots at all who 
dare criticize its activities giving particular 
mention to the Better America Federation, 
which is responsible for the enactment and 
retention of the California Criminal Syn- 
dicalism Law, in spite of the frantic and 
united efforts of the A.C.L.U., I.W.W. and 
Communist and Socialist Parties to repeal 
it. The Better America Federation came 
right back with a published reply which 
is a classic. Reading it gives one the desire 
to yell "Hurrah for you!" and throw a 
hat into the air. To quote: 

"The B.A.F. is pleased to say this: 

"The American Civil Liberties Union is 
the 'respectable front' in the United States 
of America for the organized forces of 
revolution, lawlessness, sabotage, and mur- 
der. It is so recognized and acknowledged 
by these forces. It numbers among its 
board of control not only the Moscow- 
appointed chief of the American Branch of 
the Communist International, but also an 
assortment of Socialists, Defeatists, and 
Slackers. 

"It was spawned to give aid and comfort 
to the enemies of this Republic. 

"Its first organized movement was that 
of encouraging the youth of the United 
States to defy their country's laws. 

"Its consistent policy is one of breeding 
hatred and suspicion and hostility toward 
this country in the minds of all it can 
influence. 

"It consistently preaches the doctrine 
proven false in the Supreme Court of the 
United States and many state Courts, 
namely, that inciting to crime is not a 
crime. 

"Its literature and its representatives are 
characterized by flagrant dishonesty, men- 
dacity, and categorical lies. 

"It spends each year more money for 
its program of moral and civic sabotage 
than the entire stipends of those it evilly 
dubs 'professionals patriots.' 

"It has been in bad odor with many 
governmental and educational agencies in 
this Republic from its birth. 

"It is the god-mother of slackerism, the 
chum of Socialism, the tried and true friend 



of the I.W.W. , the helpful hand-maiden of 
Communism, and the attorney-in-fact for 
obscenity, criminal syndicalism, and anar- 
chy. 

"It has a 100% record of aiding persons 
and movements about whose character, 
lawful practices, and statutory patriotism 
there have been grave official doubts. 

"It has never caused a single human 
being's heart to turn toward the love or 
even the decent respect for this Republic; 
on the contrary, it has been from the 
beginning, is today, and blatantly promises 
to continue to be a breeder of disaffection 
and a protector of revolutionary move- 
ments aimed at the life of this Republic. 

"And it is an enemy many fold more 
detestable than any we have fought in 
any war; for those foes were proud to 
wear a uniform and to die in open battle 
for their flags; while the American Civil 
Liberties Union is a rascally, skulking foe, 
operating under a camouflage, and mar- 
shalling the lewdest fellows of the basest 
sort to secret sapping of the foundations 
of this Republic. 

"The Better America Federation will be 
proud to be a 'Professional Patriot,' and 
will continue, in company with its many 
allies, to fight the American Civil Liberties 
Union organization, program, and person- 
nel Clergymen, Communists, Bishops, 
Slackers, Revolutionaries, I.W.W.'s, and 
all." 

FORMATION OF A.C.L.U. 
AMERICAN LEAGUE TO LIMIT ARMAMENTS 

Says the Lusk Report (p. 1077): "To 
compel American neutrality and to still 
the growing demand for military prepa- 
ration by the United States, it became 
necessary for German propagandists to 
stimulate pacifist sentiment in this coun- 
try. . . . Among the active organizers of 
the American League to Limit Armaments 
will be found the names of many who were 
at the same time active in the movement 
directed by Louis Lochner in Chicago, 
under the name of the Emergency Peace 
Federation. Among them are: Jane 
Addams, Rev. John Haynes Holmes, David 
Starr Jordan, Dr Jacques Loeb, Dr. George 
W. Nasmyth, George Foster Peabody, 
Oswald Garrison Villard, Morris Hillquit, 
Hamilton Holt, Elsie Clews Parsons, 
Lillian D. Wald, Stephen S. Wise, and L. 
Hollingsworth Wood, secretary." . . . 

AMERICAN UNION AGAINST MILITARISM 

"In the early part of 1915 the members 
of the executive committee of this league 



120 



The Red Network 



felt that its scope was not wide enough 
and, therefore, the anti-preparedness com- 
mittee was formed, which later became the 
American Union Against Militarism with 
hdqts. at 70 Fifth Ave., New York" 
(which in May 1917 carried on a vigorous 
Anti-Conscription Campaign in conjunc- 
tion with the Socialist Party, Woman's 
Peace Party, Emergency Peace Federation) ; 
etc. 

CIVIL LIBERTIES BUREAU 

"The passage of the draft act, after our 
entry into the war caused the American 
Union Against Militarism to increase its 
activities. It immediately undertook to 
assist all persons desiring to avoid the 
draft, and to protect all persons from so- 
called 'infringement of Civil liberties,' 
opening branch offices under the name of 
the Civil Liberties Bureau, both in Wash- 
ington and New York, for this purpose." . . . 

"Since both the conscription and espion- 
age bills were soon passed by Congress it 
was not very long before the American 
Union Against Militarism virtually with- 
drew leaving the field in the hands of its 
branch offices" (the Civil Liberties 
Bureau) . 

'Though the ostensible object of the 
Civil Liberties Bureau was to protect free 
speech and civil liberties during war times, 
an exhaustive examination of its files shows 
. . . some of the real objects were: 1. En- 
couraging naturally timid boys and dis- 
contents to register as conscientious objec- 
tors. 2. To assist any radical movement 
calculated to obstruct the prosecution of 
the war, as evidenced by the bureau's 
activities in collecting funds for the I.W.W. 
and 'Masses' defense. 3. Issuing propa- 
ganda literature ... to influence public 
sympathy toward the I.W.W., conscientious 
objectors and radical organizations. 4. To 
discourage in every possible way any con- 
scientious objector from doing his military 
duty in the war; and pointing out to 
mothers and friends the means employed 
by others to escape military service. 5. To 
furnish attorneys for conscientious objectors 
and persons prosecuted for violation of the 
Espionage act. ... 6. 'Boring from within' 
in churches, religious organizations, wo- 
men's clubs, American Federation of Labor, 
etc., in order to spread radical ideas. ... 7. 
Working towards an after-the-war pro- 
gram, usually referred to as 'a democratic 
program of constructive peace.' " 

"A full list of the officers and executive 



committees of the Civil Liberties Bureau 
was as follows: 

Lillian D. Wald, chmn.; Amos Pinchot, vice- 
chmn.; L. Hollingsworth Wood, treas.; Crystal 
Eastman, exec, sec.; Chas. T. Hallinan, edtl. dir. 
Executive Committee: Roger Baldwin, director of 
Civil Liberties Bureau; Jane Addams, A. A. Berle, 
Frank Bohn, Wm. F. Cochran, John Lovejoy 
Elliott, John Haynes Holmes, Paul U. Kellogg, 
Alice Lewisohn, Frederick Lynch, James H. 
Maurer, Scott Nearing, Oswald Garrison Viilard, 
Emily Greene Balch, Herbert S. Bigelow (of Cin- 
cinnati), Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, Max East- 
man, Zona Gale, David Starr Jordan, Agnes Brown 
Leach, Owen R. Lovejoy, John A. McSparran, 
Henry R. Mussey, Norman M. Thomas, James P. 
Warbasse, and Stephen S. Wise." 

NATIONAL CIVIL LIBERTIES BUREAU 

"In October 1917 the Civil Liberties 
Bureau enlarged both its offices and scope 
under the name of National Civil Liberties 
Bureau. The Am. Union against Militarism 
in announcing this separate establishment 
enclosed significantly a reprint of the Rus- 
sian Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' 
Delegates' peace terms" (the Soviets of 
today). 

Roger Baldwin, director of the enlarged 
organization was soon convicted under the 
Selective Service Act and sent to prison. 
While he had said in his letter to Socialist 
Lochner concerning the infamous People's 
Council: "We want to look like patriots 
in everything we do. We want to get a 
good lot of flags, talk a good deal about 
the Constitution and what our forefathers 
wanted to make of this country, and to 
show that we are really the folks that 
really stand for the spirit of our institu- 
tions," he was in reality a "philisophical 
anarchist," according to the sworn testi- 
mony of his friend Norman Thomas dur- 
ing his trial, and a radical to the bone. He 
said (quoted from leaflet issued by his 
friends, Nov. 1918): "The Non-Partisan 
League, radical labor and the Socialist 
Party hold the germs of a new social order. 
Their protest is my protest" (against the 
war). 

AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 

After Baldwin's conviction, the National 
Civil Liberties Bureau continued its activ- 
ities, and in March 1920 changed its name 
to its present one American Civil Liber- 
ties Union, with the following list of 
officers: 

Harry F. Ward, chmn.; Duncan McDonald, 
111., and Jeannette Rankin of Montana, vice chair- 
men; Helen Phelps Stokes, treas.; Albert de Silver 
and Roger N. Baldwin, directors; Walter Nelles, 
counsel; Lucille B. Lowenstein, field secretary; 
Louis F. Budenz, publicity director; National 
Committee, Jane Addams; Herbert S. Bigelow; 



Organizations, Etc. 



121 



Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, Robt. M. Buck, 
Chgo. ; John S. Codman, Boston; Lincoln Col- 
cord, Wash., B.C.; James H. Dillard; Crystal 
Eastman; John Lovejoy Elliott; Edmund C. Evans 
and Edward W. Evans, Phila. Pa.; Wm. M. 
Fincke, Katonah, N.Y.; John A. Fitch, N.Y. City; 
Eliz. Gurley Flynn; Felix Frankfurter, Harvard 
U.; Wm. Z. Foster; Paul J. Furnas, N.Y. City; 
Zona Gale; A. B. Gilbert, St. Paul, Minn.; Arthur 
Garfield Hays; Morris Hillquit; John Haynes 
Holmes; Frederic C. Howe; James Weldon John- 
son; Helen Keller, Forest Hills, L.I.; Harold J. 
Laski, Cambridge, Mass, (now England); Agnes 
Brown Leach; Arthur LeSueur; Henry R. Lin- 
ville; Robt. Morss Lovett; Allen McCurdy; 
Grenville S. MacFarland, Boston; Oscar Maddaus, 
Manhasset, L.I.; Judah L. Magnes; James H. 
Maurer; A. J. Muste; Geo. W. Nasmyth; Scott 
Nearing; Julia O'Connor; Wm. H. Pickens; Wm. 
Marion Reedy, St. Louis; John Nevin Sayre; Rose 
Schneidermann ; Vida D. Scudder; Norman M. 
Thomas; Oswald G. Villard; L. Hollingsworth 
Wood; Geo. P. West, Oakland, Cal. 

A.C.L.U. DIRECTORS AND BRANCHES 1932 

To quote the 1932 Report: "The National 
Committee which controls the Union's 
general policies now numbers 69. Former 
Federal Judge Geo. W. Anderson of Boston 
was added to the committee during the 
year. The committee suffered the loss by 
death of Dr. David Starr Jordan for many 
years a vice chairman of the Union; Julia 
C. Lathrop of Rockford, 111. and A. M. 
Todd of Kalamazoo, Mich. Former U.S. 
Senator Thos. W. Hardwick of Georgia 
resigned because of a difference with the 
policies outlined in our pamphlet 'Black 
Justice.' Anna Rochester" (Communist) 
"resigned from the National Committee, 
but remains on the board of directors; Jos. 
Schlossberg, Dr. Henry R. Linville and 
Hubert C. Herring resigned from the board 
of directors but remain on the National 
Committee." 

"The Board of Directors, meeting weekly, 
in active charge of the union's affairs, is 
now composed of: 

Dr. Harry Elmer Barnes, Robt. W. Dunn" 
(Communist), "Morris L. Ernst, Walter Frank, 
Arthur Garfield Hays, Rev. John Haynes Holmes, 
Ben W. Huebsch, Dorothy Kenyon, Corliss Lament, 
William L. Nunn, Frank L. Palmer, Amos R. 
Pinchot, Eliot Pratt, Roger William Riis, Anna 
Rochester" (Communist), "Rev. Wm. B. Spof- 
ford, Dr. Harry F. Ward, and the executive staff: 
Forrest Bailey, Roger Baldwin and Lucille B. 
Milner. The officers ar unchanged. Dr. Ward 
has been absent abroad on his sabbatical year" 
(spent in Soviet Russia) "and his place taken 
by John Haynes Holmes as Acting Chairman." 

(Wm. Z. Foster's and Scott Nearing's 
names disappeared from the letterhead in 
1931. They became possibly too conspic- 
uous. Jane Addams, after 10 years of 
service on the nat. com., removed hers 
also at this time. She had been repeatedly 
attacked for this connection.) 



A.C.L.U. National Officers 1932: 

Chmn., Harry F. Ward; Vice Chmn.: Helen 
Phelps Stokes, James H. Maurer, Fremont Older; 
Treas., B. W. Huebsch; Directors: Roger N. 
Baldwin, Forrest Bailey; Counsel: Arthur Garfield 
Hays, Morris L. Ernst; Research Sec., Lucille B. 
Milner; Washington Counsel. Edmund D. Camp- 
bell. 

National Committee 1932: 

Chas. F. Amidon, Geo. W. Anderson, Harry 
Elmer Barnes, Herbert S. Bigelow, Edwin M. 
Borchard, Richard C. Cabot, John S. Codman, 
Clarence Darrow, John Dewey, James H. Dillard, 
Robt. W. Dunn, Sherwood Eddy, Eliz. Glendower 
Evans, John F. Finerty, Eliz. Gurley Flynn, 
Walter Frank, Felix Frankfurter, Ernst Freund, 
Kate Crane Gartz, Norman Hapg9od, Powers Hap- 
good, Hubert C. Herring, Morris Hillquit, John 
Haynes Holmes, Frederic C. Howe, James Weldon 
Johnson, Geo. W. Kirchwey, John A. Lapp, Agnes 
Brown Leach, Arthur LeSueur, Henry R. Lin- 
ville, Robt. Morss Lovett, Mary E. McDowell, 
Anne Martin, Alexander Meiklejohn, Henry R. 
Mussey, A. J. Muste, Walter Nelles, Wm. L. 
Nunn, Julia S. O'Connor Parker, Wm. Pickens, 
Amos Pinchot, Jeannette Rankin, Edw. A. Ross, 
Elbert Russell, Father John A. Ryan, John Nevin 
Sayre, Wm. Scarlett, Jos. Schlossberg, Vida D. 
Scudder, Abba Hillel Silver, John F. Sinclair, Clar- 
ence R. Skinner, Norman M. Thomas, Edw. D. 
Tittmann, Millie R. Trumbull, Wm. S. U'Ren, 
Oswald Garrison Villard, B. Charney Vladeck, 
David Wallerstein, Geo. P. West, Peter Witt, L. 
Hollingsworth Wood. 

Local Committee Officers 1932: 

Cincinnati Branch, 845 Dayton St., Cincinnati; 
Dr. W. O. Brown, chmn.; Mary D. Brite, sec. 

Detroit Branch, 1976 Atkinson St., Detroit; 
Walter M. Nelson, chmn.; Fannie Ziff, sec. 

Maryland Civil Liberties Committee, Inc., 513 
Park Ave., Baltimore; Dr. A. 0. Lovejoy, chmn.; 
Eliz. Gilman, sec. 

Massachusetts Civil Liberties Committee, 1241 
Little Bldg., Boston; John S. Codman, chmn.; 
David K. Niles, sec. 

New York City Committee, 100 Fifth Ave., N.Y. 
City; Dorothy Kenyon, chmn.; Eliz. G. Coit, sec. 

Pennsylvania Civil Liberties Committee, 219 
Walnut St., Harrisburg; Rev. Philip David Book- 
staber, chmn.; Allan G. Harper, sec. 

Philadelphia Civil Liberties Committee, 318 S. 
Juniper St., Phila.; J. Prentice Murphy, chmn.; 
Ada H. Funke, sec. 

Pittsburg Civil Liberties Committee, 1835 
Center Ave., Pitts.; Ralph S. Boots, chmn.; Sid- 
ney A. Teller, sec. 

Seattle Branch, 515 Lyons Bldg., Seattle; H. E. 
Foster, chmn.; Edward E. Henry, sec. 

Southern Calif ornia Branch, 1022 California 
Bldg., Los A.; John Beardsley, chmn.; Clinton J. 
Taft, sec. 

St. Louis Branch, 3117 Osage St., St. Louis; 
Dr. Albert E. Taussig, chmn.; Richard C. Bland, 
sec 

Wisconsin Civil Liberties Committee, Univ. of 
Wis., Madison; Wm. G. Rice, chmn.; W. Ellison 
Chalmers, sec. 

Chicago Civil Liberties Committee, Room 
611, 160 N. La Salle St., Chicago (Office 
of Carl Haessler, Federated Press and Chgo. 
Com. for Struggle Against War) ; pres., 
Arthur Fisher; vice pres., Wm. H. Holly; 
treas., Duane Swift; exec, sec., Thomas 
M. McKenna. 



122 The Red Network 



AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 

100 FFTH AVENUE NEW YORK CTTY 



fcarch 23, 1932, 



To our Washington friends; - 

May we ask you to make an effort to attend a hearing 
to "be held this Saturday^ morning at 10:30 in Room 450, Senate 
Office BldgT' on Se na t or CuftTn g s till to adroit alie n pz~~c i f i s t s 
to~"citiz6nship without promising to bear arras? The hearing is 
"before a sub-committee of the Judiciary Committee composed of 
Senators David A. Reed of Pennsylvania, chairman; Marcue A, 
Coolidge of Massachusetts and Roscoe C. Patterson of Missouri, 
a not too hopeful group. 

This hearing is solely for the opponents of the 
measure. We had our field-day yesterday, and according to re- 
ports, it was a highly effective presentation of the case for 
the bill. John W. Davis, counsel for Prof. Macintosh, led off, 
followed by Bishop McConnell, president of the Federal Council 
of Churches, Father McGowan of the National Catholic Welfare 
Conference, Rabbi Israel of the Central Conference of Arasrican 
Rabbis and Francis Taylor of the Society of Friends. The com- 
mittee room was crowded with numbers of "patriotic" societies 
who had gotten wind of the hearing > although we had done our 
best to keep if quiet so tha??e would not be the high-tension 
emotional atmosphere which marked the Griffin bill hearings. 
Apparently there is no escape frora that conflict at hearings. 
We are therefore asking all cur friends to be out in force on 
Saturday morning to hear what the "patriots" have to say. 1 

A good turnout will help offset them. We trust you 
will make an effort to be present. 




RNB/GH 

Facsimile of A.C.L.U. letter urging support of a Bill to admit alien pacifists to citizenship without 

promise to bear arms (sponsored by Senator Cutt-ng of the Senate radical bloc). Any measure which 

will weaken the power of a capitalist government to defend itself receives radical support Note the bit 

about offsetting the patriots. Signed by Roger Baldwin (see this "Who s Who ). 



Organizations, Etc. 



123 



Executive Board: 

The officers and Helen Ascher, Margaret B. 
Bennett, Jessie F. Binford, Karl Borders, Ray- 
mond B. Bragg, Herbert J. Friedman, Charles W. 
Gilkey, Lloyd H. Lehman, Robt. Morss Lovett, 
Curtis W. Reese, Wm. E. Rodriguez. 

Committee: 

Frederick Babcock, Melbourne P. Boynton, 
Percy H. Boynton, Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, 
Horace J. Bridges, A. J. Carlson, Eliz. Christman, 
Clarence Darrow, Samuel Dauchy, Wm. E. Dodd, 
Paul H. Douglas, Margaret Furness, Carl Haessler, 
Alice Hamilton, Florence Curtis Hanson, A. 
Eustace Haydon, Lillian Herstein, Paul Hutchin- 
son, A. L. Jackson, Esther L. Kohn, John A. 
Lapp, Harold D. Lasswell, Frederic W. Leighton, 
Clyde McGee, Louis L. Mann, Mrs. G. M. 
Mathes, Wiley W. Mills, Catherine Waugh 
McCulloch, Fred Atkins Moore, R. Lester Mon- 
dale, Chas. Clayton Morrison, Robt. Park, Fer- 
dinand Schevill, Chas. P. Schwartz, Amelia Sears, 
Mary Rozet Smith, T. V. Smith, Clarence Starr, 
Ernest Fremont Tittle, Arthur J. Todd, Edward 
M. Winston, James M. Yard, Victor S. Yarros. 

Claims about 2000 members. 

Committees and Auxiliary Organizations 
of A.C.L.U.: 

Committee on Academic Freedom; Prof. Wm. 
H. Kilpatrick, chmn.; Forrest Bailey, sec. 

Committee on Indian Civil Rights; Nathan 
Margold, chmn.; Robt. Gessner, sec. 

National Committee on Labor Injunctions; 
Former U.S. Judge Chas. F. Amidon, chmn.; Dr. 
Alexander Fleisher,. sec. 

National Council on Freedom from Censorship 
(see); Prof. Hatcher Hughes, chmn.; Gordon W. 
Moss, sec. 

National Mooney-Billings Committee (see) ; 
Henry T. Hunt, chmn.; Roger N. Baldwin, sec. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR 
CHINESE RELIEF 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR FAIR 
PLAY TO CHINA 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR 
JUSTICE TO CHINA 

These committees were organized, when 
the Communists were in control of the 
National Party of China, in order to pre- 
vent U.S. intervention in behalf of Amer- 
ican citizens and property in jeopardy 
there. See "Hands Off Committees." 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR 
STRUGGLE AGAINST WAR 

See under "Intl., American, and Chi- 
cago Committees for Struggle Against War," 
also "World Congress Against War." 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON 
INFORMATION ABOUT RUSSIA 

Am. Com. on Inf. About Russia. 

A group spreading pro-Soviet propa- 
ganda; formed 1928 with hdqts. Room 
709, 166 W. Washington St., Chicago. 



Chmn., John A. Lapp; sec.-treas., Lillian Her- 
stein; Jane Addams, A. Barton (of Machinists 
Union 492), Prof. Paul H. Douglas, Carl Haessler, 
Felix Hauzl (Bus. Agt. Woodcarvers Assn.), Mary 
McDowell, Peter Jensen (Chmn. System Fed- 
eration 130), Hyman Schneid (pres. Amalg. Cloth. 
Wkrs. 111.), Wm. H. Holly, Prof. Robt. Morss 
Lovett, Thos. A. Allinson (father of Brent Dow), 
Ray Korner (sec. Boilermakers Union 626), Ed. 
Nelson (sec.-treas. Painters Union 194), J. 
Schnessler (Photo Engravers Union 5), John Wer- 
lik (sec. Metal Polishers Union 6). 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 
A.F. of L. 

Up to this time the A.F. of L. has been 
a bitter disappointment to Moscow, which 
long ago expected to take it over. Con- 
tinuously, however, the warfare of "boring 
from within" to bring the A.F. of L. under 
Communist control goes on. Wm. Z. Foster 
and Robt. W. Dunn were long ago 
expelled; other Communists are from time 
to time expelled and licenses of Locals "go- 
ing Red" are revoked. Many A.F. of L. 
leaders deserve unstinted praise for their 
pro-American efforts against Red domi- 
nation. Certain A.F. of L. unions are 
under Red control, however, others are 
well penetrated and influenced, and in 
practically every "united front" Commu- 
nist activity, A.F. of L. Locals and repre- 
sentatives participate. It is to be hoped 
the Red element will not eventually gain 
control. Lillian Herstein of the radical Am. 
Fed. of Tchrs., an A.F. of L. affiliate, who 
is a Socialist and a member of two Com- 
munist subsidiary organizations, serves on 
the executive board of the Chicago F. of L. 
of which John Fitzpatrick of the red Chgo. 
Com. for Struggle Against War is president. 
Victor Olander, Illinois F. of L. executive, 
made a most bitter speech against the 
Baker Bills (to curb teaching of sedition 
and overthrow of the Govt. in Illinois 
schools and colleges), quoting Hapgood's 
"Professional Patriots," etc., at a public 
hearing in Springfield, May 1933, yet say- 
ing he was opposed to Communists. Press 
reports concerning the proposed union of 
the radical "outlaw" Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing Workers with the A.F. of L. stated 
that this movement indicated an increasing 
"liberalization" of A.F. of L. policy. The 
Communist Daily Worker Sept. 6, 1933 
contained a message from Earl Browder 
(sec. Communist Party) in which he said: 
"Now, more than ever, it is necessary to 
seriously build up our forces inside the 
A.F. of L. There is still the remnants in 
all districts of the old mistaken idea that 
we cannot both build the militant unions 
of the T.U.U.L. and at the same time the 



124 



The Red Network 



left wing opposition inside the A.F. of L. 
More attention than ever must be given 
to this problem." (Emphasis in original.) 

A.F. OF L. COMMITTEE FOR 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 
Full name is the "A.F. of L. Trade Union 
Committee for Unemployment Insurance 
and Relief"; hdqts., 799 Broadway, Room 
336, N.Y.C. (Communist hdqts.). A Com- 
munist movement in the A.F. of L. for 
the purpose of disruption; "organized in 
N.Y. City on Jan. 27, 1932 at a Con- 
ference representing 19 A.F. of L. Unions"; 
headed by Communist Harry Weinstock 
expelled by the A.F. of L. Painters Union, 
N.Y.C., Feb. 1933, for Communist mem- 
bership, assisted by Walter Frank, a Minne- 
apolis Communist ; endorsed heartily in let- 
ter from Tom Mooney published by this 
committee; barred by order of Wm. Green 
from participation in A.F. of L. Conven- 
tion at Wash., B.C., Oct. 4, 1933. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION 
OF TEACHERS 

Am. Fed. Tchrs. 

Radical; stands for abolition of R.O. 
T.C.; recognition of Russia; full "academic 
freedom" to teach anything, including 
Socialism, Communism or Atheism; closely 
allied to A.C.L.U.; received financial aid 
from the Garland Fund, which gives only 
to radical agencies; monthly organ "The 
American Teacher"; pres., Henry R. Lin- 
ville, N.Y.; sec.-treas., Florence Curtis 
Hanson, Chgo. 

AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE 

COMMITTEE 
Am. Friends Serv. Com. 

A Quaker relief organization; part of 
the War Resisters International Council of 
international anti-militarist organizations 
having their first meetings in Holland, 
linked together "working for the super- 
session of capitalism and imperialism by 
the establishment of a new social and inter- 
national order" (see W.R. Intl. Coun.) ; 
cooperates with L.I.D., Fell. Recon., Y.M. 
C.A. and Y.W.C.A. in recruiting students 
to "investigate industry" and in holding 
conferences featuring radical pacifist, so- 
cialistic speakers; conducted an Institute 
at N.U., Evanston, June 1932, with hdqts. 
also at Tittle's M.E. Church; Herbert A. 
Miller, Tucker P. Smith, Kirby Page, Harry 
D. Gideonse, Louis L. Mann and E. F. 
Tittle were Institute faculty members; see 



connections of Robt. W. Dunn, Karl 
Borders, Paul Douglas, W. K. Thomas, and 
Institute faculty members in "Who's Who"; 
National Office: 20 S. 12th St., Phila., Pa.; 
Midwest hdqts.: Room 902, 203 S. Dear- 
born St., Chgo., 111. 

AMERICAN FUND FOR PUBLIC 
SERVICE 

See under Garland Fund. 

AMERICAN LABOR YEAR BOOK 

Published yearly by the Rand School 
Press, 7 E. 15th St., N.Y.C., formerly 
financed by the Garland Fund; reports 
activities of radical organizations. 

AMERICAN LEAGUE AGAINST 
WAR AND FASCISM 

Formed by the communist U.S. Con- 
gress Against War and endorsing the 
Manifesto of the World Congress Against 
War at Amsterdam. The Daily Worker, 
Nov. 13, 1933, says of its N.Y. demon- 
stration: "Along Broadway, along River- 
side Drive, through the heart of the 'silk 
stocking' district, the demonstrators par- 
aded carrying the banners of their organ- 
izations, shouting 'Down with Imperialist 
War, Down with Fascism.' At the Monu- 
ment speakers of the participating organ- 
izations . . . emphasized the need for mili- 
tantly protesting the war provocations 
against Soviet Russia, the workers' father- 
land. They urged that the workers and 
students 'become traitors to the ruling 
class of their own country and refuse to 
fight to protect their profits.' The organ- 
izations participating were: National Stu- 
dent Lg., Lg. of Struggle for Negro Rights, 
Young Communist Lg., Wkrs. Ex-Service 
Men's Lg., War Resisters Lg., Conference 
for Progressive Labor Action, Labor Sports 
Union, I.W.O., Youth Section of T.U. 
U.C. and the I.L.D." (All but the two 
italicized are openly Communist organ- 
izations.) Monthly organ "Fight against 
war and fascism." 

Chmn., J. B. Matthews; Vice Chmn: William 
Pickens and Earl Browder; Sec., Donald Hender- 
son; Asst. Sec., Ida Dailes; Treas., Annie E. 
Gray; Asst. Treas., Edythe Levine. 

(Note the cooperation of "peace" leaders 
and exponents of bloody Red revolution.) 

AMERICAN LEAGUE TO LIMIT 
ARMAMENTS 

See under A.C.L.U., section on "for- 
mation." 



Organizations, Etc. 



125 



AMERICAN LITHUANIAN WORKERS 

LABOR SOCIETY 

A Communist subsidiary (U.S. Report 
2290). 

AMERICAN NEGRO LABOR 
CONGRESS 

Official Communist Negro subsidiary 
organized in Chicago, Oct. 1925; name 
changed at the American Negro Labor 
Congress at St. Louis, Nov. 16, 1930, to 
its present title "League of Struggle for 
Negro Rights." 

AMERICAN NEUTRAL CONFERENCE 
COMMITTEE 

See "Emergency Peace Federation." 

AMERICAN NEWSPAPER GUILD 

For newspaper writers; organized by 
Heywood Broun (see "Who's Who"), 
Sept. 1933, aided by Morris Ernst and 
other radicals; demands 5-day week NRA 
code, etc. 

AMERICAN RATIONALISTS 

ASSOCIATION 

Atheistic; Dr. Percy Ward, pres. 1926; 
Chgo. society, founded by M. Mangasarian, 
changed name to Chgo. Humanist Society, 
Jan. 12, 1934 (Burdette Backus leader 
1934). 

AMERICAN-RUSSIAN CHAMBER 
OF COMMERCE 

For aiding American-Russian trade; agi- 
tated recognition of U.S.S.R.; sponsor of 
American-Russian Institute ; cooperates 
with the Soviet Union Information Bureau ; 
now preparing a Handbook of the Soviet 
Union, in Russia, to be published by the 
John Day Co. of the U.S.A.; pres. Hugh 
L. Cooper. 

AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE 
Of New York; affiliate of the American 

Russian Chamber of Commerce and A.S. 

C.R.R.; sponsors exhibits of Russian goods, 

etc. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR 
CULTURAL RELATIONS 

WITH RUSSIA 
A.S.C.R.R. 

A Communist subsidiary (U.S. Report 
2290) ; the American affiliate of the Russian 
V.O.K.S. (Bureau of Cultural Relations 
between U.S.S.R. and Foreign Countries), 
operating in several countries and very 



active in England; formed to break down 
antipathy toward the Soviet government; 
the "Nation" announced Jan. 14, 1925: 
"The establishment of closer cultural rela- 
tions between the United States and the 
Soviet Union is the mission of Mr. Roman 
Weller of Moscow who has just arrived 
in this country as representative of the 
Bureau of Cultural Relations established 
in Moscow about a year ago"; the N.Y. 
Herald Tribune, April 24, 1927, reported: 
"With the announced intention of bring- 
ing together Americans who are interested 
in Russian life and contemporary culture 
the A.S.C.R.R. was formed yesterday. The 
first meeting will be at the administration 
building of the Henry Street Settlement" 
(of Lillian Wald) "on Wednesday evening. 
The speakers will be Leopold Stokowski, 
Robt. J. Flaherty, Lee Simonson, Graham 
Taylor and Elizabeth Farrell. Mrs. Norman 
Hapgood will preside. The Society is 
planning many activities including lectures 
by Russian scientists. A Russian exhibit 
is also being arranged ... the Society will 
have a permanent program of work which 
will include the collection and diffusion in 
the U.S. of developments in science, edu- 
cation (etc.) . . . and an exchange of 
students and professors as well as scientists, 
artists and scholars as 'a practical way of 
promoting cultural relations between the 
two countries' is contemplated." In 1929 
were listed: 

President, William Allan Neilson (of Smith 
College); Vice-Presidents : John Dewey, Leopold 
Stokowski, Stephen P. Duggan, Floyd Dell, Lillian 
D. Wald; Treasurer, Allen Wardwell; Secretary, 
Lucy Branham; Chairman Executive Committee, 
Graham R. Taylor; Directors: Thos. L. Cotton, 
Jerome Davis, Ernestine Evans, Mrs. Norman Hap- 
good, Arthur Garfield Hays, Horace Liveright, 
Underhill Moore, Ernest M. Patterson, James N. 
Rosenberg, Lee Simonson, Edgar Varese, and the 
officers; Advisory Council: Jane Addams, Carl 
Alsberg, Franz Boas, Phillips Bradley, Stuart 
Chase, Haven Emerson, Zona Gale, Frank Colder, 
Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, David Starr Jordan, 
Alexander Kaun, Susan Kingsbury, Julia Lathrop, 
Eva Le Gallienne, Howard Scott Liddell, E. C. 
Lindeman, Jacob G. Lipman, Robert Littell, H. 
Adolphus Miller, Walter W. Pettit, Boardman 
Robinson, Clarence S. Stein, Lucy Textor, Wilbur 
K. Thomas, Harry Ward, William Allen White, 
and Lucy Wilson. Others listed in the various 
committees are: Joseph Achron, Sergei Radamsky, 
Kurt Schindler, Joseph Freeman, Oliver Sayler, 
Kurt Richter, Benj. M. Anderson, Jr., Gamaliel 
Bradford, Dorothy Brewster, Louise Fargo Brown, 
V. F. Calverton, Kate Holladay Claghorn, George 
A. Dorsey, W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, Edward 
Meade Earle, Haven Emerson, John Erskine, John 
Farrar, Harry Hansen, Sidney Howard, Horace M. 
Kallen, Joseph Wood Krutch, Joshua Kunitz, Fola 
LaFollette, Sinclair Lewis, Alain Locke, Robt. H. 
Lowie, Eugene Lyons, Chas. E. Merriam, Wesley 
C. Mitchell, Raymond Pearl, Walter W. Pettit, 
James Harvey Robinson, Mrs. K. N. Rosen, Edwin 
R. A. Seligman, Clarence Stein, Walter Stewart, 



126 



The Red Network 



Louis Untermyer, Carl Van Doren, Mark Van 
Doren, Hendrik Willem Van Loon, Robert Woolfe, 
Stark Young, and Rosalind A. Zoglin. The Chi- 
cago branch: Chairman, Paul H. Douglas; Direc- 
tors: Jane Addams, Clarence Darrow, Henry J. 
Freyn, Chas. E. Merriam; Executive Committee: 
Karl Borders, Chairman, Wm. Burton, Arthur 
Fisher, Lillian Herstein, Agnes Jacques, Stewart 
Leonard, A. D. Noe, Fred L. Schuman, Arvid B. 
Tanner; Treasurer, S. Jesmer. Chicago Hdqts. 
(1933), 38 S. Dearborn St., Room 765. 

AMERICAN TEACHER 
Monthly organ of the American Fed- 
eration of Teachers; Florence Curtis Han- 
son, Executive Editor; Advisory Editorial 
Board: Henry R. Linville; Chas. B. Still- 
man, Chgo.; A. D. Sheffield, Wellesley 
College; Ruth Gillette Hardy, N.Y.; Selma 
M. Borchardt, Washington; Mary C. 
Barker, Atlanta; Lucie W. Allen, Chgo.; 
Editorial office, 506 S. Wabash Ave., 
Chgo.>; features radical articles and upholds 
the principles of its organization (See "Am. 
Fed. of Tchrs."). 

AMERICAN WORKERS PARTY 

New name for A. J. Muste's Conf. for 
Prog. Lab. Action (see) 1933; a militant 
revolutionary party adhering neither to 
Second or Third International. 

AMKINO 

American representative of Sovkino, the 
Soviet government motion picture dis- 
tributing agency. 

AMKNIGA 

Official book distributing agency of 
Soviet State Publishing House; N.Y. City. 

AMNESTY COMMITTEE OF PEOPLES 

FREEDOM UNION 
See "People's Freedom Union." 

AMTORG TRADING CO. 

The official Soviet government trading 
organization in the U.S.; sister organization 
of Arcos, Ltd., of England, which was 
raided in 1927 by British authorities and 
proven to be the headquarters and branch 
of the Communist International in England. 

ANARCHISM AND ANARCHIST- 
COMMUNISM 

Many anarchist groups (such as the 
Nihilists of Russia) might be described 
and their differences shown, but the first 
important anarchist movement in the U.S., 
which established several newspapers 
("The Anarchist" at Boston, "The Arbeiter- 
Zeitung" at Chicago, and the "Voice of 
the People" at St. Louis), in 1883 at Pitts- 



burg, issued, through twenty representa- 
tives, the following program: "(1) De- 
struction of the existing class rule by all 
means, i.e., energetic, relentless, revolution- 
ary and international action. (2) Estab- 
lishment of a free society, based upon co- 
operative organization of production. (3) 
Free exchange of equivalent products by 
and between productive organizations, 
without commerce and profit-mongering. 

(4) Organization of education on a secular, 
scientific and equal basis for both sexes. 

(5) Equal rights for all, without distinc- 
tion of sex or race. (6) Regulation of all 
public affairs by free contacts between the 
autonomous (independent) communes and 
associations, resting on a federalistic basis." 
This, together with an appeal to workmen 
to organize, was published in Chicago 
(1883) by the local committee, among 
whom was August Spies, later convicted 
and executed for murder in connection 
with the anarchist Haymarket Riot of 
1886. His widow spoke and was honored 
with a standing ovation at the Communist 
Mooney meeting May 1, 1933, at the Chi- 
cago Stadium. Anarchism has many points 
in common with the Socialist and Syndi- 
calist programs, as is shown in the above 
Anarchist Manifesto. Subsequent Amer- 
ican groups led by Emma Goldman and 
Alexander Berkman called their movement 
Anarchist-Communism (Lusk Report). 
Their official organs were "Mother Earth," 
"The Blast" (of Tom Mooney), and 
"Freedom." In the March IS, 1919 issue 
of "Freedom," Emma Goldman defined as 
follows: "Anarchist-Communism Volun- 
tary economic cooperation of all towards 
the needs of each. A social arrangement 
based on the principle: To each according 
to his needs; from each according to his 
ability." 

The Garland Fund donated to the 
anarchist Ferrer School at Stelton, N.J., 
founded by Leonard D. Abbott, a N.Y. 
City branch of which was organized by 
Emma Goldman and Berkman. The Ferrer 
Assn. and Colony of about 300 houses was 
located at Stelton, but had branches in 
many parts of the country. The Ferrer 
Assn. was created as a memorial to the 
Spanish anarchist Francesco Ferrer, who 
was executed by his government. Harry 
Kelley was one of the trustees of the asso- 
ciation and colony at Stelton, and editor 
(as he still is) of the Freedom magazine, 
published formerly at 133 E. 15th St., 
N.Y., the same place which housed the 
Union of Russian Workers, another anar- 
chist association. The June 1, 1920 issue 



Organizations, Etc. 



127 



of Freedom praised the Liberator, Rebel 
Worker, Revolutionary Age, the Dial, 
World Tomorrow, Nation, New Republic, 
Survey, etc., saying: "These publications 
are doing excellent work in their several 
ways, and with much of that work we 
find ourselves in hearty agreement. They 
are, however, either liberal in. the best 
sense of the word, Bolshevik or Socialist, 
and we are none of these, even if we look 
with a kindly eye on all of them. We are 
Anarchists, because we see in the State the 
enemy of liberty and human progress; and 
we are Communists, because we conceive 
Communism as the most rational and just 
economic theory yet proposed ... As 
Anarchists we seek the abolition of the 
State or organized government, and would 
substitute for it a society founded upon 
the principles of voluntary association and 
free Communism. The Left Wing Social- 
ists now advocate the same thing. So our 
differences are merely in the tactics pur- 
sued." 

Emma Goldman in her essay "Anar- 
chism," on page 59, said: "Religion, the 
dominion of the human mind; Property, 
the dominion of human needs; and Gov- 
ernment, the dominion of human conduct, 
represent the stronghold" of man's enslave- 
ment and all the horrors it entails"; and 
on page 134: "Indeed conceit, arrogance 
and egotism are the essentials of patriot- 
ism." 

In her essay "Marriage and Love," she 
says, on page 242: "Love, the freest, the 
most powerful molder of human destiny; 
how can such an all-compelling force be 
synonomous with that poor little state 
and church-begotten weed, marriage?"; on 
page 72: "Direct action, having proven 
effective along economic lines is equally 
potent in the environment of the individual 
* . . Direct action against the authority 
in the shop, direct action against the 
authority of the law, direct action against 
the invasive meddlesome authority of our 
moral code" (she herself writes of the 
many men with whom she had intimate 
relations in her book "Living My Life") 
"is the logical, consistent method of Anar- 
chism. Will it lead to a revolution? Indeed 
it will. No real social change has ever 
come without a revolution. People are 
either not familiar with their history, or 
they have not yet learned that revolution 
is but thought carried into action." 

Acts of violence, such as her amour 
Berkman's stabbing and shooting of Frick, 
the steel magnate, as a protest against 
capitalism, are called "attentats" by Emma 



Goldman and her followers and are revered 
as heroic deeds in behalf of the "class 
struggle." 

The Lusk Report cites an intercepted 
telegram of March 2, 1918 addressed to 
Leon Trotsky, Smolny Institute, Petro- 
grad, from Leonard Abbott for the Ferrer 
Association, as follows: "Ferrer Asso- 
ciation is with you to the death. Are form- 
ing Red Guards to help you defend the 
Revolution"; and another cablegram sent 
the same date by M. Eleanor Fitzgerald 
to Wm. Shatoff, Smolny Institute, Petro- 
grad: "Mother Earth groups with our 
lives and our last cent are with you in 
your fight"; Lincoln Steffens was another 
of this group who sent a cablegram to 
Russia (March 4, 1918) with Louise 
Bryant, formerly wife of Communist John 
Reed and until recently wife of Wm. C. 
Bullitt, a radical who in 1919 was accom- 
panied on an official mission to Russia by 
Lincoln Steffens. Bullitt has been chief 
advisor of the U.S. State Dept. by appoint- 
ment of Pres. Roosevelt and is now 
Ambassador to Bolshevik Russia (1934). 
The Bryant-Steffens cablegram, addressed 
to Lenin and Trotsky, Smolny Institute, 
Petrograd, said: "Important you designate 
unofficial representative here who can sur- 
vey situation, weigh facts and cable con- 
clusions you might accept and act upon. 
Will undertake secure means of com- 
munication between such man and your- 
self." (Evidently Bullitt was the man.) 

The Lusk Report (p. 860) says of Anar- 
chist-Communism: "the interesting feature 
of this movement is the similarity of its 
methods and tactics with those of the 
Socialist Party, Communist groups and 
I.W.W. (1) It stands for the international 
solidarity of the working class. (2) It 
advocates industrial unionism as the best 
instrument for affecting the social revo- 
lution. (3) It advocates direct action, 
meaning thereby the general strike and 
sabotage. (4) It sympathizes with and 
supports Soviet Russia. (5) It advocates 
amnesty for so-called political prisoners. 
(6) It advocates the raising of the Russian 
blockade." 

When Emma Goldman and Berkman 
were arrested for their seditious anti-war 
activities, the League for Amnesty of 
Political Prisoners was organized by their 
supporters. (See "Lg. for Amn. of Pol. 
Pris.") 

Anarchists now and always cooperate 
with the Communists, Socialists and I.W. 
W.'s, in "united front" class war revo- 
lutionary activities. See "Free Society" 



128 



The Red Network 



and "Intl. Workingmens Assn.," American 
anarchist societies. 

ANTI-FASCISTI LEAGUE 

OF NORTH AMERICA 
A communist subsidiary (U.S. Fish 
Report) . The German Anti-Fascisti League, 
Italian Anti-Fascisti League, etc., are sec- 
tions. 

ANTI-HORTHY LEAGUE 
A Communist subsidiary (U.S. Fish 
Report) . 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 
The present title of the All-America 
Anti-Imperialist League (see). 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 
DELEGATION TO CUBA 

The communist Daily Worker, Nov. 9, 
1933, says, "a delegation representing the 
Anti-Imperialist League of the United 
States is sailing today for Cuba," and 
states that "the delegation plans to ar- 
range numerous mass demonstrations in 
Havana and other cities" and is "bringing 
banners, letters and other expressions of 
warm revolutionary greetings and solidar- 
ity. ..." The delegation consists of J. B. 
Matthews, Henry Shepard of the T.U.U.L., 
Geo. Powers, sec. shipyards division of 
Steel and Metal Wkrs. Indust. Union (Com- 
munist), Joe Thomas (T.U.U.L.), Harry 
Cannes of the Daily Worker, chmn., and 
Walter Rellis, student member already in 
Havana. 

ARCOS, LIMITED 

The Soviet government trading company 
of England ; a sister organization to Amtorg 
in the U.S.; was raided in 1927 and docu- 
ments seized revealed it to be the head- 
quarters of the Communist International 
in England and gave proofs of the Red 
conspiracies against our own as well as 
England's government; because of this 
raid trade relations were severed between 
England and the U.S.S.R. until a Socialist 
Labor government again renewed them. 

ASIATIC ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF ATHEISM 

Oriental atheist "missionary" society of 
the American Assn. for the Advancement 
of Atheism. 

ASSOCIATION OF NEW CUBAN 

REVOLUTIONARY EMIGRANTS 

Founded by Julio Antonio Mella, Cuban 

Communist leader; active in New York 

in association with the Spanish Workers 

Center. Mella was killed in Mexico some 



time ago and rioting occurred in Cuba, 
1933, when Communists attempted to 
bring his remains back for a big Red 
burial demonstration. 

ATHEIST PIONEERS 
To promote atheism among primary 
school children; a 4A society. 

AUTO WORKERS INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union; hdqts.: 
4819 Hastings St. and 4210 Woodward 
Ave., Detroit, Mich., etc. 

B 
BAHAI INTERNATIONAL 

An internationalist, pacifist, "religious" 
organization professing to accept and 
include persons of any or all religious 
beliefs in other words the religion of the 
individual is his own affair; takes part 
in War Resisters International (see) con- 
ferences; the World Tomorrow, July 1933 
issue, stated: "Members of the Bahai 
religion have recently been arrested in 
Turkey and will be brought to trial charged 
with 'aiding communism and international- 
ism'"; one branch is at Wilmette, 111. 

BERGER (VICTOR L.) NATIONAL 
FOUNDATION 

Berger Nat. Found. 

A Socialist organization "organized to 
honor the memory of the late Victor L. 
Berger. Its founders believe that this can 
be done best by rendering effective aid to 
those minority causes to which he devoted 
himself for four decades ... by the build- 
ing of a newspaper press which will mobil- 
ize public opinion in behalf of the ideals 
for which liberals, progressives and peace 
advocates contend." (From announcement 
of Victor L. Berger Foundation Dinner held 
at Morrison Hotel, Nov. 12, 1931.) The 
announcement does not dwell on Victor 
Berger's conviction for sedition and 
speeches favoring direct action and revo- 
lution, although "minority causes" is a 
polite phrase for "revolutionary causes." 
The "Statement of Clarence Darrow on 
accepting the presidency of the Victor L. 
Berger National Foundation" is printed as: 
"It is of paramount importance we estab- 
lish our own press as quickly as possible. 
There is every evidence of the emergence 
of working class forces in this country. . . . 
I think the splendid work started by the 
late Victor L. Berger, of whose fearless 
independence I was an admirer, should be 
pushed with all possible energy"; it was 
founded Mar. 1, 1931 at the National Press 



Organizations, Etc. 



129 



Club, Wash., B.C.; incorporated under the 
laws of the District of Columbia and its 
Dinner Announcement which scheduled as 
speakers at the Morrison Hotel, Nov. 12, 
1931, Gov. Philip F. LaFollette, Mayor 
Daniel W. Hoan, Mrs. Meta Berger (Regent 
of Wis. U. and widow of Victor), Donald 
R. Richberg, Clarence Darrow, presiding, 
also listed as Officers: 

Clarence Darrow, pres.; Jane Addams, John 
Dewey, Glenn Frank, Eliz. Oilman, James H. 
Maurer, Upton Sinclair, vice presidents; Marx 
Lewis, exec, dir.; Stuart Chase, treas.; B. C. 
Vladeck, Meta Berger, E. J. Costello, Thos. M. 
Duncan, Wm. T. Evjue, Sidney Hillman, Morris 
Hillquit, Daniel W. Hoan, Norman Thomas, 
Howard Y. Williams, as Board of Trustees, and 
a National Council as follows: 

William J. Adames, Bernard M. Allen, Devere 
Alien, Rev. Peter Ainslie, Oscar Ameringer, Wood 

F. Axton, Forrest Bailey, Emily G. Balch, Joseph 
Baskin, Morris Berman, Rev. Herbert S. Bigelow, 
S. John Block, Cong. Gerald J. Boileau, Gladys 
Bopne, William Bouck, A. P. Bowers, Paul F. 
Brissenden, Heywood Broun, Lewis Browne, 
Howard Brubaker, John P. Burke, Abraham 
Cahan, Stuart Chase, Henry S. Churchill, George 
A. Coe, Mabel Dunlap Curry, Jerome Davis, Paul 
H. Douglas, Daniel R. Donovan, W. E. B. 
Du Bois, Sherwood Eddy, George Clifton Edwards, 
Morris L. Ernst, Frederick V. Field, William 
Floyd, Zona Gale, Adolph Germer, Helen B. Gil- 
man, Carl Henry Gleeser, Mrs. Henry Francis 
Grady, Florence Curtis Hanson, Rev. Otto R. 
Hauser, Dr. A. Eustace Haydon, Max S. Hayes, 
Arthur Garfield Hays, Adolph Held, Rabbi James 

G. Heller, Arthur E. Holder, Rev. John Haynes 
Holmes, Frederick C. Howe, Arthur Huggins, 
Fannie Hurst, Rabbi Edward L. Israel, Bishop 
Paul Jones, Vladimir Karapetoff, Paul U. Kellogg, 
Frederick M. Kerby, Casimir Kowalski, Elmer 
Krahn, Leo Krzycki, Harry W. Laidler, Prof. John 
A. Lapp, William Leiserson, Henry R. Linville, 
Owen R. Lovejoy, Robert Morss Lovett, Benjamin 
C. Marsh, John T. McRoy, Lucia Ames Mead, 
Alexander Meikeljohn, Darwin J. Meserole, Jacob 
C. Meyer, Henry Neumann, Reinhold Niebuhr, 
Edward N. Nockels, Henry J. Ohl, Jr., Joseph A. 
Padway, Kirby Page, Jacob Panken, Clarence E. 
Pickett, Amos R. E. Pinchot. Rabbi D. De Sola 
Pool, Jeannette Rankin. W. N. Reivo, Milo Reno, 
E. A. Ross, Charles Edward Russell, Mary R. 
Sanford, Benjamin Schlesinsrer, Rose Schneiderman. 
Vida D. Scudder, Emil Seidel, Rabbi Abba Hillel 
Silver, George Soule, Seymour Stedman, Morris 
Stern, Spencer Stoker, Helen Phelps Stokes, 
Augustus O. Thomas, Oswald Garrison Villard. 
H. J. Voorhis. Grace D. Watson. S. F. Weston, 
Rev. Eliot White, Charles H. Williams, James H. 
Wolfe, Abel Wolman, Leo Wolfsohn, S. N. Ziebel- 
man, Phil E. Ziegler. 

The following are listed in the dinner 
announcement as "Sponsors": 

Mary M. Abbe, Jane Addams, Robert C. Beers, 
Carl Borders. M. O. Bousfield, Fritz Bremer, 
Charles H. Burr, Ralph Chaolin. Agnes B. Clohesy, 
Lenetta Cooper, Mrs. E. C. Costello, William A. 
Cunnea. Clarence Darrow, Paul E. Darrow, George 
E. Dawson, Arthur Fisher, John Fitzpatrick, John 
Fralick, Herbert T. Friedman, Judge E. Allen 
Frost, Denton L. Geyer, Rev. Charles W. Gilkey, 
M. Gitlitz, Morris Gold, Rabbi S. Goldman, Dr. 
R. B. Green, Margaret A. Haley, M. V. Halushka, 
Leon Hanock, N. M. Hanock, Florence Curtis 
Hanson, Dr. A. Eustace Haydon, Josef L. Hek- 
toen, Lillian Herstein, Samuel H. Holland, William 



H. Holly, Paul Hutchinson, Newton Jenkins, M. B. 
Karman, Jesse T. Kennedy, S. J. Konenkamp, 
Casimir Kowalski, Carl Laich, Lloyd Lehman, 
Samuel Levin, Victor I. Levinson, Fay Lewis, 
Abraham Lidsky, Robert Morss Lovett, Theodore 
H. Lunde, Franklin Lundquist, Maurice Lynch, 
Mary E. McDowell, A. D. Marimpetri, Prof. Chas. 
E. Merriam, Agnes Nestor, Rev. J. Pierce Newell, 
Edward N. Nockels, Edwin P. Reese, Wallace 
Rice, Donald R. Richberg, William E. Rodriguez, 
Hayden J. Sanders, Stephen Skala, Dr. Ferdinand 
Schevill, Clarence Senior, Jacob Siegel, Morris 
Siskind, Peter Sissman, Donald Slesinger, Prof. 
T. V. Smith. Morris Spitzer, J. Edward Stake, 
Seymour Stedman, L. P. Straube, Duane Swift, 
Carl D. Thompson, Rev. Ernest Fremont Tittle, 
Irwin St. John Tucker, S. Turovlin, Daniel A. 
Uretz, Ethel Watson, Dorothy Weil. 

National hdqts.; 907 15th St., N.W., 
Wash., D.C.; Western Office: 308 W. North 
Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

BEZBOSHNIK 

Russian Godless society ; American branch 
of the official militant Communist anti- 
religious society; section of Proletarian 
Anti-Religious Lg. 

BLUE BLOUSES 

Communist agitational propaganda dra- 
matic groups affiliated with League of 
Workers Theatres. 

BONUS EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 

RANK AND FILE OF AMERICA 
Formed by communist Workers Ex- 
Service Men's League; supporting org. of 
U.S. Congress Against War. 

BRIDGMAN RAID 

"The most colossal conspiracy against 
the U.S. in its history was unearthed at 
Bridgman, Mich., Aug. 22, 1922, when the 
secret convention of the Communist Party 
of America was raided by the Michigan 
constabulary, aided by county and Fed- 
eral officials. Two barrels full of docu- 
mentary proof of the conspiracy were 
seized and are in possession of the author- 
ities. Names, records, checks from promi- 
nent people in this country, instructions 
from Moscow, speeches, theses, question- 
naires indeed the whole machinery of the 
underground organization, the avowed aim 
of which is the overthrow of the U.S. 
government, was found in such shape as 
to condemn every participant in the con- 
vention. ... It is known that agents of 
Communists are working secretly through 
'legal' bodies in labor circles, in society, in 
professional groups, in the Army and Navy, 
in Congress, in the schools and colleges of 
the country, in banks and business con- 
cerns, among the farmers, in the motion 
picture industry in fact in nearly every 



130 



The Red Network 



walk of life. These agents are not 'low 
brows' but keen, clever, intelligent educated 
men and women. . . . They range from 
bricklayers to bishops and include many 
prominent official and society people. There 
were present besides Wm. Z. Foster, C. E. 
Ruthenberg, three times candidate for 
mayor of Cleveland; Ben Gitlow, N.Y. 
labor leader; Ella Reeve Bloor, who says 
she has been arrested more than a hundred 
times for radical agitation among workers; 
Robert Minor; J. Lovestone; Ward Brooks, 
direct representative of the Communist 
Intl., of Moscow; Boris Reinstein, repre- 
senting the Red Trade Union Intl. of 
Moscow; Rose Pastor Stokes; Wm. F. 
Dunne; and many others. The seventeen 
arrested at or near Bridgman were Thos. 
Flaherty of N.Y.; Chas. Erickson, Chas. 
Krumbein, Eugene Bechtold" (Chgo. Wkrs. 
School now), "and Caleb Harrison of Chi- 
cago; Cyril Lambkin, W. Reynolds, 
Detroit; Wm. F. Dunne of Butte, Mont, 
and N.Y.; J. Mihelic, Kansas City; Alex. 
Ball, Phila.; Francis Ashworth, Camden, 
N.J.; E. McMillin, T. R. Sullivan and 
Norman H. Tallentire, St. Louis; Max 
Lerner, Seattle; and Zeth Nordling, Port- 
land, Oregon," (from Whitney's "Reds 
in America"). This revolutionary Party 
frankly aiming to overthrow the U.S. 
Govt., compelled to meet in secret in 1922, 
is now on the ballot in 39 states, is mail- 
ing tons of treasonable literature through 
the U.S. mails, and is conducting schools 
of revolution without interference; after 
ten years, these Communists then arrested 
have had their cases brought up by Pat- 
rick H. O'Brien, A.C.L.U. attorney elected 
Attorney General of Michigan in 1932, and 
dismissed, thus releasing the bond money 
for the benefit of the Communists and 
other radicals; see Labor Defense Council 
and Garland Fund, for aid to Bridgman 
conspirators. 

BROOKWOOD LABOR COLLEGE 

A left wing Socialist school for training 
radical Negro and white agitators; located 
at Katonah, N.Y.; the American Labor 
Year Book states: 

"During the summer of 1931, four members of 
the Brookwood staff assisted at the West Va. 
Mine Workers strike. Other faculty members 
taught at Barnard and Bryn Mawr summer schools 
and lectured at various summer institutes. Faculty 
for 1931-32 consisted of A. J. Muste, Chairman, 
Josephine Colby, David J. Saposs, Helen G. Nor- 
ton, Mark Starr, and J. C. Kennedy, instructors; 
Cara Cook, Katherine Pollak and Lucile Kohn, 
assistants; Tom Tippett, extension director. Lec- 
turers on special topics include Louis Budcnz, 
Herbert S. Bigelow, Frank Palmer and Carl 
Haessler," and states that the American Federation 



of Teachers, the Conference for Progressive Labor 
Action, and Eastern States Cooperative League 
held conferences at Brookwood, 1931-32; see Gar- 
land Fund for bountiful aid it received. 

After a row over policies in 1933, A. J. 
Muste resigned and Tom Tippett left to 
become educational director of the Pro- 
gressive Miners Union at Gillespie, 111., and 
Tucker P. Smith (of the C.M.E.) became 
director of Brookwood, and James H. 
Maurer, Pres.; Fannia M. Cohn, Vice 
Pres.; Bd. of Directors: Abraham Lef- 
kowitz, John Brophy, Phil E. Zeigler, A. J. 
Kennedy, plus officers; Faculty: Tucker 
P. Smith, Director; Josephine Colby; 
David J. Saposs, Sec.; Helen G. Norton; 
Mark Starr, Extension Dir.; J. C. Ken- 
nedy, Dir. of Studies. 

BROTHERHOOD OF SLEEPING 

CAR PORTERS 
See under "Messenger." 

BUILDING MAINTENANCE 

WORKERS UNION 
Communist union of the T.U.U.L. 



CAMPS NITGEDAIGET 

Communist camps near N.Y., Chicago, 
Lumberville, Pa., Wash., D.C., Detroit, 
Birmingham, etc.; run by the communist 
Jewish "United Workers Cooperative 
Assn." The camp near Chicago for example 
is located on Paddock Lake 14 miles west 
of Kenosha, Wis. and occupies about 205 
acres; accommodates 500 to 600 people 
from July 4, to Nov. 1 ; a Young Pioneer 
Camp has been held here for the past 
two years (under direction, 1933, of Com- 
rade Levine of the Young Communist 
League) ; vicious dogs guard the place and 
no autos except those belonging to the 
camp are allowed in the grounds; there is 
an auditorium seating 500 people with stage, 
piano, etc.; has new bath house, a swim- 
ming tank, 5 boats; Comrade Hels of 
Chgo. in charge of it is reported to have 
claimed "the damned dirty Legion burned 
it"; it has been burned three times and 
each time rebuilt bigger and better; Miss 
Litzinger of Kenosha is reported to be office 
secretary. 

CAMP UNITY 

At Wingdale, N.Y.; Communist T.U.U.L. 
Camp. 

CATHOLIC ASSOCIATION FOR 

INTERNATIONAL PEACE 
Pacifist - internationalist organization; 
composed, no doubt, for the most part of 



Organizations, Etc. 



131 



perfectly sincere, non-radical, Christian 
pacifists. However, Rev. John A. Ryan, 
chmn. of its Ethics Committee, is at the 
same time one of three book editors (with 
E. F. Tittle and Edw. Israel) of the very 
radical National Religion and Labor 
Foundation and responsible for distributing 
such Communist literature as Wm. Z. Fos- 
ter's "Toward Soviet America"; John A. 
Lapp, of its Intl. Law and Organization 
Committee, is on the exec. com. of the same 
National Religion and Labor Foundation; 
Both Lapp and Ryan were, in 1923, on 
the Labor Defense Council (see) (now 
Communist I.L.D.), formed to defend Wm. 
Z. Foster and other Communists; James E. 
Hagerty, of its Economics Relations Com- 
mittee, is at the same time Hon. Pres. of 
the National Religion and Labor Foun- 
dation, which also disseminates red revo- 
lutionary propaganda, Communist cartoons 
of Jesus, etc. (see) ; and Patrick H. Calla- 
han, of its Com. on Dependencies, is also 
on the exec. com. of the same National 
Religion and Labor Foundation; Prof. 
Carlton J. H. Hayes (see "Who's Who"), 
whose activity in behalf of the I.W.W. is 
cited in the Lusk Report, serves as chmn. 
of one and member of several other of its 
committees; Rev. R. A. McGowan, a com- 
mittee chmn., was the fellow spokesman 
with the A.C.L.U. group (Edw. I. Israel, 
Bishop Francis J. McConnell, etc.) at the 
Hearing on admission of Prof. Macintosh, 
radical pacifist, to U.S. citizenship without 
promise to defend this Govt. by arms 
(June 1932 A.C.L.U. Report, p. 36; also 
see facsimile of A.C.L.U. letter) ; Parker 
T. Moon, pres., is author of "Imperialism 
and World Politics," which was part of 
the socialist L.I.D. program of reading for 
1927-8; Edw. Keating (see "Who's Who"), 
active member of radical organizations, 
serves on its Com. on Economic Relations; 
Rev. Francis Haas, a vice pres., is classi- 
fied as "radical" by Advisory Associates, 
serving in radical company as Roosevelt 
appointee to the NRA Labor Board (with 
Leo Wolman, Rose Schneidermann, etc.). 
I heard Rev. J. W. Maguire of its Com. 
on Economic Relations, who is pres. of 
St. Viator's College, in action when he 
oratorically and vehemently pleaded at the 
Springfield Legislative Hearing, May 1933, 
in company with Pres. Hutchins of the U. 
of Chicago (where Communism is a recog- 
nized student activity), against the passage 
of the Baker Bills (to penalize the teach- 
ing of seditious Communism in Illinois 
colleges). He said that if passed these 



Bills might even make him trouble as some 
people considered him a dangerous radical. 
He also advanced the anarchistic argument 
that no one should be forced to obey a 
law against his own conscience. At this, 
Senator Barr asked him which of our laws 
he would refuse to obey. After this Hear- 
ing, at which I testified in favor of the 
Bills to curb Communism, I expressed to 
Rev. Maguire my respect for his Church, 
having attended a convent school myself, 
and my surprise and disappointment to 
find him on the side of those fighting for 
freedom to teach Communism and destroy 
Christian faith in our colleges. 

There is however no finer, truer Chris- 
tian and American than Rev. Edmund A. 
Walsh, author and opponent of Soviet 
recognition, who is a member of this 
Catholic Assn. Whether or not its Esper- 
anto connections are with the international 
Red Esperanto groups I have not ascer- 
tained. 

CENTRAL COOPERATIVE 
WHOLESALE (FORMERLY 

CENTRAL COOPERATIVE 

EXCHANGE) 

Of Superior, Wis.; affiliated with the 
Workers and Farmers Cooperative Alliance, 
which is a branch of the communist T.U. 
U.L.; a communistic group that has had 
three Communist Party members on its 
board of directors; sells food products to 
97 member societies with the Soviet em- 
blems, hammer and sickle and red star, 
branded on them ; maintains organizers and 
conducts conferences and summer schools 
with the affiliated Northern States Co- 
operative League; is dedicated to the 
"class struggle"; it, and its affiliates, the 
Cooperative League of U.S.A. and North- 
ern States Cooperative League, received 
money from the Garland Fund; its affili- 
ated Cooperative Trading Co. of Wau- 
kegan, 111., organized Cooperative Un- 
employed Leagues, affiliated with Borders' 
Communist - I.W.W. - controlled Federated 
Unemployed Leagues (see), in every com- 
munity in Lake County, 1932-3; the 1932 
American Labor Year Book reports internal 
friction over control of the administration 
between Socialists and Communists; the 
report of the Communist International of 
1928 said on p. 346; "the Central Co- 
operative Exchange is a left wing organ- 
ization." . . . (See Cooperative Lg. of 
U.S.A.) ; its organ "Cooperative Builder" 
is sold at Communist bookstores. 



132 



The Red Network 



CHICAGO ATHEIST FORUMS 

It is estimated that some fifteen or six- 
teen atheist forums are being conducted at 
various of the 70 local Chicago Communist 
headquarters, Sunday afternoons. One, 
which is plainly advertised each Saturday 
in the Chicago Daily News, is conducted 
by the American Assn. for the Advance- 
ment of Atheism, at 357 Chicago Ave., 
Communist Party local hdqts. Speakers 
for 1933: Haldeman- Julius, Rev. Norman 
Barr, Prof. Frank Midney, Dr. Percy 
Ward, Neal Ness, Rev. Aronson, etc. Only 
atheist literature and the Communist Daily 
Worker are sold at these meetings. On 
Nov. 12, 1933, the atheist speaker used vile 
obscene language in ridiculing the Chris- 
tian religion, and the existence of God. 
His opponent, Rev. L. Hoover, made a weak 
plea for the existence of a power called 
God as evidenced in viewing sunsets, etc. 
This the atheist was given the opportunity 
to ridicule vigorously. The hall is dec- 
orated with communist Russian posters, 
I.L.D. and T.U.U.L. local branch signs, 
Workers Theatre announcements; a big 
red paper bow drapes the top of the stage; 
and a black board lists meetings and 
speakers of the communist Unemployed 
Councils, which meet there. On Nov. 12, 
the name of "James M. Yard, D.D." was 
chalked up as speaker for Nov. IS. (See 
under "Who's Who.") 

CHICAGO CITY CLUB 
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS 

COMMITTEE 

Purposes similar to and cooperates with 
A.C.L.U.; formed 1932; hdqts.: City 
Club, 315 Plymouth Court, Chgo. At the 
City Club, the "Workers Training School" 
of the C.W.C. on Unemp., A.C.L.U. and 
L.I.D. meetings are also held. 

CHICAGO COMMITTEE FOR 
STRUGGLE AGAINST WAR 
See under "Intl., American and Chicago 
Committees for Struggle Against War." 

CHICAGO COMMITTEE TO AID 
VICTIMS OF GERMAN FASCISM 

Chicago section of the Nat. Com. to Aid 
Victims of German Fascism (see) of com- 
munist W.I.R.; hdqts. Room 310208 N. 
Wells St., Chicago; organ "Anti-Fascist 
Action." 

CHICAGO EMERGENCY COMMITTEE 

FOR STRIKERS RELIEF 
See under Emergency Committee for 
Strikers Relief. 



CHICAGO FORUM COUNCIL 

An intellectual agency propagandizing 
socialistic communistic doctrines; organized 
about 1925; merged with the Adult Edu- 
cation Council, about 1929; directed then 
and now by Fred Atkins Moore (of the 
Chicago A.C.L.U. Committee and com- 
munist Nat. Council for Protection of 
Foreign Born Workers) ; operates the Chi- 
cago Forum, which features the reddest of 
Communist and Socialist speakers; pub- 
lishes "Educational Events," a bulletin 
widely distributed, announcing radical 
meetings and forums; sponsors radio 
broadcasts of radical speakers and con- 
ducts a speakers bureau. In 1928 among 
council members were: 

Arthur Fisher, Louis L. Mann, John A. Lapp, 
Herbert J. Friedman (president), Wm. H. Holly, 
Jessie Binford, Horace Bridges, Wm. E. Dodd, Paul 
Douglas, Rev. Chas. W. Gilkey, A. L. Jackson, 
Robt. Morss Lovett, Mary E. McDowell, Chas. 
Clayton Morrison, Curtis Reese, Amelia Sears, Jane 
Addams, Rev. E. F. Tittle, Harold L. Ickes, 
(all A.C.L.U.), Henry P. Chandler, "liberalizer 
of the Union League Club," Rev. Norman Barr, 
John Fitzpatrick, Ann Guthrie, Solomon B. Free- 
hof, Mrs. B. F. Langworthy, Salmon 0. Levin- 
son, Frank Orman Beck (Reconciliation Trips 
director), James Mullenbach, Agnes Nestor, Mor- 
decai Shulman, Graham Taylor, David Rhys 
Williams, Dr. Rachelle S. Yarros, Samuel Levin, 
Charles E. Merriam (see "Who's Who" for 
these), S. J. Duncan-Clark, etc. 

The 1933 program featured as speakers: 
Communists Anna Louise Strong and John 
Strachey; Socialists Sherwood Eddy, Norman 
Thomas, etc.; our Assistant "Commissar" of 
Agriculture, Rex. G. Tugwell; Dr. Alfons Gold- 
schmidt, Red professor welcomed" out of Ger- 
many; James Weldon Johnson of the Garland 
Fund, etc. and names as the managing com- 
mittee: Wm. H. Holly, chmn. and Lillian Her- 
stein, vice chmn. (both members of Communist 
and Socialist organizations) ; Mrs. Beatrice Hayes 
Podell, sec.; R. G. Sathoff, treas.; Chas. W. 
Balch, Benj. Baltzer, Howard S. Bechtolt, Edith 
Benjamin, R. E. Blount, Fred Chayes, Mrs. Eli 
Daiches, Rev. Theodore C. Hume,* Chas. E. 
Lewis, Mrs. Fred Lowenthal,* Abraham Nechin, 
Mrs. M. D. Neufield, Mr. and Mrs. Edw. VV. 
Ohrenstein, Geo. C. Olcott, Mrs. Glenn E. 
Plumb, Chas. A. Snyder, C. Francis Stradford, 
Chas. E. Suiter, Grace W. Weller, W. H. Wicker- 
sham, Dr. Walter Verity; Hdqts.: 224 S. 
Michigan Ave.; Director, Fred Atkins Moore.* 
(*Listed in this "Who's Who.") 

CHICAGO LABOR RESEARCH 
Chicago branch of the Labor Research, 
Inc.; collects material for Communist 
speakers, trade unions, organizers, etc.; 
hdqts. Chicago Workers School, 2822 S. 
Michigan Ave. 

CHICAGO LAWYERS 
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS 

COMMITTEE 

Purposes similar to and cooperates with 
A.C.L.U.; formed 1932; Hdqts.: Leon M. 
Despres, 77 W. Washington St., Chgo. 



Organizations, Etc. 



133 



CHICAGO WORKERS COMMITTEE 

ON UNEMPLOYMENT 
C.W.C. on Unemp. 

Claims sixty Locals with 20,000 members 
in Chicago; headed by Karl Borders and 
organized by him originally as a sub- 
sidiary of the socialist League for Indus- 
trial Democracy (L.I.D.) Chicago branch 
to capitalize upon unemployment by organ- 
izing the unemployed, ostensibly to aid 
them but at the same time to endoctrinate 
and finally align them with the Socialist 
movement. It is represented on the board 
of the Federation of Unemployed Organ- 
izations of Cook County headed by Com- 
munist Karl Lochner and both organiza- 
tions are affiliated with the national Fed- 
eration of Unemployed Workers Leagues 
(See) of which Karl Borders was national 
chairman until May 1933, when the con- 
vention held at Lincoln Center, Chicago, 
May 13, 14, 15, elected a controlling board 
of Communist, Proletarian (communist- 
supporting) and I.W.W. officers. This indi- 
cates the present marked drawing together 
of revolutionary forces for united action 
(See this also under Socialism, U.S. Con- 
gress Against War, etc.). The C.W.C. on 
Unemp. conducted a "Workers Training 
School" beginning March 30, 1933 at the 
Chicago City Club with Prof. Maynard C. 
Krueger teaching "New Economics for 
Old," Lillian Herstein "The Class Struggle 
in American History," W. B. Waltmire 
"How to Organize," etc., at which repre- 
sentatives of the Educational Committees 
of the Locals were expected to be present. 
Fortnightly Executive Committee meetings 
are held at Graham Taylor's Chicago Com- 
mons, 955 W. Grand Ave., of which Karl 
Borders is assistant head resident. W. B. 
Waltmire is chairman of this "Workers 
Training School" and when the C.W.C. on 
Unemp. cooperated with the Communist 
Party in staging the Chicago Oct. 31, 1932 
"Hunger March" in which hundreds of 
revolutionary placards and Soviet emblems 
and flags were carried, Waltmire was 
spokesman before the Mayor for the 
demonstrators. The official organ is the 
"New Frontier," a fortnightly paper which 
publishes such propaganda as the Commu- 
nist revolutionary songs "Red Flag" and 
"Internationale" and the I.W.W. song 
"Solidarity" by Ralph Chaplin (who 
served 5 years in the Penitentiary for 
seditious activities), and urges members to 
paste these songs in their hats, sing them 
in the bathtub, and learn them so they 
can "raise the roof" with them at the 



meetings (See Mar. 4, 1933 issue). Pub- 
lished at 20 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 
L.I.D. headquarters; editor Robt. E. Asher; 
mg. ed. John Paul Jones; circ. mgr. C. W. 
Fisher; ed. bd.; Karl Borders, W. B. Walt- 
mire, Glenford Lawrence, Chas. Williams, 
Harry Roberts. 

The 60 Chicago C.W.C. on Unemp. 
Locals meet according to the "New 
Frontier" at the following places: 

Lincoln Center; New England Congl. Church, 
19 E. Delaware Place; Jefferson Pk. Congl. 
Church, 5320 Giddings St.; Baptist Church, 670 
E. 39th St.; Graham Taylor's Chicago Com- 
mons; Olivet Institute; Ogden Park Mcth. 
Church; Chase House (Episc.); Workers Pro- 
gressive Club, 608 N. Leavitt St.; Pilgrim 
Congl. Church; Hyde Pk. Neighborhood Club, 
1364 E. 56th St.; Hull House; Christopher 
House; Marcy Center; Hermosa Park Field 
House; Howell Neighborhood House; Garibaldi 
Institute; Trumbull Pk. Field House; Association 
House; Eli Bates House; U. of Chgo. Settle- 
ment; Emerson House; etc., etc. 

The Executive is Karl Borders, 20 W. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago; Committee Chairmen: L. C. 
Brooks, G. B. Patterson, W. D. Hogan, W. H. 
Seed, Glenford Lawrence, D. S. Howard; Execu- 
tive Committee: Rev. W. B. Waltmire, Lester 
Dewey, vice chmn., Winifred Frost, sec., Frank 
W. McCulloch (son of Catherine Waugh), treas., 
Norman Buending, E. J. Cook, Annetta Dieck- 
mann, Ray Jacobson, John Paul Jones, G. B. 
Patterson, Moderato Renzi, Hyman Schneid, 
T. M. Torgerson, Vincent Wojdinski; Advisory 
Committee: Rev. Norman Barr, Jessie Binford, 
Prof. Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, C. F. Case, 
Geo. E. Chant, Prof. Paul Douglas, Hilda R. 
Diamond, Prof. Aaron Director, Adolph Drei- 
fuss, Arthur Fisher, A. L. Frost, Anton Garden, 
Frank Z. Click, Edw. Hammond, Prof. Arthur 
E. Holt, Mrs. H. R. Henshaw, Paul Hutchinson, 
Florence Jennison, Harold Kelso, Marjorie Kemp, 
Rev. Harold O. Kingsley, A. M. Krahl, Dr. John 
A. Lapp, Glenford Lawrence, Samuel Levin, 
Judith Lowenthal, Prof. Robt. Morss Lovett, 
David McVey, Rev. Victor Marriott, Dr. James 
Mullenbach, Rev. D. M. Nichol, Rev. Raymond 
P. Sanford, Sarah B. Schaar, William Seed, 
Clarence Senior (nat. sec., Socialist Party), Lea 
D. Taylor (daughter of Graham), Harriet Vit- 
tum, John Werlik, Edward Winston, Dr. James 
Yard. 

CHICAGO WORKERS THEATRE 
Local branch of the Communist "League 
of Workers Theatres of the U.S.A.," which 
is the American section of the "Inter- 
national Union of the Revolutionary 
Theatre" headed at Moscow; Chicago 
headquarters John Reed Club (Commu- 
nist), 1475 South Michigan Ave.; the 
official Chicago Communist newspaper, 
"Workers Voice," announced Jan. 21, 1933: 
"The Workers Theatre of Chicago, a revo- 
lutionary group and the first of its kind 
in the city was launched by John Reed 
Club which took the lead in its formation 
and which regarded the step as a potent 
weapon of the toiling masses in their 
struggle against capitalism. . . . Leading 



134 



The Red Network 



players from the universities, Lincoln Cen- 
ter and the Jewish Peoples Institute 
crowded John Reed Club headquarters, 
1475 S. Michigan Ave., on a bitterly cold 
night to discuss plans for the theatre. A 
production committee . . . was elected to 
carry out . . . casting for the first play 
'Precedent,' a drama by I. J. Golden deal- 
ing with the Tom Mooney frameup." This 
play was presented at the Goodman 
Theatre, Grant Park, as the first of the 
series. Patriotic efforts, it was reported, 
caused the Goodman Theatre to cancel the 
lease after two performances, but at the 
Communist May Day Mooney Rally at 
the Chicago Stadium, May 1, 1933, tickets 
were being sold for this play to be given 
at the Chicago Woman's Club that same 
week; sponsors of the communist Chi- 
cago Workers Theatre as listed by their 
announcements are as follows: 

Sherwood Anderson, Waldo Frank, Prof. 

Eustace Haydon, Prof. Scott Nearing, Prof. 

Louis Wirth, Malcolm Cowley, Michael Gold, 

Mary McDowell, Dr. Curtis Reese, Prof. James 
M. Yard, Jacob L. Crane, Albert Goldman, Prof. 

Harold Lasswell, Prof. Fred L. Schuman, Prof. 
Robt. Morss Lovett. 

CHINA FORUM 

Communist Shanghai publication (in 
English) published by an American, Harold 
R. Isaacs, 23 Yuen Ming Yuen Road, 
Shanghai, China. 

CHINESE ANTI-IMPERIALIST 

ALLIANCE 
Branch of A.A.A.I. Lg. of U.S. 

CHRISTIAN CENTURY 

Classified by Smith-Johns (in "Pastors, 
Politicians .and Pacifists") as a "pro- 
Russian, revolutionary, religious weekly"; 
features Socialist and Communist articles 
such as "The Communist Way Out" by 
Communist Scott Nearing (Oct. 12, 1932 
issue), etc. 

Editor, Chas. Clayton Morrison; mng. ed., 
Paul Hutchinson; lit. ed., Winifred Ernest Gar- 
rison; contrib. eds. : Lynn Harold Hough, Alva 
W. Taylor, Herbert L. Willett, Fred Eastman, 
Reinhold Niebuhr, Joseph Fort Newton, Thos. 
Curtis Clark, Robt. A. Ashworth; hdqts.: 440 
S. Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

Chas. Clayton Morrison presided at the 
huge Communist meeting, Oct. 23, 1933, 
at the Chicago Coliseum, held to honor 
and hear Henri Barbusse, French visiting 
Communist, founder of the Ex-Service 
Men's International, which teaches soldiers 
of all armies to "turn an imperialist war 
into a civil war" or red revolution by 
shooting their officers in the backs, as they 



did in Russia, and blowing up their coun- 
try's ammunition, etc. at the right moment. 
Only the red flag of revolution was dis- 
played and the International sung at this 
meeting, attended by about 9,000 Reds 
(and myself). Morrison was cheered when 
he said we would never have peace until 
the capitalist system was abolished! In 
introducing the various Communist speak- 
ers, he referred to Joseph Freeman of the 
communist "New Masses" as his "fellow 
editor." 

"The Christian Century,," March 29, 
1933, p. 433, under the heading "Methodist 
Bishop Attacks The Christian Century," 
stated: "In a mid-year letter to Methodist 
ministers in the Omaha area Bishop Fred- 
erick D. Leete warns them against reading 
The Christian Century and certain books, 
unspecified, published by the Methodist 
book concern: 'Fellow-preachers,' says the 
bishop, 'we will do better work if our 
reading is spiritual rather than materialistic, 
critical and weak in faith in the great 
essentials. I find evidence and hear reports 
which I feel I ought to pass on to the 
effect that The Christian Century is doing 
Methodism and the church in general little 
good. Some of our pastors tell me they 
have decided not to support it further. 
Some books even from our own firm, seem 
to me injurious. I am determined to sup- 
ply my mind with the most strengthening 
food.' " 

CHRISTIAN SOCIAL ACTION 

MOVEMENT 
Chr. Soc. Act. M. 

A movement to introduce Socialism- 
Communism into churches, according to its 
"Leaders Handbook," sold at Methodist 
Board of Education hdqts., 740 Rush St., 
Chicago (price I5c) ; organized April 1932 
by a conference of 84 ministers, their wives, 
and laymen, fourteen of these giving "740 
Rush Street" as address; the handbook 
anounces that "A Socialist Minister's Pro- 
tective Association, with 21 charter mem- 
bers was formed. . . . The purpose of the 
Assn. is to provide emergency maintenance 
for any member who loses his job because 
of social interest and activity. For detailed 
information inquiry may be made of the 
Rev. W. B. Waltmire, Humboldt Pk. Com- 
munity Church, Chicago." 

This precaution is not surprising in view 
of the program outlined in the handbook, 
which gives detailed instructions for con- 
ducting unemployed "hearings," confer- 
ences, mid-week discussion meetings, dra- 
matics, games, calling attention in ser- 



Organizations, Etc. 



135 



mons to a rack of Communist and Social- 
ist literature to be placed in the Church 
for reading, and numerous other schemes 
for definitely propagandizing the belief 
that our American "capitalistic" social sys- 
tem has permanently collapsed and that 
Socialism must be substituted for it. The 
books recommended for reading by Church 
people are by such authors as Atheist- 
Socialist Haldeman-Julius, atheistic Com- 
munists Robt. W. Dunn, Scott Nearing, 
Grace Hutchins, Anna Rochester, Char- 
lotte Todes, and M. Ilin of Russia (Geo. 
S. Counts' translation), and radicals Nor- 
man Thomas, Harry Ward, Kirby Page, 
Sherwood Eddy, James Weldon Johnson, 
Winthrop Lane, Oscar Ameringer, Paul 
Douglas, the Webbs (English radicals), 
G. B. Shaw, H. W. Laidler, Maurice Hin- 
dus, Stuart Chase, Arthur Garfield Hays, 
Raushenbush, Meiklejohn, etc.; and also 
A.C.L.U. pamphlets. 

Under "Resource Agencies," are listed 
the leading radical organizations such as 
the League for Industrial Democracy, Fel- 
lowship of Reconciliation, Committee on 
Militarism in Education, Methodist Fed- 
eration for Social Service, etc. Observance 
of the "first of May Labor Day" (the 
Communist Labor Day) is advised. 

The following are characteristic excerpts 
from this "Leaders Handbook": "Pro- 
gressive Steps Toward Socialism (1) Up- 
lift and coercion. Our task is to get under- 
neath the victims of our present order and 
lift up and get above and press down" 
(Most capitalists are well pressed down 
now it would seem and because of that 
the job holders suffer.) "Industrial Justice 
cannot be secured without coercion." 
(Coercion is a polite word for a Socialist 
program); "(4) Political Organization: 
Workers must be organized into a political 
party." (The un-American idea of joining 
church and state in politics); (p. 58). 
"Foment Discontent. There is great danger 
religion may be 'the opium of the people' " 
(quoting atheist Karl Marx), "it is the 
duty of the Church to stimulate the spirit 
of protest and revolt within the breasts 
of impoverished men and women; (12) 
That all ministers who are willing to par- 
ticipate actively in the industrial conflict 
register with the Methodist Federation for 
Social Service ... to act as arbitrators or 
as actual participants in the distribution 
of literature, parading, speaking, picketing," 
etc.; (p. 58) "Minority groups: The 
local church should cooperate with all 
those organizations in the community 
which are seeking basic changes in the 



economic order." (Socialists, Communists, 
Anarchists, I.W.W.'s are such "minority 
groups," and advocate "basic changes" 
involving sedition and revolution.) "The 
church building should be made available 
as a meeting place for such groups when- 
ever there is a denial of free speech. 
Wherever there is no agency to call a 
meeting of protest in the event of violation 
of human rights and civil liberties, min- 
isters and churches should take the 
initiative in so doing." ("Free speech" is 
the battle cry of all Reds favoring sedition 
and revolution.) The conference, in this 
handbook, thanks those who "so gener- 
ously contributed time, effort and expert 
information" to make it a success, naming 
as "good angels": Kirby Page, Arthur E. 
Holt, J. Stitt Wilson, Paul Hutchinson, 
Clarence Tucker Craig, Karl Borders, David 
Shillinglaw, Wm. C. Bonner, F. S. Deibler 
and Clarence Senior. 

The chairman of the Christian Social Action 
Movement is Gilbert S. Cox; Secretary, Owen M. 
Geer, 740 Rush St., Chgo.; Executive Com- 
mittee: Ross Conner, Whitewater, Wis.; J. 
Pierce Newell, Rockford, 111.; Paul Hutchinson, 
Chgo.; John C. Irwin, 740 Rush St., Chgo.; 
Douglas Anderson, Illiopolis, 111.; W. B. Walt- 
mire, Chgo.; B. E. Kirkpatrick, 740 Rush St., 
Chgo.; Wade Crawford Barclay, 740 Rush St., 
Chgo.; O. W. Auman, 740 Rush St., Chgo.; Edi- 
torial Committee: Alice B. Mallory, Elmhurst, 
111., and several of the executive committee 
members. Other committee members listed are: 
Gross W. Alexander, Fresno, Cal.; Lester Auman, 
Jamaica, N.Y.; E. W. Blakeman, Wesley Foun- 
dation, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Karl Borders, Chi- 
cago; E. A. Brown, Cleveland, Ohio; Harold C. 
Case, Glencoe, 111.; Richard Decker, Auburn, 
Wash.; R. O. Hills, Casper, Wyo.; Theo. Miner, 
Saltsburg, Pa.; R. B. Porter, Eugene, Ore.; Harry 
O. Ritter, St. Louis, Mo.; Chas. Schofield, Ft. 
Collins, Colo.; Benj. Schwartz, Muscatine, la.; 
Carl C. Seitter, Los Angeles, Cal.; Paul J. 
Snyder, Minneapolis, Minn.; J. Stitt Wilson, 
Berkeley, Cal. 

Other conference members listed are: 

James Asher, St. Paul, Minn.; Carl Asmus, 
Stevens Pt., Wis.; G. E. Bailey, Minneapolis, 
Minn.; Chas. F. Boss, Jr., 740 Rush St., Chi- 
cago; Mr. and Mrs. Chester L. Bower, Chgo.; 
Ina C. Brown, Nashville, Tenn.; Dan B. Brum- 
mitt, 740 Rush St., Chgo.; Geo. A. Burcham, 
Evanston, 111.; Roy E. Burt, 740 Rush St., 
Chgo.; Mrs. Roy E. Burt, Chicago; Fay Butler, 
Los Angeles, Cal.; Mark Chamberlain, S. Mil- 
waukee, Wis.; Clarence Tucker Craig, Oberlin, 
O.; Lewis H. Davis, Long Island, N.Y.; Nellie 
M. Day. Chicago; Merle N. English, 740 Rush 
St., Chicago; Mrs. M. N. English, Chicago; 
Carl Gamer, Mazon, 111.; Ruth C. Geer, Elm- 
hurst, 111.; Mrs. U. S. Grant, Evanston, 111.; 
W. E. J. Gratz, 740 Rush St., Chicago; Earl C. 
Heck, Westchester, N.Y.; Chas. Hempstead, 
Cleveland, Ohio; E. C. Hickman, St. Paul, Minn.; 
Carl Hutchinson, Chicago; Geo. B. Jones, Brook, 
Ind.; C. C. Jordan, Gary, Ind.; Andrew Juvinall, 
Evanston, 111.; Clyde Keegan, Boulder, Colo.; 
H. R. Kelley, Centralia, 111.; Roy Kelley, 740 
Rush St., Chgo.; A. E. Kirk, 740 Rush St., 
Chgo.; Mrs. B. E. Kirkpatrick, Chgo.; Clyde 



136 



The Red Network 



Little, DeSoto, Mo.; Wm. Matson, Huntington 
Beach, Cal.; Frank M. McKibben, Evanston, 
111.; Wendell Miller, Harbor City, Cal.; Lester 
R. Minion, Polo, IB.; Floyd Morris, Jackson- 
ville, N.Y.; Ruth Morton, Chicago; T. Otto 
Nail, 740 Rush St., Chicago; Kirby Page, N.Y. 
C.; Mary Randolph, 740 Rush St., Chicago; 
Victor H. Reiser, Waveland, Ind.; Paul A. 
Schlipp, College of the Pacific, Stockton, Cal.; 
Joseph Sefl, Chicago; Russel Stroup, Balboa, 
Cal.; A. E. Tink, West Bend, Wis.; Mrs. Geo. 
H. Tomlinson, Evanston, 111.; Frank Toothaker, 
Hynes, Cal.; Vernon C. Tyree, Delta, Colo.; 
W. D. Waller, Santa Fe, N.M.; E. C. Wareing, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; Morgan Williams, Chicago, 
111.; Roland Wolseley, Evanston, 111.; James M. 
Yard, Evanston, 111. 

The handbook states on page 48 that 
invitations to this conference were sent 
"only to those who were socially awakened ; 
had already done a good deal of thinking 
on social and economic questions; who 
were ready to start with the assumption 
that the present system is basically 
wrong, ..." etc. 

CHURCH EMERGENCY COMMITTEE 
FOR RELIEF OF TEXTILE 

STRIKERS 
Ch. Emer. Com. Rel. Textile Strik. 

Formed to aid the jointly-conducted 
Communist and Socialist strike at Dan- 
ville Va., of the United Textile Workers 
Union and communist National Textile 
Workers Union; hdqts.: 287 4th Ave., 
N.Y.C.; includes: Dr. Alva W. Taylor, 
chmn., Rev. Wm. B. Spofford, treas., Rev. 
James Myers, Rev. W. Russel Bowie, 
Winifred Chappell, Jerome Davis, Mary 
Dreier, Rev. Hubert Herring, Rev. Ronald 
Tamblyn, Rev. Worth M. Tippy, Rev. 
Chas. Webber. 

CHURCH LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL 

DEMOCRACY 
Ch. L.I.D. 

An Episcopal Socialist organization using 
L.I.D. literature; it absorbed the Church 
Socialist League (see) ; was formed in 1920 
by members of the A.C.L.U. and L.I.D. ; 
the pres. was Rev. Edw. L. Parsons; chmn. 
Vida Scudder; treas. Geo. Foster Peabody; 
asst. treas. Rev. Horace Fort; sec. Rev. 
Wm. B. Spofford; now headed by Rev. 
Wm. B. Spofford; claims about 1,000 
members. 

The following excerpts are from the 
"Statement of Principles" of the Church 
L.I.D.: "We face a world in revolution. . . . 
We believe that the Church is ready and 
anxious to discover how it can best be 
useful in forwarding the New Order; and 
we therefore pledge ourselves to help the 
great mass of Church people who are as 



yet uncertain how to find the way. . . . 
In case of teachers and preachers in our 
communion whose positions are endangered 
by reason of their social radicalism we 
promise ... to give moral and practical 
support to those who shall clearly be seen 
to have incurred persecution through 
advising of social change. . . . We further 
intend to assist in recruiting such candi- 
dates for the ministry as shall enter it 
with desire for socialized leadership." 

To quote from an "Open Letter to Mem- 
bers of the Protestant Episcopal Church," 
issued by The Movement Against Socialism 
in the Church, 18 Tremont Street, Room 
732, Boston, Mass. (Page 8): "The first 
convention of the Church League for 
Industrial Democracy, at New York, was 
addressed by the conspicuous radical agi- 
tators, the Rev. Harry F. Ward, Chair- 
man of the American Civil Liberties Union 
(hereinafter called A.C.L.U.) ; Lincoln 
Steffens, magazine writer ; James H. Maurer, 
of the communist Trades Union Edu- 
cational League, who seems to have signed 
the call for the convention, and others. 
Professor Vida D. Scudder, of Wellesley 
College, an officer of both the League for 
Industrial Democracy (hereinafter called 
L.I.D.) and A.C.L.U., and the Rev. Horace 
Fort, also of the L.I.D., are, or were, offi- 
cers of the Church League for Industrial 
Democracy (hereinafter called C.L.I.D.). 
Its Executive Secretary, the Rev. William 
B. Spofford, wrote of it under date of June 
1, 1926, in answer to an inquiry, as fol- 
lows: 'The Church Socialist League, to 
which you addressed your letter, was dis- 
banded last year; the members at that 
time joining the C.L.I.D. We felt that 
there was hardly room in the Episcopal 
Church for two organizations with prac- 
tically the same aim. ... We are people 
who are classed all the way from liberals 
to communists.' (Italics ours.) Another 
letter from Mr. Spofford, printed in the 
Twentieth Aniversary booklet of the L.I.D. 
says: 'At a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the C.L.I.D. recently, it was 
decided that there was little use for pub- 
lications of our own, so long as the L.I.D. 
continued to get out such splendid pam- 
phlets, which could be purchased for dis- 
tribution at low cost.' " 

CHURCH SOCIALIST LEAGUE 

(EPISCOPAL) 

Organized 1911 by Episcopal clergy and 
laymen; its national secretary, Rev. Byron- 
Curtiss, in a report in the radicals' Amer- 
ican Labor Year Book (volume II, pp. 



Organizations, Etc. 



137 



358-60) said: "In spite of the conservatism 
of the Episcopal Church and its members 
yet that church has officially adopted 
radical and even revolutionary resolutions 
and the influence of the Church Socialist 
League is discernible as giving color to 
them. A considerable share of the clergy 
are tinctured with Socialism. With but 
6,000 clergy, several hundred are avowed 
Socialists and nearly one hundred are mem- 
bers of the Socialist Party"; the official 
organ was the quarterly 'The Social 
Preparation," whi'ch asserted: "We are 
not reformers trying to patch up an out 
worn garment but revolutionists"; a meet- 
ing of the League held at the Rand School, 
June 29, 1919, issued a radical manifesto 
calling for a "complete revolution of our 
present economic and social disorder," etc., 
and sent a message to Pres. Wilson express- 
ing absolute sympathy with the Soviet 
government of Russia and asking him to 
cease intervention in Russia (Lusk 
Report). Those who signed this manifesto 
and in whose behalf Reverends Smiley and 
Spofford sent the message to Pres. Wilson 
were: Reverends John Paul Jones, J. P. 
Morris, Chas. H. Collett, James L. Smiley, 
Wm. B. Spofford, J. G. Mythen, Alfred 
Pridis, Irwin St. John Tucker (convicted 
that year of sedition), A. L. Byron- Curtiss, 
Horace Fort, Robt. Johnson, Richard M. 
Doubs, Alfred Farr, Geo. J. Miller, and 
John M. Horton ; the League was absorbed 
by the Church League for Industrial 
Democracy about 1920 (see above). 

CHURCH TAXATION LEAGUE 

Sponsored by 4A and other radicals. 

CHU SING YOUTH ASSOCIATION 

Chinese Communist subsidiary; head- 
quarters H. T. Chang, P. O. Box 2454, 
San Francisco, California. 

CLARTE 

French Communist club, 30 W. 58th St., 
N.Y. City; part of the Clarte Movement 
formed by Henri Barbusse. Associated with 
him were the writers: Anatole France, 
Jules Romains, Thos. Hardy, and H. G. 
Wells (Daily Worker, Sept. 29, 1933). 

CLEANERS, DYERS AND 

PRESSERS UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union; 223 Second 
Ave., N.Y. City. 

CLEVELAND TRADE UNION 
CONFERENCE 

Aug. 29-30, 1933 ; called by about thirty 
Communist Party leaders, joined by some 



A.F. of L. local officers; 10 Progressive 
Miners Union representatives; Full Fash- 
ioned Hosiery Wkrs. officers; Francis Hen- 
son of the Nat. R. & L. Found.; etc. 

CLOTHING WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
A Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

COMINTERN 

Abbreviation for Communist Inter- 
national (see Internationals; also Commu- 
nist Organization in the U.S.A.). 

COMMITTEE ON ACADEMIC 

FREEDOM 

Of the A.C.L.U.; defends the right of 
teachers to teach Red revolutionary doc- 
trines in the class room; Prof. Wm. H. 
Kilpatrick, chmn.; Forrest Bailey, sec. 

COMMITTEE ON COAL AND 

GIANT POWER 
Com. on Coal & Giant P. 

A Socialist-controlled organization sub- 
sidized by the Garland Fund (see "Garland 
Fund"), working for public ownership of 
utilities and the coal industry, which is 
part of the Socialist program. Italicized 
names in the following list of its advisory 
council members (1926) were also League 
for Industrial Democracy (L.I.D.) officers 
or directors: Oscar Ameringer, Robt. W. 
Bruere, Stuart Chase, McAlister Coleman, 
H. C. Cross, Morris Ernst, Clinton J. 
Golden, Robt. L. Hale, Arthur Garfield 
Hays, A. S. Holcombe, A. B. Jones, Milton 
Jones, H. W. Laidler, J. H. McGill (vice 
pres. Pub. O. Lg. of Am.), Evelyn Preston, 
Donald Richberg, Champlain Riley, J. H. 
Ryckman, George Soule, Norman Thomas, 
Edw. Wieck, U.S. Sen. Geo. W. Norris, 
Delso Wilcox (vice pres. Pub. O. Lg. of 
Am.), H. W. Raushenbush (secretary). 

COMMITTEE ON CULTURAL 
RELATIONS WITH LATIN 

AMERICA 
Com. Cult. Rel. Lat. Am. 

An A.C.L.U. - dominated committee 
organized about 1928-29 with Hubert C. 
Herring (A.C.L.U., nat. com.) as executive 
director; is antagonistic toward the Mon- 
roe Doctrine and deplores U.S. "imperial- 
ism" ; in this respect its program is identical 
with that of the communist All America 
Anti-Imperialist League, which, among 
other activities, directs its propaganda 
shafts at U.S. "imperialism" and the Mon- 
roe Doctrine; a letter sent out Oct. 26, 



138 



The Red Network 



1931 by the Chicago Branch soliciting 
attendance at a dinner at the Chicago 
Woman's Club, Nov. 9th, to be addressed 
by Herring, stated in part: "Among other 
features will be a description by Mr. 
Herring of some proposed short conducted 
trips in December and January and a 
Seminar in the Carribean in February. 
These should appeal to many people who 
have been charmed with what they have 
read and seen of Mexico and the Carri- 
bean, especially those who have been read- 
ing recent volumes such as that of Stuart 
Chase." On the letterhead, executives of 
the Chicago branch were listed as: "Mrs. 
Frank H. McCulloch, chairman, 231 S. 
La Salle St." (Catherine Waugh McCul- 
loch, A.C.L.U. Chgo. Com.); "Clyde C. 
McGee, vice chairman, 1755 W. 103rd St." 
(A.C.L.U. Chgo. Com.) ; "Mrs. Henry W. 
Austin, treasurer, 1022 Lake Street, Oak 
Park; Rudolph A. Clemen, secretary, 650 
Garland Ave., Winnetka." 

Officers: John Dewey, Hon. Chmn.; 
Stuart Chase, Chmn.; Walter Frank, 
Treas.; Edward A. Ross, Florence E. 
Allen, Henry Goddard Leach, Father Fred- 
eric Siedenburg, Vice-chmn.; Hubert C. 
Herring, Exec. Dir. 

COMMITTEE ON MILITARISM IN 

EDUCATION (ILLINOIS ALSO) 
C.M.E. and C.M.E.I11. 

Supporting organization of Communist- 
organized and controlled U.S. Congress 
Against War and represented on similar 
World Congress of Youth Against War 
and Fascism by Edwin C. Johnson. 

Received $12,400 from the "Red" Gar- 
land Fund to propagandize against military 
training in the schools, $5,400 of which, 
according to the Garland Fund 1925-28 
official report, was "for preparation and 
distribution of pamphlet on Military 
Training in Schools and Colleges in the 
U.S." by Socialist Winthrop D. Lane. This 
pamphlet was widely distributed by the 
closely associated Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation, the League for Industrial Democ- 
racy, Women's International League for 
Peace and Freedom, American Civil Lib- 
erties Union, all financed in part by the 
Garland Fund, and to some extent by the 
Federal Council of Churches. Quarters 
adjoined the Fellowship of Reconciliation 
(Room 383) at 387 Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York City (until the Fell. 
Recon. moved, 1933). 

Alvin C. Goddard, Treasurer; Tucker P. Smith 
Rnd Edwin C. Johnson, Secretaries; Executive 
Board: George A. Coe, Chairman, Harry A. Over- 



street and John Nevin Sayre, Vice Chairmen, and 
Roswell P. Barnes, Leslie Blanchard, Mrs. J. 
Henry Callister, Inez Cavert, Mrs. Bennett Ep- 
stein, Mrs. J. Malcolm Forbes, William B. Harvey, 
E. C. Lindeman, Patrick Malin, Norman Thomas, 
Wellington H. Tinker, Walter Van Kirk, Kenneth 
Walser; National Council: Will W. Alexander, 
Rev. W. Russell Bowie, Howell Hamilton Broach, 
John Brophy, Bayard H. Christy, J. Elwood Cox, 
Albert F. Coyle, Mrs. J. Sergeant Cram, Prof 
Jerome Davis, James H. Dillard, Sherwood Eddy, 
Rev. Noble S. Elderkin, Prof. Charles Ellwood, 
Zona Gale, Lindley V. Gordon, Rev. Joel Hayden 
Prof. Carlton J. H. Hayes, Pres. John M. Henry 
(Coll. Pres.), Rev. John Herring, Prof. Manley 
O. Hudson, Hannah Clothier Hull, Prof. Rufus 
Jones, James Weldon Johnson, Frederick Libby 
Prof. Robert Morss Lovett, Halford Luccock, 
Frederick Lynch, James H. Maurer, Prof. Alexander 
Meiklejohn, Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Mrs. 
John F. Moors, Orie O. Miller, Pres. Arthur E. 
Morgan (Coll. Pres.), Pres. S. K. Mosiman (Coll. 
Pres.), A. J. Muste, Rev. Reinhold Niebuhr, Frank 
Olmstead; Pres. Bromley Oxnam, (Coll. Pres ) 
Kirby Page, Pres. Marion Park (Coll. Pres.), 
Bishop Edward L. Parsons, Carl Patterson, Prof 
Ira M. Price, Justice James Hoge Ricks, Prof. W. 
Carson Ryan, Dean William J. Scarlett, Henry 
Seabury, Mary Seabury, J. Henry Scattergood, 
Charles M. Sheldon, Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, 
Katherine V. Silverthorn, Thomas Guthrie Speers 
Rev. Ernest F. Tittle, Henry P. Van Dusen, 
Oswald G. Villard, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Prof 
Luther A. Weigle, Pres. Mary E. Woolley (Coll. 
Pres.), William Allen White; Illinois Committee 
on Militarism in Education: Jane Addams, Jos. 
C. Artman, Rev. Orrin W. Auman, Zonia Baber, 
Rev. James C. Baker (Champaign), Rev. Norman 
Barr, Rev. (Prof.) Frank O. Beck, Alice Boynton, 
Rev. Dan B. Brummitt, Rev. A. J. Burns (Cham- 
paign), Dr. Geo. A. Coe, Rev. Gilbert Cox, Prof. 
Paul H. Douglas, A. J. Elliott (Evanston), Prof. 
Fred Eastman (Chgo. Theological Seminary, con- 
trib. "Christian Century"), Arthur Fisher, Marion 
Fisher, Prof. R. Worth Frank (McCormick 
Theol. Sem., radical pacifist). Rev. Chas. 
Gilkey, Wilbur D. Grose (Wesley Found. U. of 
111.; organizer of Com.), Ann Guthrie (exec. sec. 
Chgo. Y.W.C.A.; Fellowship for a Christian 
Social Order), Maude Gwinn, Frederick Hall (con- 
trib. "Christian Century"). 

COMMITTEES FOR HUMAN RIGHTS 

AGAINST NAZIISM 
National movement for boycotting Ger- 
many, supposedly because of its anti- 
Jewish activities, organized by Samuel 
Untermyer of N.Y. City. No one who 
treasures American freedom wants fascism 
or Hitlerism for America, but it is only 
fair to note that Germany had 6,000,000 
Communists bent on Red terrorist revo- 
lution and that Russian Jews had made 
themselves prominent in the Red move- 
ment, and that Naziism has directed its 
attacks more against conspiring, revo- 
lutionary Communist Jews, than against 
nationalist German Jews who aided Ger- 
many during the war; if it has discrim- 
inated against the innocent also, it has 
been with no such ferocity and loss of life 
as the planned and imminent Communist 
revolution would have wreaked upon the 
German population, had it been successful 



Organizations, Etc. 



139 



as in Russia. Those making altruistic 
appeals for human rights for Jews in 
Germany, should at the same time raise 
their voices urging boycott of atheist Rus- 
sia in behalf of its persecuted Christians 
and millions of "liquidated" starved 
Ukrainians, in order to escape the suspicion 
that they are protesting for Communist 
rather than "human" rights. 

Chicago officers: Chmn. Salmon O. 
Levinson (pres. of red Abraham Lincoln 
Center) ; pres. Paul Hutchinson (active 
in various pro-Soviet activities) ; exec. sec. 
Prof. James M. Yard (backer of various 
Communist activities). 

Committee: Dr. Preston Bradley, Gen. John V. 
Clinnin, Dr. Copeland Smith, Dr. Arthur O. 
Black, Gen. Frank A. Schwengel, Chas. Sincere, 
Mrs. Ella Alschuler, Mrs. Paul Steinbrecher, Mrs. 
Geo. V. Mclntyre, Dr. Willard Hotchkiss, Samuel 
H. Holland, Dr. Horace J. Bridges (A.C.L.U.), 
Mrs. Clark Eichelberger ; see "Who's Who" for 
John A. Lapp, Chas. Clayton Morrison, Curtis W. 
Reese (of A. Lincoln Center), Col. Raymond 
Robins, Mrs. B. F. Langworthy, John Fitzpatrick. 

Hdqts.: Room 437, 30 N. La Salle St., 
Chgo. 

COMMITTEES FOR THOMAS 

Com. for Thomas 

Committees organized to aid the peren- 
nial campaigns of Norman Thomas as So- 
cialist candidate for Governor of New 
York, President of the United States and 
other offices bear names such as "Non- 
Partisan Committee for Norman Thomas," 
"Educators' " (also Professional Men's, 
Writers', Artists' and Publicists', Trade 
Union, Intercollegiate) "Committee for 
Thomas and Maurer," etc. 

COMMON SENSE 

A very radical new magazine; mouth- 
piece of the League for Independent 
Political Action (L.I.P.A.) and its Conf. 
for Prog. Pol. Action and cooperating with 
the National Religion and Labor Foun- 
dation, Christian Social Action Movement, 
and Emergency Committee for Strikers 
Relief; organized and edited by Alfred M. 
Bingham of the national committee of the 
communist F.S.U., son of Hiram Bingham, 
former U.S. Senator from Connecticut; 
Editors: Alfred M. Bingham, Selden Rod- 
man; Contributors include: Communists 
John Dos Passos, V. F. Calverton, Robt. 
Cantwell, Max Eastman, Albert Weisbord, 
Chas. Yale Harrison, James Rorty; Com- 
munist-Socialist Upton Sinclair; former 
Communists Ludwig Lore, J.B.S. Hard- 
man, etc.; Carleton Beals; also Socialists 
Stuart Chase, George Soule, A. J. Muste, 
Robt. S. Allen (L.I.P.A. dir.), Henry Haz- 



litt (ed. "Nation") and other radicals. 
(The communist "Anvil," Sept.-Oct. issue, 
1933.) 

COMMONWEALTH COLLEGE 

At Mena, Arkansas; a communistic, co- 
educational, cooperative labor college to 
train radical labor agitators and organizers ; 
has about forty-three students and ten 
faculty members, whose delegation to Ken- 
tucky in 1932 were arrested as Commu- 
nists; received $24,580 between 1924-8 
from the Garland Fund, and when this 
support stopped, Communists, Socialists, 
I.W.W.'s and intellectual sympathizers 
were called upon to help maintain it; the 
Federated Press, N.Y., Sept. 1, 1926, stated: 
"Legal services of the American Civil 
Liberties Union are offered to Common- 
wealth College to resist the attempt of 
the Arkansas American Legion executive 
committee to investigate the teaching and 
maintenance of the institution"; the Feb. 
1931 issue of the National Republic said: 
"In a recent issue of Fortnightly" (the 
bulletin of Commonwealth College) "Prof. 
Zeuch declared that he wished the Fish 
Committee would visit Commonwealth 
College so that they could be told of 'the 
many good things about red, red Russia 
and the many evil things about the U.S.,' 
and printed a letter from a longshoreman 
engaged in trying to teach negroes atheism 
and to organize 'the right kind of labor 
unions under Communist auspices'"; the 
same National Republic issue also con- 
tained the following: ". . . the 13th anni- 
versary of the 'first workers' democracy 
Soviet Russia was celebrated at the Com- 
mons, Commonwealth College, Mena, 
Arkansas, on Nov. 9. The meeting con- 
cluded with singing of the Internationale. 
Under the caption 'Fellow Builders,' the 
'Fortnightly' says that 'since the last issue 
the Brandeises' " (Justice and Mrs. 
Brandeis) "'and Floyd Dell have re- 
pledged for the 1931-32-33 period'"; 
among the officers of Commonwealth Col- 
lege (1931) besides W. E. Zeuch were: 
Kate Richards O'Hare; Covington Hall, an 
I.W.W. writer and poet; Albert E. Coyle; 
William Bouck, radical agricultural leader; 
Alice Stone Blackwell; U.S. Sen. Lynn J. 
Frazier; John Haynes Holmes; Ernest R. 
Meitzen, member of the Communist I.L.D. 
and Communist United Farmers Edu- 
cational League; and Upton Sinclair, "a 
violent literary Socialist" (Lusk Report) 
and Communist writer. 

Among 1933 financial contributors were 
Harry Ward, Max Eastman, Aaron L. 



140 



The Red Network 



Shapiro, Roger Baldwin, Prof. Ernest W. 
Burgess (U. of Chgo.). The Oct. 1932 
Nat. Republic quotes from the Common- 
wealth Bulletin the ironical news that the 
capitalistic Carnegie Corporation had do- 
nated funds for modernizing the Common- 
wealth plant. How capitalists do love to 
help the Reds! Lucien Koch was director 
1933 and the following telegram was sent 
dated Nov. 7, 1933 to "M. Litvinoff. In 
care of Boris Skvirsky, Washington, D.C.": 

"Commonwealth has long recognized Soviet 
Russia and its tremendous significance to the 
future of economic planning. It extends greetings 
and felicitations to Soviet Russia's able repre- 
sentative and invites him to visit and inspect 
Commonwealth, a worker's college at Mena, 
Arkansas, which supports itself by running a 
Kolhoz or collective farm. Wire answer collect. 
Commonwealth College, Mena, Arkansas." 

While the wire states that Common- 
wealth supports itself another column of 
the college paper announces that Lucien 
Koch is in the East begging funds to 
carry on. 

COMMUNIST, THE (Magazine) 
The official monthly magazine of the 
Communist Party of U.S.A. theory; 
address: P.O. Box 148, Station D., N.Y. 
City; 20c per copy. 

COMMUNIST CAMPS 
A former Communist Party executive 
estimates that during 1933 there were 
about 300 Communist camps in the United 
States including Camps Unity (of the 
T.U.U.L.), Camps Nitgedaiget, Young 
Pioneer, W.I.R., Young Communist League 
Camps, etc. 

COMMUNIST HEADQUARTERS 
The St. Denis Bldg., N.Y. City, is located 
on the S.W. corner of llth and Broadway, 
with addresses of 80 East llth St. on one 
side and 799 Broadway on the other. 
Suite 436 is the national hdqts. of the 
communist Unemployed Councils now agi- 
tating in 36 states. In the same building 
are located the offices of the communist 
F.S.U., I.L.D., I.C.O.R., Nat. Com. for 
Defense Political Prisoners, Labor Re- 
search Assn., Workers Health Service, 
Proletarian Anti-Religious League, United 
Council of Working Class Housewives, 
United Council of Working Class Women, 
and League of Struggle for Negro Rights. 
The main hdqts. is an eight story building 
owned and completely occupied by the 
Communist Party. It has two addresses: 
35 E. 12th St., and SO E. 13th St. 26-28 
Union Square is owned by the Party and 



houses the Freiheit and Daily Worker 
printing plants. 

Chicago district hdqts. were moved, July 
1933, from 1413 W. 18th St. to 101 South 
Wells St., Room 70S. 

COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL, THE 

See under Internationals (1st, 2nd and 
3rd) ; also it is the semi-monthly official 
organ of the Executive Committee of the 
Communist International (lOc copy; order 
from Workers Library Publishers). 

COMMUNIST LEAGUE OF AMERICA 
American adherents of the expelled Trot- 
sky faction hi the Communist Internation- 
al; organized 1928; while not affiliated 
with the Communist Party of U.S.A. it 
supports the Communist T.U.U.L. strikes 
and participates in other "united front" 
activities; is more violently revolutionary 
in theory than even the parent Communist 
Party. In 1930 the national committee in- 
cluded Martin Abern, James P. Cannon, 
Vincent Dunne, Albert Glotzer, Hugo 
Oehler, Max Schactman, Carl Skoglund, 
Maurice Spector, Arne Swabeck; issues 
Youth and Jewish papers besides the Eng- 
lish weekly "Militant"; 1933 hdqts. 126 E. 
16th St., N.Y.C. (Conf. for Prog. Lab. 
Action offices adjoin); Chicago hdqts.: 
2SS9 W. North Ave. 

(COMMUNIST) LEAGUE OF 
PROFESSIONAL GROUPS FOR 

FOSTER AND FORD 
Communist Lg. P. G. for F. & F. 

A group pledged to vote Communist and 
aid the Communist Party program and 
campaign; its pamphlet (published by the 
Communist Party Workers Library Pub- 
lishers, P.O. Box 148, Sta. D., N.Y. City, 
Oct. 1932) stated: "In Sept. 1932, a group 
of over fifty American writers, painters, 
teachers, and other professional workers 
declared their support of Foster and -Ford 
and the Communist ticket in the 1932 
national election. ... In October this group 
was organized as the League of Professional 
Groups for Foster and Ford. An editorial 
committee was appointed and instructed 
to expand the original statement into a 
10,000 word 'Open Letter,' and publish it 
as an election pamphlet. This pamphlet is 
now issued under the title of 'Culture and 
the Crisis.' ... As responsible intellectual 
workers, we have aligned ourselves with 
the frankly revolutionary Communist 
Party. . . . The Communist Party of 
America proposes as the real solution of 
the present crisis the overthrow of the sys- 



Organizations, Etc. 



141 



tern which is responsible for all crises. This 
can only be accomplished by the conquest 
of political power and the establishment of 
a workers' and farmers' government which 
will usher in the socialist commonwealth. 
The Communist Party does not stop short 
merely with a proclamation of its revo- 
lutionary goal. ... Its actions and achieve- 
ments are impressive evidence of its revo- 
lutionary sincerity. ... We call upon all 
men and women especially workers in the 
professions and arts to join in the revo- 
lutionary struggle against capitalism under 
the leadership of the Communist Party . . . 
and join us in this move to form 'Foster 
and Ford' Committees throughout the 
country." Etc. Signed by: 

Leonie Adams, Sherwood Anderson, Newton 
Arvin, Emjo Basshe, Maurice Becker, Slater 
Brown, Fielding Burke, Erskine Caldwell, Robert 
Cantwell, Winifred L. Chappell, Lester Cohen, 
Louis Colman, Lewis Corey, Henry Cowell, Mal- 
colm Cowley, Bruce Crawford, Kyle S. Crichton, 
Countee Cullen, H. W. L. Dana, Adolf Dehn, 
John Dos Passos, Howard N. Doughty, Jr., 
Theodore Dreiser, Miriam" Allen De Ford, Waldo 
Frank, Alfred Frueh, Murray Godwin, Eugene 
Gordon, Horace Gregory, Louis Grudin, John Her- 
mann, Granville Hicks, Sidney Hook, Sidney 
Howard, Langston Hughes, Orrick Johns, William 
N. Jones, Matthew J,sephson, Alfred Kreymborg, 
Louis Lozowick, Grace Lumpkin, Felix Morrow, 
Samuel Ornitz, James Rorty, Isidor Schneider, 
Frederick L. Schuman, Edwin Seaver, Herman 
Simpson, Lincoln Steffens, Charles Walker, Robert 
Whitaker, Edmund Wilson, Ella Winter. 

Hdqts.: 35 East 12th St., N.Y. City (the 
Communist " Workers School"). 

COMMUNIST LEAGUE OF STRUGGLE 
A Communist party which broke away 
from the Communist Party of U.S.A. led 
by Albert Weisbord; organized Mar. IS, 
1931; participates in "united front" Com- 
munist strikes, etc.; its official organ is 
"Class Struggle"; it puts out a shop paper 
in the Brooklyn Navy Yard ("Red Dread- 
nought") ; favors many of Trotsky's ultra 
revolutionary theories; hdqts. Albert Weis- 
bord, 212 9th St., N.Y. City. 

COMMUNIST NEWSPAPERS 

The "Workers Voice" is the official "mid- 
west organ of the Communist Party of 
the U.SA. Published at 2019 W. Division 
St., Chicago, 111." Herbert Newton, colored 
Communist, is its editor. The "Southern 
Worker," "Western Worker," and "Mich- 
igan Worker," with the "Daily Worker," 
all Communist newspapers, together, rather 
thoroughly cover United States Communist 
activities (in English). The Foreign Lan- 
guage Groups publish 8 daily and 18 weekly 
newspapers. 



COMMUNIST PARTY (OPPOSITION) 
Another separate Communist party 
formed by members of the official Commu- 
nist Party of U.S.A.; organized about 1931, 
led by Communists Jay Lovestone and 
Benj. Gitlow (of Garland Fund). The 
Am. Labor Year Book 1932 says: that it 
"fully endorses the general course of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 
economic construction although it criticizes 
the inner party methods used by the Stalin 
leadership"; that its official organ "Revo- 
lutionary Age," although supported by the 
American Civil Liberties Union, finally was 
barred by the Post Office authorities from 
second class mailing privileges, the "Work- 
ers Age" replacing it as the official weekly; 
that "the anniversaries of the Russian 
Revolution and death of Chas. E. Ruthen- 
berg were the occasions of large meetings"; 
that "energies of the group were concen- 
trated on individual unions in the needle 
trades and among the anthracite and 
marine workers, Locals 1 and 22 of the 
Intl. Ladies Garm. Wkrs., as well as in the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers and Fur- 
riers left-wing elements"; that "The re- 
building of the left-wing in the Workmen's 
Circle also occupied the attention" of the 
Party; and that in the Nov. 1931 elec- 
tions instructions were given members to 
vote the official Communist Party tickets." 
Jay Lovestone, editor, Will Herberg, mg. 
ed., and Bertram D. Wolfe, assoc. ed., are 
given as Staff members of its "Workers 
Age." Hdqts. 51 W. 14th St., N.Y. City. 

COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE U.S.A. 

(SECTION OF THE COMMUNIST 
INTERNATIONAL) 

The main powerful Moscow-directed 
world party of Communists. See under 
Communist Organization in the U.S.A. 

COMMUNIST-RECOMMENDED 

AUTHORS 

These authors and their writings are 
officially endorsed and recommended for 
reading by the "Soviet Union Review," 
organ of the official Soviet government 
agency in Washington, D.C., the "Soviet 
Union Information Bureau," headed by 
Boris Skvirsky, known as the "unofficial 
ambassador" of the Soviet Union in Wash- 
ington. Considering the strictness of Soviet 
censorship, an author's propaganda neces- 
sarily must be pro-Soviet in order to 
receive official Soviet endorsement. 

Ralph Albertson, R. Page Arnot, W. J. Austin 
Newton D. Baker, Roger N. Baldwin, John Becker, 
May L. Becker, Karl Borders, Margaret Bourke- 



142 



The Red Network 



White, H. N. Brailsford, Eugene Braudo, Adams 
Brown, David A. Brown, Joseph Budish, Wm. C. 
Bullitt, Emile Burns, George A. Burrell, Thomas 
D. Campbell, John M. Carmody, Huntley Carter, 
Wm. H. Chamberlain, Stuart Chase, Mrs. Cecil 
Chesterton, W. P. Coates, Alzada Comstock, Hugh 
Lincoln Cooper, H. M. Dadourian, Ruth Dadou- 
rian, Jerome Davis, Vera Micheles Dean, John 
Dewey, Maurice Dobb, Theodore Dreiser, Louis I. 
Dublin, Robert W. Dunn, Walter Duranty, Hans 
von Eckardt, Clough Williams Ellis, Ernestine 
Evans, Michael Farbman, Arthur Feiler, Alice 
Withrow Field, Louis Fischer, Joseph Freeman, 
Elisha Friedman, Edgar S. Furniss, General Wm. 
S. Graves, Mordecai Gorelik, Frederick Griffin, 
G. T. Grinko, Anna J. Haines, Jeyhoun Bey 
Hajibeyli, Talbot Faulkner Hamlin, Jack Hardy, 
Samuel N. Harper, Julius F. Hecker, Maurice 
Hindus, A. Ford Hinricks, John Haynes Holmes, 
Calvin B. Hoover, Bruce Hopper, William Kistler 
Huff, M. Ilin, Albert A. Johnson, John A. Kings- 
bury, H. R. Knickerbocker, Joshua Kunitz, Ivy 
Lee, Dr. Richard Lewinsohn, E. C. Lindeman, Ray 
Long, Louis Lozowick, Anatole Lunacharsky, 
Eugene Lyons, Robert McManus, Valeriu Marcu, 
V. M. Molotov, Albert Muldavin, Scott Nearing, 
Reinhold Niebuhr, Albert Parry, Ashley Pettis, 
Boris Pilniak, Albert P. Pinkevitch, Walter N. 
Polakov, George M. Price, George Earle .Raiguel, 
Arthur Ransome, John Reed, Geroid T. Robin- 
son, Edward A. Ross, Walter Arnold Rukeyser, 
Leonid Sabaneyef, A. A. Santalov, Prof. Fred L. 
Schuman, Louis Segal, Wm. Philip Simms, Jessica 
Smith, Gregory Sokolnikov, George Soule, Max- 
well S. Stewart, Anna Louise Strong, Valentine 
V. Tchikoff, Rex. Guy Tugwell, Sidney Webb, 
Walter Wells, William C. White, Robert Whitten, 
Albert Rhys Williams, Frankwood E. Williams, 
Ella Winter, Thomas Woody, Victpr Yakhontoff, 
Y. A. Yakovlev, Avram Yarmolinsky, A. Y. 
Yeghenian, Judah Zelitch, and Lucien Zacharoff. 

See International Pamphlets, Inter- 
national Publishers, and Workers Library 
Publishers for further lists. 

CONCEPTION CONTROL SOCIETY 
A branch of the Am. Assn. for Advance- 
ment of Atheism (4A). 

CONCOOPS 

N.Y. City Communist organization oper- 
ating cooperative apartments, camps, etc. 
Autos leave their Cooperative Restaurant, 
2700 Bronx Park, East, regularly for 
Nitgedaiget Hotel, Beacon, N.Y., Camp 
Unity, etc. 

CONFERENCE FOR PROGRESSIVE 

LABOR ACTION 
Conf. Prog. Lab. Act. 

A very militant left-wing Socialist trade 
union organization somewhat similar to the 
communist T.U.U.L. ; cooperates with the 
Trotskyite Communists in labor strikes and 
struggks; is under the leadership of A. J. 
Muste, until recently head of Brookwood 
Labor College, and Louis Budenz, profes- 
sional labor organizer and agitator. Its 
Unemployed Citizens Leagues have been 
active in ''united front" activities with the 



Communists throughout the country. A 
report Sept. 28, 1933 from Seattle, where 
this League virtually controlled the last 
Seattle municipal election, stated that the 
Unemployed Citizens League of Seattle 
was "affiliated with the National Commit- 
tee of the Unemployed Councils" of the 
Communist Party; supporting organization 
of Nat. Com. to Aid Victims of German 
Fascism (of communist W.I.R.) of which 
Muste is nat. chmn., and of U.S. Congress 
Against War; forming, 1934, the Amer- 
ican Workers' party. 

CONFERENCE FOR PROGRESSIVE 
POLITICAL ACTION 

A radical political organization formed 
in Chicago, Feb. 20, 1922 by the LaFol- 
lette organization of Farmers, Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers, People's Legislative Serv- 
ice (of LaFollette), Women's Trade Union 
League, Farmer-Labor Party, Non-Partisan 
League, Communists, Socialists, I.W.W.'s, 
and radicals of all hues, for the purpose 
of running and electing radical candidates 
on regular party tickets. The organizing 
conference praised Soviet Russia, damned 
capitalism, and endorsed (in 1922 and 
1923) Senators LaFollette, Brookhart, Nor- 
ris, Ashhurst (Arizona) , Dill, Frazier, Kend- 
rick, Ralston, Swanson, and Howell on 
the Republican and Democratic tickets, 
and Shipstead and Johnson (Minn.) on the 
Farmer-Labor Party ticket, all of whom 
were elected (See Whitney's "Reds in 
America") . 

Wm. H. Johnston (Sec.-Treas. of the 
People's Legislative Service and Nat. Pop- 
ular Govt. League) called the second Con- 
ference for Progressive Political Action at 
Cleveland, Dec. 11, 1922, with Edw. Keat- 
ing (1933 Roosevelt appointee) as chmn. 
of the Committee on Program and Reso- 
lutions, Judson King (1933 Roosevelt 
appointee) as delegate from the Pop. Govt. 
Lg., Morris Hillquit, Victor Berger, Sey- 
mour Stedman, Geo. E. Roewer, B. Char- 
ney Vladeck, Otto Branstetter and James 
O'Neal, as delegates from the Socialist 
Party, Norman Thomas, Robt. Morss 
Lovett and D. J. Meserole, as delegates 
from the Socialist L.I.D., etc. 

Conferences held in St. Louis, Feb. 11, 
12, 1924 and July 4, 1924, prepared the 
Socialist platform and nominated LaFol- 
lette and Wheeler to run as the choice of 
the combined radical forces on a ticket 
dubbed as the "Progressive," Carl D. 
Thompson, Norman Thomas, and Morris 
Hillquit of the Socialist Party, and innu- 
merable other well known radicals, were 



Organizations, Etc. 



143 



delegates to these Conferences called by 
Wm. H. Johnston. 

Early in August 1933, a call for a United 
Conference for Progressive Political Action 
to be held at Judson Court, University of 
Chicago, Sept. 2-3, 1933 was issued by the 
socialist League for Independent Political 
Action to about a hundred Socialist, 
farmer-labor, racial, radical organizations. 
The call was signed by Prof. John Dewey, 
Congressman LaGuardia (one time Social- 
ist candidate then running for Mayor of 
N.Y. City on Fusion ticket), Howard Y. 
Williams (exec. sec. of socialist Lg. for 
Independent Political Action), Congress- 
man F. H. Shoemaker, Milo Reno (leader 
of farm marches and riots), Upton Sinclair 
(Socialist and Communist leader then 
running on Democratic ticket in Cali- 
fornia), Prof. Paul Douglas (chmn. So- 
cialist Party campaign 1932, now on 
President Roosevelt's "Democratic" Plan- 
ning Board), Prof. Robt. Morss Lovett 
(leader of Socialist and Communist organ- 
izations), Vida Scudder, and similar 
radicals. 

Paul Douglas presided as temporary 
chmn. and the former LaFollette Congress- 
man, Thos. R. Amlie, of Wis., was made 
permanent chmn. Addresses were delivered 
by W. R. Truax, Estelle Sternberger, Jos. 
Schlossberg, Mayor Wm. Mahoney of St. 
Paul (Socialist), John W. Wirds (pres. 
United Farmers of Am.), Alfred Bingham, 
editor of the radical "Common Sense" 
Magazine, and other radicals. 

The conference adopted a platform call- 
ing for "public ownership of the means of 
wealth production" as the "ultimate objec- 
tive" of the movement and as a step in this 
direction the nationalization of money and 
credits, of public utilities and of various 
"basic industries." The collapse of our 
present system was predicted and the scrap- 
ping of our Constitution proposed, to abol- 
ish what they call "absentee ownership of 
property." The establishment of national 
unemployment, maternity, sick, accident, 
and old age insurance, heavier taxation on 
wealth, on incomes and inheritances, etc., 
and a foreign trade monopoly similar to 
the Russian plan was advocated. The 
masses were urged to "rise and take con- 
trol." 

"Cautious and conservative" measures 
were adopted to "insure the realization of 
their purposes" says a release from the 
N.Y. City office of the movement. A pro- 
motional "Committee on Action was set 



up to be known as the Farmer-Labor 
Political Federation with representatives in 
every section of the country, authorized to 
call national and state conventions on or 
before July 1, 1934, and charged with 
organizing farmer-labor units similar to 
those now existing in Minnesota and other 
states. Committees almost at once were 
set up in 16 states. 

Howard Y. Williams, exec. sec. of the 
L.I.P.A., will remain as executive secretary 
of the newly formed group. 

John Dewey is hon. chmn. of the "Committee 
on Action"; Oswald Garrison Villard, treas.; and 
ex-Congressman Thos. K. Amlie, Henry Ohl (Pres. 
Wis. Fed. Labor), Congressman Ernest Lundeen 
(of Minnesota), John H. Bosch (pres. Minnesota 
Farmers Holiday Assn.), Hjalmore Peterson of 
Minn., Alfred Dale (state treasurer of N.D.), 

E. E. Green of the Farmers' Union of N.D., John 
T. Wirds (pres. United Farmers of Iowa), E. E. 
Kennedy (sec. Nat. Farmers Union of 111.), Prof. 
Paul Douglas, Wm. J. Joyce (of Chgo. Workers 
Com. on Unemp.). Howard Y. Williams (exec, 
sec. L.I.P.A.), Alfred Bingham (editor 9f "Com- 
mon Sense"), Stephen Raushenbush (director of 
Security Lg.), and C. G. Lubrand of Mich., are 
among the Committee members. 

(Nov. 1933), United Action Campaign 
Committee: 

Thos. R. Amlie, chmn.; Howard Y. Williams, 
nat. organizer; Alfred M. Bingham, exec, sec.; 
Wm. A. Anderson, Hon. Henry Arens, Alfred M. 
Bingham, Kath. Devereux Blake, LeRoy E. Bow- 
man, Paul Brissenden, Heywood Broun, Lucy P. 
Garner, Stuart Chase, Geo. A. Coe, Eleanor G. 
Coit, Jerome Davis, Edw. T. Devine, Dorothy 
Detzer, Paul H. Douglas, Sherwood Eddy, Morris 
Ernst, Helen Everett, Henry Pratt Fairchild, 
Walter Frank, Zona Gale, Wm. P. Hapgood, John 
Herring, Sidney Hillman, Julius Hochman, Jesse H. 
Holmes, Ben Howe, Hannah Clothier Hull, Fannie 
Hurst, Edw. L. Israel, Hon. Magnus Johnson, C. 

F. Keeney, Emily R. Kneubuhl, Fiorello H. 
LaGuardia, Corliss Lamont, Caroline Lamonte, 
Benson Y. Landes, John A. Lapp, Abraham Lef- 
kowitz, Jos. Lilly, Edward C. Lindeman, Robt. 
Morss Lovett, Hon. Ernest Lundeen, Hon. Wm. 
Mahoney, John McLaren, Lois Hayden Meek, 
Alexander Meiklejohn, Henry Neumann, Reinhqld 
Niebuhr, Bishop Edw. L. Parsons, Augustus Pig- 
man, Mercedes M. Randall, Ira De A. Reid, John 
Nevin Sayre, Hon. F. H. Shoemaker, Estelle M. 
Sternberger, Alva W. Taylor, Oswald Garrison 
Villard, Howard Y. Williams, Max Zaritsky. 

CONGREGATIONAL 
EDUCATION SOCIETY 
Closely affiliated with the League for 
Independent Political Action and other 
radical organizations; similar to and co- 
operates with Methodist Federation for 
Social Service; Hubert C. Herring of the 
A.C.L.U. nat. com. has been sec. of its 
Dept. of Social Relations since 1924; its 
hdqts. in 1932 occupied the same office 
with the League for Independent Political 
Action, 112 E. 19th St., N.Y. City. 



144 



The Red Network 



CONGRESSIONAL EXPOSURE 
OF RADICALS 

The Congressional Record of the 69th 
Congress, First Session, Volume 67, num- 
ber 12, Dec. 19, 1925, states: 

"Exposed in the Senate investigation as 
war obstructors, red, etc., was long list, 
and afterwards another list was given out 
in January, 1921 by the Department of 
Justice, of radicals who controlled radical 
organizations in the United States. On 
both lists we find the names of many of 
the A.C.L.U. officers and committee, 
including: 

"Rev. Norman M. Thomas, Roger N. Baldwin, 
Morris Hillquit, Scott Nearing, James H. Maurer, 
Helen Phelps Stokes, Rabbi Judah L. Magnes, 
Edmund C. Evans, Rev. John Haynes Holmes, 
Frederick C. Howe, Oswald Garrison Villard, Agnes 
Brown Leach. 

"Other A.C.L.U. names on the first list 
are those of: 

"Jane Addams and Sophonisba P. Breckenridge 
(Women's International League for Peace and Free- 
dom), John Lovejoy Elliott, Elizabeth Gurley 
Flynn, Rev. John N. Sayre, Rev. Harry F. Ward, 
L. Hollingsworth Wood. 

"While on the second list are: 

"Max Eastman, Crystal Eastman, Vida D. Scud- 
der, Joseph D. Cannon, George P. West, Robert 
Morss Lovett, Benjamin L. Huebsch, Lincoln Col- 
cord, Allan McCurdy. 

"We also find on both lists the names of: 

"Prof. Emily Green Balch, H. W. L. Dana of 
the Workers', Education Bureau, Lillian D. Wald 
of the Foreign Policy Association, Amos R. E. 
Pinchot, Louis P. Lochner. 

"Other noteworthy names on one or the 
other lists are: 

"Harold Evans, Prof. Wm. I. Hull of Swarth- 
more and the Rand School, Rev. Frederick Lynch, 
Kate Richards O'Hare, Jacob Panken, Alexander 
Trachtenberg, James P. Warbasse, Eugene V. Debs, 
Mrs. Florence Kelley of the Consumers' League, 
Charles Recht, Rebecca Shelley (friend of Jane 
Addams, Lochner, etc.), Isaac A. Hourwich. Lin- 
coln Steffens, J. A. H. Hopkins, Harry A. Over- 
street, Dudley Field Malone, Elsie Clews Parsons, 
Owen R. Lovejoy." 

"Connected with the communist Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union by a system of 
interlocking committee memberships are a 
number of other organizations that play 
into the hands of the communists. Among 
them are the old Intercollegiate Socialist 
Society with its name changed to League 
for Industrial Democracy. This tries to 
poison the minds of college youths, spon- 
sors college forums, the youth movement, 
etc. Others are the American Committee 
for Chinese Relief; the Fellowship of 
Reconciliation which practically owns the 
Fellowship of Youth for Peace; the Rand 
School of Social Science; the Trades Union 



Educational League (now the Trade Union 
Unity League) ; the National Popular 
Government League; the Foreign Policy 
Association; the Worker's Education 
Bureau; the Public Ownership League; the 
Old Labor Defense League; the Conference 
to Perfect Plans for the Committee of 
Forty-Eight; the People's Council; Berk- 
man's League for Amnesty of Political 
Prisoners; Friends of Soviet Russia; Peo- 
ple's Reconstruction League; the Labor 
Publication Society; the People's of Amer- 
ican Society; Conference for Progressive 
Political Action and International Labor 
Defense." 

Since the above list was published in the 
Congressional Record, there have been 
changes in name of some of the agencies, 
and many additional groups have been 
organized. 

CONTINENTAL CONGRESS OF 
WORKERS AND FARMERS FOR 
ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION 
Organized by Socialist Party hi state 
units; advocates abolition of Capitalism 
and state ownership of all means of pro- 
duction, etc. Hdqts. Moxley Bldg., Clin- 
ton Street, Chicago. 

(NATIONAL) CONSTRUCTION 

WORKERS UNION 
A Communist T.U.U.L. labor union. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF U.S.A. 

The cooperative movement is intended 
to eliminate the private store, private 
industry and individual initiative. The 
Cooperative League of U.S.A. is part of 
the National Federation of Consumers 
Cooperatives and member of the Inter- 
national Cooperative Alliance of which 
Centre Soyus, the Russian Cooperative, is 
a member; was approved and financially 
aided by the Garland Fund; has 145 
affiliated societies with approximately 
135,000 members; its president, J. P. War- 
basse, says in his book "Cooperative 
Democracy," pp. 258-9: "The ultimate aim 
of the Consumer's Movement should be 
to purchase the land from the farmers 
and employ the latter as an agricultural 
worker" (abolishing private ownership of 
property is of course a fundamental prin- 
ciple of Socialism-Communism) ; hdqts.: 
167 W. 12th Street, N.Y. City. (See Cen- 
tral Cooperative Wholesale, a member 
society.) 

The "Communist International," pub- 
lished July, 1928 by the Communist Party 
of Great Britain, p. 346, stated: "The 



Organizations, Etc. 



145 



Cooperative League of North America 
contains considerable Left Wing elements 
The Central Cooperative Exchange (Su- 
perior, Wisconsin) serving 100 retail 
stores is a Left Wing organization. The 
Left Wingers in the Cooperatives have 
succeeded in securing some relief for the 
striking coal miners and recently called a 
conference to extend this work. In New 
York City is the United Workers' Cooper- 
ative Association which is controlled by 
the Left Wing. This cooperative has spread 
recently to other cities, Boston, Philadel- 
phia, Chicago and Los Angeles. It is build- 
ing a series of houses, controls a number 
of camps for workers, conducts cultural 
work on a Communist basis," etc. 

COOPERATIVE UNEMPLOYED 
LEAGUES 

Of Highland Park, Waukegan, and Lake 
County, 111.; section of Federated Unem- 
ployed Workers Leagues (see). 

CRISIS 

Monthly organ of the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored 
People (N.A.A.C.P.). 

D 
DAILY WORKER 

"Central Organ of the Communist Party 
U.S.A. (Section of the Communist Inter- 
national)" is its heading; pub. daily 
except Sunday in English at 50 E. 13th 
St., N.Y.C.; Washington Bureau, Room 
954, National Press Bldg., 14th and G St., 
Wash., D.C. (Seymour Waldman and Mar- 
guerite Young in charge) ; Clarence Hath- 
away, editor, Harry Cannes, etc., assts. 
Sold at all Communist stores and meetings. 

The front page, Nov. 4, 1933, under 
the heading: "Towards a Soviet America!", 
says: "You can help hasten the day when 
we shall celebrate a Victorious Workers' 
and Farmers' Soviet Republic in the United 
States by building strong the Daily Worker, 
which agitates, organizes and mobilizes the 
forces for the destruction of capitalism in 
America." 

That is plain enough sedition, is it not? 

DEBS MEMORIAL RADIO STATION 
Radio station WEVD named after 
Eugene V. Debs, "started and continued by 
Socialists and radicals," was, according to 
1932 Am. Labor Year Book, "finally 
allowed to keep its license after a hard 
fight, and was heavily endowed by the 
Jewish Daily Forward" (Socialist news- 
paper). The third annual report of the 



American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Atheism (issued April 1929) an- 
nounced (p. 3): "We have outwitted the 
bigots and now broadcast regularly over 
Station WEVD, New York (231.6-1300 
K.C.), Saturdays, 6 P.M. The recent 
increase in the power of this station en- 
ables us to reach a much larger audience." 

DEPARTMENT STORE 

WORKERS UNION 
A Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

DISARM 

A League for Industrial Democracy 
(L.I.D.) publication which, like all Social- 
ist-Communist publications, advocates com- 
plete disarmament of the United States for 
the purpose (as it has stated) of achieving 
international Socialism, urged recognition 
of militaristic Russia, urges internationalism 
in place of patriotism, and features articles 
advocating the establishment of the Social- 
ist state and the abolition of capitalism 
(or private ownership of property). 

DOLL MAKERS INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

DREISER COMMITTEE ON COAL 
A Communist - controlled committee 
formed in 1931, headed by Theodore 
Dreiser, to investigate mining conditions 
in the Pittsburg coal district, then a center 
of strike activities under the influence of 
the National Miners Union (Communist) ; 
the committee included: Malcolm Cowley, 
Robt. W. Dunn, John Dos Passes, Mary 
Heaton Vorse, Anna Rochester, Horace B. 
Davis, Frank L. Palmer. 

DRUG CLERKS UNION, NEW 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 



ECONOMIC JUSTICE 
Bulletin of the National Religion and 
Labor Foundation; discussed under that 
title. 

ECONOMIC REVIEW OF 

THE SOVIET UNION 
Communist semi-monthly magazine pub- 
lished by Amtorg Trading Corporation (of 
the Soviet Government), 261 Fifth Ave.. 
N.Y. City. 

EDUCATIONAL WORKERS 

INTERNATIONAL 

A Communist international union of 
educators; American section is the Edu- 



146 



The Red Network 



cational Workers Leagues affiliated with 
the T.U.U.L., with branches in N.Y., Pa., 
Cal., Chicago, etc. The N.Y. League pub- 
lishes "Education Worker," an agitational 
publication for teachers; address Box 79, 
Station D, New York City. 

EMERGENCY COMMITTEE FOR 
SOUTHERN POLITICAL 

PRISONERS 
Emer. Com. So. Pol. Pris. 

A Communist committee (U.S. Report 
2290), formed by the John Reed Club and 
International Labor Defense (I.L.D.) to 
assist the I.L.D. in raising funds for the 
defense of six Communists arrested in 
Atlanta, Georgia, in 1930, for seditious 
activities (Herbert Newton, colored, Henry 
Storey, Joe Carr, Anne Burlak, Mary Dai- 
ton, and M. H. Powers) ; out of this com- 
mitte grew the National Committee for 
Defense of Political Prisoners; hdqts. 80 
E. llth St., N.Y. City; 

Theo. Dreiser, chmn.; John Dos Passes, treas.; 
members: Sherwood Anderson, Wm. Rose Benet, 
Witter Bynner, Malcolm Cowley, John Dos Passos, 
Waldo Frank, Josephine Herbst, Sheila Hibben, 
Alfred Kreymborg, Suzanna LaFollette, Scott Near- 
ing, Burton Rascoe, Lola Ridge, Boardman Robin- 
son, Upton Sinclair, Louis Untermyer, Carl Van 
Doren, Edmund Wilson. 

EMERGENCY COMMITTEE FOR 
STRIKERS RELIEF (ALSO CHICAGO) 
Emer. Com. Strik. Rel. 

Organized in 1926 by Norman Thomas 
and other American Civil Liberties Union 
(A.C.L.U.) and League for Industrial 
Democracy (L.I.D.) members, with finan- 
cial aid from the Garland Fund, to assist 
the Passaic textile strikers in the so-called 
Communist "first lesson in revolution," 
led by Communist Albert Weisbord; it 
next aided the Communist Gastonia strike; 
is now aiding the left wing Socialist-Com- 
munist penetrated Progressive Miners 
Union strike in Illinois and is soliciting 
funds through the National Religion and 
Labor Foundation and other cooperating 
agencies for this purpose; 

1933 chairman, Norman Thomas; treasurer, 
Reinhold Niebuhr; committee members: McAllister 
Coleman, Anna N. Davis, Morris L. Ernst, Eliz- 
abeth Oilman, Bishop F. J. McConnell, Evelyn 
Preston, H. S. Raushenbush, Lillian D. Wald, 
Bertha Poole Weyl, John Herling, exec. sec. 

Special Committee: Helen L. Alfred, Algernon 
Black, Paul Blanshard, Harriot Stanton Blatch, 
Susan Brandeis, Heywood Broun, Mrs. George 
Burnham, Jr., Rev. Edmund B. Chaff ee, John 
Chamberlain, Stuart Chase, Dr. Bernard C. Clau- 
sen, Dr. Morris R. Cohen, Marc Connelly, Max 
Danish, Margaret De Silver, Mary Dreier, Sher- 
wood Eddy, John Lovejoy Elliott, Charles Ervin, 
Elizabeth Glendower Evans, Frederick V. Field, 



Louise Adams Floyd, Walter Frank, Dr. A L 
Goldwater, Powers Hapgood, Arthur Garfield Hays, 
Adolph S. Held, John Haynes Holmes, J. A. H. 
Hopkins, Rev. Clarence V. Howell, Rev. Paul 
Jones, Nicholas Kelley, Paul U. Kellogg, Freda 
Kirchwey, Corliss Lament, Rev. Leon Rosser 
Land, E. C. Lindeman, Dr. Henry R. Linville, 
Robert Morss Lovett, Mrs. James Marshall, Rev. 
J. Howard Melish, Darwin J. Meserole, Mary 
Raoul Millis, Dr. Wesley C. Mitchell, Mrs. Her- 
bert Mitler, Dr. Henry Neumann, Irving S. Otten- 
berg, Amos Pinchot, Margaret Pollitzer, Caroline 
Pratt, George D. Pratt, Jr., Mrs. William I. Rosen- 
feld, Jr., Helen G. Sahler, John Nevin Sayre, Rose 
Schneidermann, Mrs. Arthur J. Slade, Rex T. 
Stout, Genevieve Taggard, Alva W. Taylor, 
Samuel Untermyer, Oswald Garrison Villard, James 
P. Warbasse, Rev. Charles Webber, Rev. Eliot 
White, Mrs. Stephen S. Wise. 

The 1928 committee membership was 
largely the same. Communists John Dos 
Passos, Eliz. Gurley Flynn, Paxton Hibben, 
and Clarina Michelson were then mem- 
bers, and Forrest Bailey was treas. In 
1930 Roger Baldwin, Florence and Dr. 
Gertrude B. Kelley were members, also 
Herbert Croly. 

The Chicago branch of the Emer. Com. 
Strik. Rel. hdqts. are at 20 W. Jackson 
(L.I.D. hdqts.). 

Robt. M. Lovett, chmn.; Karl Borders, sec.- 
treas.; members: Mrs. Inez Asher, Alice Boynton, 
Roy Burt, Hilda Diamond, A. Dreifuss, Prof 
Thos. D. Eliot, Rev. Chas. W. Gilkey, Mrs. 
Alfred Hamburger, Mrs. Esther Henshaw, Lillian 
Herstein, William H. Holly, Paul Hutchinson, 
Mrs. Alfred Kohn, Glenford Lawrence, Hilda 
Howard Lawrence, Sam Levin, Lola Maverick 
Lloyd, Mrs. Judith Lowenthal, Rabbi Louis Mann, 
Wiley W. Mills, James Mullenbach, Mrs. Andrew 
McLeish, Rev. U. M. McGuire, Mrs. Murry Nel- 
son, Frances Paine, Mrs. James F. Porter, Curtis 
W. Reese, Donald R. Richberg, Ethelyn Potter 
Rolfe, Mrs. M. E. Simpson, Graham Taylor, Mrs. 
Walter Vose, Chas. Weller, Edw. Winston, Victor 
Yarros. 

EMERGENCY COMMITTEE FOR 

STRIKERS RELIEF NOW WORKING 

FOR SOUTHERN TEXTILE 

STRIKERS 
Emer. Com. Strik. Rel. N.W.F.S.T.S. 

The name given the Emergency Com- 
mittee for Strikers Relief (see above) dur- 
ing one of its activities. 

EMERGENCY PEACE FEDERATION 
Oct. 1914 to Mar. 1915, and revived 
Feb. to May, 1917 as a rejuvenation of 
American Neutral Conf. Com.; organized 
first by Rosika Schwimmer, Louis Loch- 
ner, Jane Addams, and representatives of 
six Socialist and fifteen Socialist-sympath- 
izing organizations, to propagandize a peace 
favorable to Germany (Lusk Report) ; the 
1917 revival was aided as well by Mrs. 
Henry Villard (mother of Oswald Garrison 
Villard), Emily Greene Balch, Mrs. J. S. 
Cram, Norman Thomas, Mrs. Warbasse, 



Organizations, Etc. 



147 



Lola M. Lloyd, etc.; a "peace demonstra- 
tion" of 250 was staged Feb. 12, 1917 at 
the White House; $76,000 was raised in 
three months and a nation-wide propaganda 
organization perfected; a letter condemn- 
ing it, which was received by Congressman 
Chandler and is reproduced in the Lusk 
Report, ends: "I cannot believe you will 
give a moment's consideration to the pro- 
German propaganda of the so-called Emer- 
gency Peace Federation, but I feel that 
you should hear from those who condemn 
it as traitorous and dangerous not alone 
to the United States, but to world civil- 
ization." (See also under A.C.L.U. For- 
mation.) 

EMMA GOLDMAN CIRCLES 

Anarchist-Communist groups. 

ENGLISH REDS 

"The dividing line between Socialism and 
Communism is an imaginary one, like the 
equator. The Socialist ('Labour') Party 
sometimes publicly repudiates Communism ; 
and then elects Communists to its own 
Executive ; and Communists run the Labour 
Research Department. Socialists find 
excuses for all crimes of the Bolsheviks, 
who direct and finance Communism all 
the World over," says the authentic "Potted 
Biographies" (of Boswell Publishing, 
Ltd., 10 Essex St., London, W.C., price 
6 d), which gives startling facts and 
extremely interesting political record^ of 
49 Socialists (some belonging to the Com- 
munist Party). These "Socialists" are: 

C. G. Ammon, Norman Angell, R. Page Arnot, 
Miss Margaret Bondfield, H. N. Brailsford, A. 
Fenner Brockway, John Bromley, W. J. Brown, C. 
Roden Buxton, W. M. Citrine, J. R. Clynes, G. 
D. H. Cole, A. J. Cook, Herbert Dunnico, J. H. 
Hayes, Arthur Henderson, George Hicks, Frank 
Hodges, J. F. Horrabin, F. W. Jowett, Jos. Mon- 
tague Kenworthy, George Lansbury, Harold J. 
Laski, J. Ramsay MacDonald, C. J. L'Estrange 
Malone, Tom Mann, James Maxton, Sir Oswald 
Mosley, H. Pollitt, A. A. W. H. Ponsonby (Lord 
Ponsonby), Bertrand A. W. Russell, Dora Rus- 
sell, S. Saklatvala, Tom Shaw, Emanuel Shinwell, 
Robert Smillie, Herbert Smith, Philip Snowden, 
H. H. Thomas, E. Thurtle, Ben Tillett, C. P. 
Trevelyan (Sir), R. C. Wallhead, Sidney Webb 
(Lord Passfield), J. C. Wedgwood, Miss Ellen C. 
Wilkinson, Robert Williams, and Edward F. Wise. 

LEEDS CONFERENCE 

"The Patriot" (of London) for June 1, 
1933 says: "that Litvinoff who left this 
country for this country's good fifteen 
years ago is to be permitted re-entry to 
attend the Economic Conference is un- 
fortunate. . . . His presence will be a 
national insult. ... He is a Jew whose 
real name is Finklestein, and he lived in 



the East End before the war. He attracted 
the notice of Scotland Yard in June, 1917, 
as one of six members of the Moscow 
Soviet who arrived in London apparently 
by invitation in order to witness the 
overthrow of constitutional government by 
Ramsay MacDonald's Leeds conference, 
which was a treasonable attempt to destroy 
our Constitution in the midst of the war 
in our national defense by setting up 
Soviets here under the name of Soldiers' 
and Workers' Councils. Litvinoff took an 
office at 82 Victoria Street, which he called 
the Russian Embassy. There were a num- 
ber of complaints of Litvinoff's offences 
against the Defense of the Realm Act in 
1917 and 1918, but he was merely sent to 
Brixton Gaol and had his fingerprints 
taken and was then deported as an unde- 
sirable alien." 

"This attempt to organize a revolution 
to end the war was supported by the 
U.D.C." (wartime organization of the 
Socialist Ind. Labour Party), "Indepen- 
dent Labor Party, British Socialist Party, 
Women's International League" (Jane 
Addams', under Mrs. Pethwick Lawrence), 
"Herald League (an offshoot of the Daily 
Herald), the Clyde Workers Committee, 
etc. Sinn Feiners also attended the con- 
vention. Among the supporters of the 
scheme were Tom Mann, Arthur Mac- 
Manus, W. Gallacher (Clyde), Noah 
Ablett, and other Syndicalists from South 
Wales." (Morning Post, Nov. 1918.) 

The "Socialist Network" by N. Webster 
says: "Amongst the most active supporters 
of the movement were Ramsay MacDonald, 
the Snowdens and C. G. Ammon, all Ind. 
Labour Party; Chas. Roden Buxton, Peth- 
wick Lawrence and Bertrand Russell, U.D. 
C.; E. C. Faerchild and Mrs. Dora Monte- 
fiore, British Socialist Party; and Sylvia 
Pankhurst of the Workers Socialist Fed- 
eration" (which became Communist in 
1920). 

"It was in May of the same year, 1917, 
that Ramsay MacDonald applied for a 
passport to go to Russia in order to con- 
sult with the Workmen's and Soldiers' 
Soviets, but in view of his Pacifist activities 
during the war the National Seamen and 
Firemen's Union under Havelock Wilson 
refused to carry him." 

"Potted Biographies" says: "In June 
1917, MacDonald, assisted by Snowden, 
Smillie, Ammon, Anderson, Roden Buxton, 
Mrs. Despard, Mrs. Snowden, and many 
East End Jews, held a conference at Leeds, 
and agreed to the formation of Workmen's 
and Soldiers' Councils, on Russian lines, 



148 



The Red Network 



to end the war by outbreak of a revolution 
which wouM paralyze our military oper- 
ations. MacDonald said: 'Now is the 
turn of the people; we must lay down our 
terms; make our own proclamations; estab- 
lish our own diplomacy.' He was appointed 
to the committee for acting and creating 
thirteen Soviets. In April 1918, a huge mass 
meeting at Woolwich passed this resolution, 
reported in the Times: 'That this meeting 
says: "To Hell with Ramsay MacDonald 
and Philip Snowden. . . . that the engineers 
of Woolrich Arsenal are Englishmen and 
they demand to be led by men who love 
their country." ' . . . Mr. MacDonald was 
Prime Minister in the nine months Socialist 
Government of 1924, inflicted on us by 
Mr. Asquith. In the Govt. were twenty- 
seven members of the Ind. Labour Party, 
and it was responsible for recognition of 
the atrocious Soviet Govt. with the con- 
sequent enormous extension of the prepar- 
ations for World Revolution and with 
active promotion of strikes and labour un- 
rest here. ... In March, 1924, he was 
recipient of 30,000 shares in McVitie and 
Price Biscuit Co. and a Daimler car." 

GENERAL STRIKE 

"In 1925 delegates from Moscow were 
in England arranging with members of 
the Trades Union Congress for strikes 
which might develop into revolution; and 
on May 1, 1926, the great General Strike 
was declared at a meeting of trade union 
leaders, when MacDonald said: 'We (the 
Socialist Party) are there in the battle with 
you, taking our share uncomplainingly until 
the end has come and right and justice 
have been done.' He and J. H. Thomas 
then joined in singing 'The Red Flag'; 
and he became a co-opted member of the 
Strike Committee, which was later charged 
in a Cabinet paper with 'having held a 
pistol at the head of Constitutional Gov- 
ernment.' . . . Mr. Baldwin said: 'The 
General Strike will remain forever a stain 
on the annals of our country.' . . . Miss 
Ellen Wilkinson" (a Communist made an 
Ind. Labour Party executive) "took a very 
active part in the General Strike. . . . She 
toured the country addressing strike meet- 
ings. . . . MacDonald in Oct. 1928 said 
the strike 'as the manifestation of human 
solidarity was one of the most glorious 
things that this 20th Century had pro- 
duced' . . . during the Miners' strike he 
wrote Miss Ellen Wilkinson in the U.S. 

" oi< 

. . . , etc. 
See Independent Labour Party also. 



EUGENICS PUBLISHING CO. 

Affiliate of Freethought Press (anti- 
religious), having identical addresses and 
companion catalogues. Dr. Wm. J. Robin- 
son, author of "the scathing denunciation 
of religion" so lauded by Albert Einstein 
in the atheist catalogue, is also author of 
several of the sex books. "Sane Sex and 
Sane Living" by H. W. Long, purporting 
to be written to benefit "married couples," 
uses some medical language, wallows ap- 
parently in enthusiastic licentiousness with 
descriptive erotic suggestions, and recom- 
mends and condones masturbation. The 
advertising leaflet for this book states that 
it is "Recommended by Union Theological 
Seminary." ( !) Vile advertisements are 
sent out offering lewd books about sex 
perversions and atrocities fully illustrated. 
Why the Post Office Dept. allows such 
material to go through the mails is a 
mystery. Hdqts. 317 E. 34th St., N.Y. 
City. 

EX-SERVICE MEN'S 
INTERNATIONAL 

Communist veterans' organization with 
which the Workers Ex-Service Men's 
League (of the U.S.) is affiliated, formed 
by Communist Henri Barbusse, of France, 
its president; its purpose is "to make war 
on war" by bloody Red revolution ; teaches 
soldiers to "turn an imperialist war into 
civil war." 

F 
FABIAN SOCIETY 

An English "drawing room Socialists' " 
society; founded 1884 by Prof. Thomas 
Davidson, "an ethical Anarchist-Commu- 
nist," who was quickly superseded by G. 
B. Shaw, then a clerk, and Sidney Webb, 
son of a London hairdresser, Annie Besant 
and H. G. Wells later becoming leading 
members; "by its method of middle class 
permeation, notably in the Civil Service, 
has done more to accelerate the revolution- 
ary movement than the crude agitation of 
the Socialist Democratic Federation" (from 
"Socialist Network" by Nesta Webster) ; 
its program states: "The Fabian Society 
consists of Socialists. It therefore aims at 
the reorganization of Society by the 
emancipation of Land and Industrial 
Capital from individual ownership," etc.; 
aided in forming the very red Independent 
Labour Party of Great Britain in 1893 
(see Ind. Lab. Party). 

FARMER LABOR PARTY 

Is virtually synonymous and inter- 
changeable with the Socialist Party, each 



Organizations, Etc. 



149 



supporting candidates of the other party 
for certain offices; strong in Minnesota. 

FARMER LABOR POLITICAL 
FEDERATION 

Formed by the Conference for Progres- 
sive Political Action (see) ; pres. Thos. R. 
Amlie; Alfred M. Bingham, exec. sec. 

FARMERS NATIONAL COMMITTEE 
OF ACTION 

See under United Farmers League. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF 
CHURCHES OF CHRIST 

IN AMERICA 
Fed. Coun. Chs. 

The Federal Council's claim that it repre- 
sents the will of 22,000,000 Protestant 
Church members is ridiculous. Members 
of Protestant congregations do no voting 
on the policies of this Council. While about 
400 delegates meet once every four years, 
appointed on the basis of four from each 
of twenty-eight denominations, plus one 
for each 50,000 communicants, these are 
entertained by a well planned steam-roll- 
ered program. The executive committee 
meets only once a year. In the interim, 
an Administrative Committee of twenty- 
eight members largely appointed by the 
Council's President issues the radical pro- 
nouncements in favor of Birth Control, 
disarmament, Negro social equality, League 
of Nations, World Court, prohibition, and 
against "sanctioning war" and the Naval 
Bill, against deportation or exclusion of 
alien Reds (in cooperation with the 
A.C.L.U.) all matters upon which the 
22,000,000 Protestant Church members 
never vote at all. S. Parkes Cadman, 
now on the nat. com. of the very red Nat. 
Religion and Labor Foundation, president 
of the Federal Council 1924-8 and radio 
minister of the same since, has shocked 
many denominational leaders into agitating 
for withdrawal from the Federal Council 
by his radio talks in contravention of 
essential New Testament Christian doc- 
trines. Bishop Francis J. McConnell, 
president from 1929-33, has a long record 
for radicalism (see this "Who's Who"). 
Many denominational and Congressional 
protests have been registered concerning 
radical Council activities, but "The evi- 
dence shows that the Federal Council will 
continue to function regardless of any 
activity by the membership denominations 
respecting financial support since 75 per 
cent of its income is donated from out- 



side the churches, a condition which tends 
to support the charge that it is serving 
these interests instead of the denomi- 
nations." (From "Tainted Contacts" by 
E. N. Sanctuary, 156 5th Ave., N.Y. City, 
price 50c and $1.00, an expose of the 
Federal Council.) 

The Marion Star stated: '"They have 
been hand in hand with the Civil Liberties 
Union which has been doing its utmost 
to oppose, hinder and hamstring the Gov- 
ernment in every activity in which it has 
engaged to protect American lives and 
property from the foes of all governments 
. . . from the I.W.W., the agents of Soviet 
Russia, from Communists and Direct- 
actionists of every label and variety. It 
was responsible for the sending out to 
125,000 Clergymen the Kirby Page anti- 
war service pledge 'I never again will sanc- 
tion or participate in war' and 'will not 
give financial or moral support to any 
war.' It is to the everlasting credit of the 
clergy that the 125,000 largely refused to 
sign the seditious pledge. It is indeed 
heartening to know that one of our Fed- 
eral lawmakers has the backbone ... to 
ask that this organization, which has been 
so consistently fighting the government 
and all its policies for the protection of 
American ideals, be investigated. The 
country should know the people at the 
head of it and the forces behind them, 
and the manner in which they are making 
dupes of the memberships of many 
denominations of the Christian Church of 
the land." 

In 1914 Carnegie endowed the Church 
Peace Union, a self perpetuating board of 
29 trustees practically all of whom are in 
some way identified with the Federal 
Council, "which gave the controlling group 
in the Federal Council an annual income 
which has enabled it to run the budget 
for the Federal Council and its cooperating 
organizations up into the millions. Among 
these organizations are the Church Peace 
Union, World's Alliance for International 
Friendship Through the Churches, The 
Commission on International Friendship 
and Good Will, the National Council for 
Prevention of War, American Civil Liber- 
ties Union." ("Pastors, Politicians and 
Pacifists" by Smith- Johns.) 

The Federal Council admittedly violates 
the American ideal of separation of Church 
and State. In relating the work of its 
Washington Committee (on page 217 of 
the Federal Council "Handbook of the 
Churches"), it states that it "Serves as a 
center for the cooperating work of the 



150 



The Red Network 



churches in their relation to agencies of 
the government. It is a clearing house of 
information concerning governmental activ- 
ities which affect moral and social con- 
ditions and also a medium for interpreting 
to the government from time to time the 
point of view of the churches." 

FEDERAL COUNCIL SEX PAMPHLET 
"Young Peoples Relationships" is a dis- 
gusting sex manual for "leaders of young 
people between the ages of 16 and 19" 
written by "a Conference convened by the 
Federal Council of Churches. Issued under 
the auspices of the Conference on Prepar- 
ation for Home Making, Instituted by the 
Federal Council of Churches" . . . (quoted 
from its title page). General Amos Fries, 
in his booklet "Sugar Coating Commu- 
nism" (price 2Sc; address: 3305 Woodley 
Road, Washington, D.C.), hails this sex 
manual as "A crowning achievement of the 
Federal Council controlling group along 
the line of preparing the way for atheistic 
communism." Perhaps because of Gen. 
Fries' exposure, the reference, in the second 
printing of the manual, to the Federal 
Council sponsorship has been carefully 
deleted. Otherwise it is the same and is 
sold by the Pilgrim Press (14 Beacon St., 
Boston and 418 S. Market Street, Chicago, 
price 7Sc) . 

Full detailed instructions and tests for 
studying various phases of sex and sexual 
intercourse by the "discussion method" in 
an "atmosphere" that is "informal," 
"frank," and "open minded" are given with 
the advice that "some leaders report good 
results in mixed groups." Model "opinion" 
and "word" tests are given to analyse the 
reactions of the young people individually 
to suggestive words and sentences such as: 
"Light Petting, Heavy Petting, Sex Con- 
sciousness in Girls, in Boys, Birth Control, 
Unmarried Mother, Flaming Youth, Mod- 
esty, Free Love, Necking; What sensations 
come from spooning ? ; On the basis of the 
stimulation experienced by men at the 
touch of some girls what is the stimulation 
in the girl and is that stimulation more 
intense at some times than at others?; 
What can a girl do when she is out with 
a boy in a car and he stops along the road, 
turns off the light and says 'Now we can 
have a good time?'"; etc., etc., etc. The 
Birth Control report of the Federal Coun- 
cil "Committee on Marriage and the Home" 
is quoted in this pamphlet with this addi- 
tion: "This report contemplates only the 
use of contraceptives by married people, 
the facts stated however are of universal 



interest and apply with still more signifi- 
cance to sexual intercourse outside of mar- 
riage." The infamous Mary Ware Dennett 
pamphlet "The Sex Side of Life" is en- 
dorsed as "indispensable." Gen. Fries 
states: "Anyone reading the whole pam- 
phlet cannot fail to get the idea that when 
all is said and done sexual intercourse is 
a personal matter and if two want to 
indulge therein it is nobody else's business. 
. . . Had this pamphlet come out of Russia 
direct as one of their means of breaking 
down all morality, the family, and the 
home, as the final step toward communism, 
we would have felt it well qualified to 
carry out the intent of its authors." What 
a manual for use, as it recommends itself, 
for "Denominational Summer Conferences, 
Young People's Societies and Study Groups 
in Churches, in Hi-Y Clubs and Girl 
Reserves!" It was "prepared by Benj. S. 
Winchester," who is secretary of the Fed- 
eral Council and contributing editor of the 
official Federal Council Bulletin, while Fed- 
eral Council officials Rev. Samuel McCrea 
Cavert (executive secretary of the Council 
and Editor of the Bulletin) and Rev. 
.Worth M. Tippy (secretary of the Council 
and contributing editor of its Bulletin) 
were fellow members of the Conference 
which assisted and sponsored its prepar- 
ation and publication. The average parent 
would sicken with disgust to take part in 
such licentious discussions as are presented 
in this manual for decent young church 
people who normally would never hear or 
become interested in a tenth part of the 
sexual trash presented for them to "study" 
in this manual. 

FEDERATED PRESS 
Fed. Press. 

Claimed by Communists as their own 
press service; headed by Carl Haessler of 
the communist Chgo. Workers School; 
supplies news to Communist, Socialist, 
radical, revolutionary papers in the United 
States; was handsomely aided by the Gar- 
land Fund (see "Garland Fund") ; the 
Lusk Report (1920) quotes Roger Bald- 
win as saying "There was organized some- 
time in 1908 largely through the activity 
of Scott Nearing, a small press association 
known as the International Labor News 
Service with headquarters at 7 East 15th 
Street. The active management of the news 
service was in the hands of Louis P. Loch- 
ner. ... In December 1919 (it) became the 
Federated Press. The Federated Press is 
now serving something over one hundred 
papers . . . has international connections 



Organizations, Etc. 



151 



with and cable news service from England, 
Scandinavia, France and Australia. Its 
news service deals primarily with the labor 
movement and with revolutionary pro- 
gress"; U.S. Report 2290 points out that 
Tass, the Soviet Union Telegraph Agency, 
has one and the same office and representa- 
tive at Washington, B.C., with the Fed- 
erated Press; E. J. Costello, its first man- 
ager, after visiting Russia and European 
countries, to establish connections with rev- 
olutionary organizations, was deported from 
England (1920) as a Red. Louis P. Loch- 
ner took charge of the Berlin office used 
as a publicity outlet by the Third Inter- 
national of Moscow; Carl Haessler sup- 
planted Costello as manager from 1922 
on; in 1927 members of the Federated Press 
executive board were Earl Browder and 
Arne Swabeck of the executive committee 
of the Communist Party, W. Maloney, 
Joseph Schlossberg, Phil Ziegler, John 
McGivney, Math Tenhunen (prominent 
Communist), Albert F. Coyle and Frank 
Palmer; in order to collect funds to aid 
the Federated Press, a Federated Press 
League was organized in Chicago, Feb. 4, 
1922, with Robert Morss Lovett as pres- 
ident. Wm. Z. Foster was then a member 
of the executive board of the Federated 
Press. 

The Chicago office of Carl Haessler and 
the Federated Press is (1933) also the office 
of the A.C.L.U. Chgo. Committee, the 
Chgo. Com. for Struggle Against War, the 
Acme News Syndicate and the "Institute 
for Mortuary Research" (whatever that 
is), of which Haessler is director. 

FEDERATION OF UNEMPLOYED 
ORGANIZATIONS OF COOK COUNTY 
Fed. Unemp. Org. Cook Co. 

A Communist-officered committee with 
hdqts. at 1910 South Kedzie Ave., Chicago, 
and, according to its letterhead, "Affiliated 
to the National Federation of Unemployed 
Workers Leagues of America" (Borders') ; 
a letter dated July 12, 1933, signed by the 
Communist chairman, Karl Lochner, was 
addressed "To All Workers Organizations in 
Cook County," and said in part: "The 
newly organized Federation of Unemployed 
Organizations of Cook County is organiz- 
ing a Hunger March to force an answer 
from the bosses for next July 26th. . . . 
We want your organization to endorse this 
march, to participate in it under your 
own signs and banners, and to help popu- 
larize it. ... Further, this action will 
require the issuing of a great deal of pub- 
licity matter at considerable expense. We 



want to ask your organization to help us 
in this by making a generous donation. 
We can send you speakers for meetings. 
You can get publicity material from our 
headquarters after July 19. Fraternally 
yours, Karl Lochner." 

This letterhead lists as officers: 
Chmn., Karl Lochner, Unemployed Council (of 
Communist Party) ; vice chmn., Bernard Klein, 
Chicago Workers Committee (Expelled Local No. 
2); secretary, L. Armstrong, Unemployed Coun- 
cil; treas., J. Kasper, Chicago Workers Committee 
on Unemployment; exec, com.; Harry D. Weiser, 
Melting Pot League of America; G. Reeves, Un- 
employed Council; May Delin, Women's Com- 
mittee, Unemployed Council; Albert Simon, Chi- 
cago Workers Committee (Expelled Local No. 2); 
Norman Satir, Workers League of America (of 
communist Proletarian Party); Paul Tucker, Un- 
employed Council; O. Heckner, Single Men's 
Committee, Unemployed Council. 

FEDERATION OF UNEMPLOYED 
WORKERS LEAGUES OF AMERICA 

(NATIONAL) 
Fed. Unemp. Wkrs. Lgs. Am. 

A communist-I.W.W.-controlled "united 
front" federation of unemployed organ- 
izations first organized all over the U.S. 
in 1932-33 by Karl Borders, who also 
headed it as nat. chmn. until its national 
convention, held at Lincoln Center, Chi- 
cago, May 13-15, 1933, at which time 
Tom Dixon (of the Proletarian Party's 
(Communist) "Workers Leagues") be- 
came nat. chmn.; A. Guss (of the 
Communist Party's "Unemployed Coun- 
cils") became vice chmn.; Eddy Statt- 
man (organizer of I.W.W. "Unem- 
ployed Unions") became treas.; George 
Leach (of Border's "Chicago Workers Com- 
mittee on Unemployment" (chmn. Local 
34) ) became sec. The I.W.W., Proletarian 
and various Communist parties are, of 
course, all openly revolutionary bodies. 
An executive committee was also elected 
consisting of Hugo Oehler (of the nat. 
exec. com. of the Communist League, 
known as "Trotskyites," and representa- 
tive of the Unemployed Unions of Gillespie 
111., center of recent Communist agitation 
and hdqts. of the Progressive Miners 
Union) ; Warren Lamson (chmn. of the 
Communist Cook County, 111. "Unemployed 
Councils," teacher at the Chicago Workers 
School of revolution) ; Zimmerman of the 
Proletarian Party's (Communist) "Workers 
Leagues"; V. Didwell (of People's Council 
of Bellingham) ; D. Harrington (of United 
Producers of Wash.) ; Wm. R. Truax of 
the "Unemployed Citizens Leagues" of the 
Conference for Progressive Labor Action 
(militant left-wing-Socialist, Communist- 



152 



The Red Network 



cooperating "Musteites") ; Lore (of the 
S. E. Missouri "Unemployed Leagues" of 
the same Conference for Progressive Labor 
Action) ; Welsh (of the N.Y. "Association 
of Unemployed" of the Communist Party 
(opposition) "Lovestoneites") ; Mattock 
(of the Proletarian Party's (Communist) 
"Workers Leagues") ; Conners (of the 
Allen County, Indiana "Unemployed Assn." 
of the Communist Party (opposition) 
"Lovestoneites"). 

The "New Frontier" (April 19, 1933), 
organ of the Chicago Workers Committee 
on Unemployment, which was also organ- 
ized by Karl Borders, stated: "Jobless 
leagues throughout the country have been 
asked by the Federation of Unemployed 
Workers Leagues of America to send dele- 
gates to a convention in Chicago, May 13- 
15. The Workers Committee on Unemploy- 
ment and the Workers League, Chicago 
branches of the Federation, have agreed 
to act as hosts. They will feed and lodge 
the delegates. Sessions will be held at Lin- 
coln Center, 700 Oakwood Blvd." 

The May 3, 1933 issue said: "Federation 
Still Growing Affiliations are still coming 
in daily. The list now includes: 

"Chicago Workers Committee; Workers League 
of America (branches in Chicago, Buffalo, and Los 
Angeles) ; Racine County Workers' Committee on 
Unemployment; Downers Grove Unemployed Coun- 
cil; Unemployed Citizens' League of Michigan 
(branches at Detroit, Lansing, Owosso, Battle 
Creek, Bay City, Grand Rapids); Unemployed 
Citizens' League of St. Louis; Arbeiter Kultur 
Sport Verein; Waukegan Cooperative Unemploy- 
ment League; Dayton Cooperative Production 
Units; Eastern Ohio Unemployed Leagues (18 
branches) ; Unemployment League of Des Moines 
County; Houston Unemployment League; Com- 
munity Cooperative Farms (Visalia, Cal.); Mem- 
phis Unemployed Citizens' League; South Bend 
Unemployed Council; Buffalo League of the) 
Unemployed; Indianapolis Unemployment League; 
People's Unemployment League of Maryland; 
Unemployed Union of Boston; Tenants and Un- 
employed League of Washington, D.C.; Socialist 
Unemployed Union of Richmond, Virginia; 
Workers' Unemployed Leagues of New York; 
United Men and Women Workers of Terre Haute; 
Dauphin County (Pa.) Workers' Committee on 
Unemployment; Unemployed League of New 
Bedford, Mass.; Summit County (Ohio) Workers' 
League; Fall River Unemployed Union; New 
York Workers' Committee on Unemployment; 
Unemployed Union of New Jersey." 

FEDERATED UNEMPLOYED 
WORKERS LEAGUES OF 

NEW YORK 
Fed. Unemp. Wkrs. Lgs. N.Y. 

Federated Feb. 1933 as part of the Fed- 
erated Unemployed Workers Leagues of 
America (see) ; associated in New York 
with the Y.M.C.A., Y.M.H.A., Urban 
League, N.A.A.C.P.; Committee (as an- 



nounced in the Communist press): Paul 
Blanshard, Fannia Cohn, Heywood Broun, 
Rose Schneidermann, Morris Hillquit, 
Walter Frank, Arthur Garfield Hays, Freda 
Kirch wey, Morris Ernst, J. Howard Melish, 
Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Rabbi 
Stephen Wise, John Haynes Holmes. 

FELLOWSHIP FOR A CHRISTIAN 

SOCIAL ORDER 
Fell. Christ. Soc. Order 

Merged about 1929 with the Fellowship 
of Reconciliation; Kirby Page was chair- 
man of the executive committee. 

FELLOWSHIP OF FAITHS 

"Be ye not unequally yoked together with un- 
believers; for what fellowship hath righteousness 
with unrighteousness? and what communion hath 
light with darkness?" (II Corinth., 6:14.) 

Like the Reconciliation Trips (see) of 
the Fell. Recon., it seeks to propagandize 
the anti-national internationalism and 
"reconciliation" of all races and creeds into 
one, or none, that is part of the program 
of Communism and Socialism. "How Ex- 
pand Patriotism into World Consciousness" 
is a typical program subject. Speakers for 
the debasing and degrading Hindu, 
Mohammedan, Pagan and Agnostic Cults 
are placed in "fellowship" and on an equal 
footing with speakers for Jesus Christ. 
The audiences chant a mixture of prayers 
and ritual from all of these. The savage 
Mohammedan call of the muezzin as heard 
in darkest Asia is mingled with the propa- 
ganda of the Hindu, Jew and agnostic. 
Negro choirs and performers give an inter- 
racial touch to the meetings. This jumbling 
of contradictory beliefs leads only to con- 
fusion and unbelief, and robs Jesus Christ 
of His rightful place as the Light of this 
World. Its bulletins were handed out by 
the Communist booksellers at the A.S. 
C.R.R.-L.I.D. Brookhart-Fish debate Mar. 
21, 1932. Ignorance of the purposes of its 
radical sponsors enables it to draw in 
numerous non-radical dupes who see only 
the supposed beauty of "fellowship" and 
"brotherly love" (with paganism). 

Radicals of all hues addressed its World 
Fellowship of Faiths Parliament, held in 
Chicago, Aug. 27 to Sept. 17, 1933, includ- 
ing Raja Jai Bahadur Singh of India", 
"founder of the Humanistic Club," an 
atheistic movement, W. P. Hapgood, Rabbi 
Hillel Silver, Dean Roscoe Pound, Karl 
Borders, James M. Yard, Philip LaFol- 
lette, Carl D. Thompson, Rosika Schwim- 
mer, Jesse H. Holmes, Charlotte Perkins 
Oilman, Jabez T. Sunderland of A. Lin- 



Organizations, Etc. 



153 



coin Center "Unity," Rabbi Chas. E. Shul- 
man, Eliz. Oilman, Curtis Reese, Mary E. 
McDowell, Mrs. M. H. Ford (Bahaist 
speaker), Margaret Sanger ("Crusading 
Freethinker"), Ex-Sen. Brookhart, Benj. C. 
Marsh, Norman B. Barr, etc., etc. 

The speaker for the Parliament at two 
sessions was the unfrocked "Bishop" Wm. 
Montgomery Brown, author of atheist 
books for children and head of the commu- 
nist W.I.R., which runs the anti-religious 
Red revolutionary Young Pioneer camps. 
He sacrilegiously wore a Bishop's tunic 
with a cross. To quote from the Bulletin 
of Advisory Associates: "Brown soon 
launched into a glorification of Soviet Rus- 
sia stating there was one place in the 
world where they had dared to end the 
exploitation of man. ... He said that in 
Russia science had replaced supernatural- 
ness and religion was gradually being 
stamped out and that the new generation 
being reared there was free from the old 
shackles of religious beliefs in God in the 
skies . . . that the youth were not per- 
mitted to have their minds filled with 
reverence for abstract deities up in the 
skies and that science was replacing 
religion for the new generation. ... He 
said that the U.S.S.R. was just the fore- 
runner of an international Communist state 
which would gradually absorb all capitalist 
states which were gradually decaying away. 
Brown said that the only way to attain 
this international Communist state was 
through revolution and that he used the 
term advisedly knowing full well the cost 
attached to revolution but that the results 
were worth all. He said that the present 
corrupt and decayed capitalist systems must 
be torn down in order to build wholly 
anew, and that if any government, church 
or institution opposed or stood in the way 
of the attainment of this Communist state, 
they must be ruthlessly overthrown and 
destroyed. 

"These utterly seditious remarks were 
received with enthusiastic applause by the 
audience and as he stressed his various 
points many of the audience could be seen 
vigorously nodding their heads in approval. 
In concluding his remarks 'Bishop' Brown 
said that if world unity were to be attained 
it must be through International Commu- 
nism and could be arrived at by banishing 
the Gods from the Skies and capitalists 
from the Earth (his slogan) and then, and 
only then, would there exist a complete 
World Fellowship of Faiths. 

"His conclusion was greeted with a wild 
round of applause. Charles Frederick 



Weller then arose and Brown was asked 
to repeat his concluding remarks, which 
he did. Then Weller thanked the 'Bishop' 
for his 'stirring' message and said that the 
audience, irrespective of individual view- 
points, could not help but admire the 
courage and stirring quality of 'Bishop' 
Brown's message and he was sure that 
others felt the same as he did, that they 
had been of the same belief as Brown for 
some time but did not have the courage 
to come out and admit it and he wanted 
to say at this time that he was in thorough 
agreement with the sentiments as expressed 
by 'Bishop' Brown." 

This Chas. F. Weller and Kedarnath Das Gupta 
are the "General Executives'' of the Fellowship of 
Faiths, with hdqts. at Room 320, 139 N. Clark 
St., Chicago. Das Gupta is "one of the three 
General Executives of the Threefold Movement 
Fellowship of Faiths, Union of East and West, 
League of Neighbors." 

"National Committee of 300": Hon. Pres.: 
Jane Addams; Vice Presidents: Newton D. 
Baker, Prof. John Dewey, Glenn Frank, Dr. John 
A. Lapp, Dr. R. A. Millikan, Frank Murphy 
(Gov. of the Philippines), Chester Rowell, Mary 
Woolley; Chmn., Bishop Francis J. McConnell; 
Vice Chairmen: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Prof. 
E. R. A. Seligman, Patrick Henry Callahan. 

"Chicago Committee of 200": Chmn., Dr. 
Ernest F. Tittle; Vice Chairmen: Dr. Preston 
Bradley, Dr. Albert Buckner Coe. Other Chicago 
Committee members are: Dr. Chas. Gilkey, chmn. 
South Side; Rev. Irwin St. John Tucker, chmn. 
Northwest Side; Rev. E. F. Tittle, chmn. North 
Shore; Chas. Clayton Morrison, Chmn. Chicago 
general committee; Rabbi Chas. E. Shulman, 
James Mullenbach, Rabbi S. Felix Mendelsohn, 
Chandra Seena Gooneratne (see China Com- 
mittees), Thos. W. Allinson (father of Brent 
Dow), W. Frank McClure, Frank Orman Beck 
(Recon. Trips), Mrs. B. F. Langworthy, Rev. 
Norman Barr, and the following who are also 
A.C.L.U. committeemen: Rabbi Louis L. Mann, 
Mary McDowell, Robt. Morss Lovett, Fred Atkins 
Moore, Horace J. Bridges, A. Eustace Haydon, 
Amelia Sears, Curtis Reese, Wm. H. Holly, Clar- 
ence Darrow, Jane Addams (an A.C.L.U. founder), 
etc., etc. 

Communist Brown's talks before the Fell. 
Faiths 1933 Parliament in Chgo. are now 
printed and being advertised by him in 
his atheist children's book. They are 
entitled "Communism the New Faith for 
the New World" (price lOc, Bradford 
Brown Edu. Co., Galion, Ohio). He calls 
them "Two outspoken appeals on behalf 
of communism." 

FELLOWSHIP OF RECONCILIATION 

Fell. Recon. 

A radical-"pacifist" organization of about 
10,000 members employing Christian terms 
to spread communistic propaganda; con- 
ducts Reconciliation Trips (see) ; widely 
circulated, in 1932, petitions for Recog- 
nition of Russia (see) ; affiliated with 
socialist Pioneer Youth of America; a sec- 



154 



The Red Network 



tion of the ultra-radical War Resisters 
International; sponsored the Lane Pam- 
phlet against military training for the pub- 
lication and distribution of which the red 
Garland Fund spent $5,400; a supporting 
organization, in conjunction with revolu- 
tionary Communist, I.W.W. and Socialist 
bodies, of the communist-called and con- 
trolled Congresses Against War (U.S., Stu- 
dent, World Congress of Youth) ; its 
executive secretary, J. B. Matthews, took 
an active part in these Congresses either 
as chairman, speaker, or organizer. I heard 
him cheered at the huge communist 
Mooney meeting, May 1, 1933, when he 
expressed his friendship and solidarity with 
the Reds and said he wished Mooney's 
chances of getting out of jail were as good 
as his were of leaving the Socialist for the 
Communist Party. His selection as co- 
chairman, with Communist Donald Hender- 
son, of the U.S. Congress Against War, to 
preside over the two platforms from which 
the Communist Party's outstanding revo- 
lutionary agitators were to speak was an 
"honor" indicating reciprocal esteem for 
him on their part. The Feb. 1933 issue of 
"Student Outlook" (militant Socialist 
L.I.D. organ), of which he is editor, stated 
that he is "not oppjsed to a war that 
would end capitalism" (for his further 
remarks see under Student Congress). 
Henri Barbusse, Tom Mann, Earl Browder, 
Michael Gold, "Mother" Bloor, Jack 
Stachel, all Communist leaders, and J. B. 
Matthews were the speakers at the dinner 
given in honor of Tom Mann's arrival from 
England, Oct. 6, 1933, at Hotel Paramount, 
N.Y. City. 

A Fell. Recon. leaflet stating the position 
and purpose of the Fell. Recon. admon- 
ishes: "Position A. Keep Central and 
Typical the Reference to Jesus" in order 
"to influence churches and the Christian 
Student Movement and to secure their 
cooperation in spreading radical Christian 
views on war economics and race issues" 
and "for demonstrating left-wing Christian- 
ity" as "hitherto our leadership and sup- 
port have come mainly from Christian 
sources. These sources especially have 
made possible the extension of our work 
in Europe, Central America, and Southern 
United States" (quoted in first article on 
Pacifism). . 

It sponsored and called the conference 
for the communist All-America Anti- 
Imperialist League at Wash., B.C., Oct. 
29-30, 1926 (Federated Press, Oct. 21, 
1926). It is one of the branches of the 
International Fellowship of Reconciliation 



which originated in Holland about 1914. 
The American branch was organized 1917 
by Norman Thomas aided by his fellow 
radicals Jane Addams, Harry Ward, Emily 
Greene Balch, Jessie W. Hughan, W. Rau- 
shenbush, Oswald G. Villard, etc., later 
joined by Scott Nearing, Anna Rochester, 
Paul Jones, John Nevin Sayre, etc. It 
participates in International War Resisters 
(see) conferences. 

The International Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation conference, held at Lyons, France, 
Aug. 29, 1929, issued a pamphlet, widely 
distributed by the American branch. It is 
entitled "Christ and the Class War" and 
states: "We are agreed in our conviction 
that the class war is a fact; that, whether 
we will or not, each one of us is involved; 
that, as a Fellowship, we must work 
toward a radical reorganization of society" ; 
recommendations for activity include: 
"Joining political movements which aim at 
the replacement of private capitalism by 
a system of collective ownership" (Com- 
munism-Socialism) ; "aiding movements 
for the freeing of exploited colonial peoples 
from alien control by imperialist powers, 
for opposing race discrimination," (same 
as revolutionary Socialist-Communist prop- 
aganda), "supporting movements for dis- 
armament, the abolition of compulsory 
military service and the settlement of 
conflicts by judicial method or conciliation 
realizing that so long as military force is 
maintained for possible international war 
there is grave danger that it will be used 
in the class war" (the very meat of Social- 
ist-Communist so-called "pacifism") ; "We 
urge on Fellowship members the study of 
the experiment of Soviet Russia in relation 
to the class struggle and in those countries 
which do not yet recognize the Soviet 
Union we urge them to support efforts to 
establish normal diplomatic relations" (with 
the Soviet Union which aims for world 
bloody revolution); etc. 1933 Chairman: 
Reinhold Niebuhr (the Marxian, also U.S. 
Congress Speaker). 

Executive Secretaries: J. B. Matthews and John 
Nevin Sayre; Secretary: For South, Howard A. 
Kester; for Latin America, Chas. A. Thomson; 
for Industry, Chas. C. Webber; Vice Chairmen: 
Adelaide T. Case, Edmund B. Chaffee, Kirby 
Page; Treas. Wm. C. Biddle; Asst. Treasurers: 
James M. Boyd and Tucker P. Smith; Chmn. 
Exec. Com. Wm. C. Bowen. 

National Council members whose terms expired 
1929: Jane Addams, Don M. Chase, Elmer Cope, 
Juliette Derricotte, Carol Hyde, A. J. Muste, 
James Myers, Roy Newton, Wm. B. Spofford. 
Grace Watson, Theresa Wilson; terms exnired 
1928: Devere Allen, Kath. Ashworth Baldwin, 
Roger Baldwin, Gilbert Beaver. Helena Dudley, 
Benj. Gerig, Harold Hatch, Caroline LaMonte. 
Scott Nearing, Edw. Richards, Galen Russell, 



Organizations, Rtc. 



155 



Tucker P. Smith, Chas. Webber. Recent execu- 
tives: A. J. Muste (militant labor agitator and 
Socialist), Paul Jones, George Collins, Amy 
Blanche Greene, etc. 

European headquarters: 2126 Doubler- 
gasse, Vienna; 17 Red Lion Square, W.C.I., 
London. New York City hdqts., until 
recently, 383 Bible House Astor Place, now 
29 Broadway. 

FELLOWSHIP OF RECONCILIATION 
PETITION FOR RUSSIAN 

RECOGNITION 
Fell. Recon. Pet. Russ. Recog. 

A petition headed "For the Recognition 
of Soviet Russia" circulated in 1932 by the 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, in behalf of 
the Soviet government, which proudly 
announces that it intends to overthrow 
ours by bloody Red terror and Commu- 
nist revolution, stated: "In the interests 
of World Peace and as a measure of mutual 
economic advantage I urge the immediate 
recognition of the Soviet government of 
Russia by the United States." The letter 
inclosed with this petition stated that 
"shortly after the November election" the 
petition would be presented to the Presi- 
dent-elect" and was signed by J. B. 
Matthews, as exec, sec., who is so promi- 
nently featured as speaker at Communist 
affairs in company with Communist Party 
leaders. Attached was the following list 
headed: "The following college and uni- 
versity presidents have signed this request": 

W. A. Neilson, Smith Coll.; Marion E. Park, 
Bryn Mawr Coll.; Ellen F. Pendleton, Wellesley 
Coll.; G. Bromley Oxnam, DePauw U.; Horace 
D. Taft, The Taft Sch.; John Hope, Atlanta U.; 
Daniel W. Morehouse, Drake U.; H. C. Bedford, 
Penn. Coll.; J. A. C. Chandler, William and 
Mary Coll.; Earl E. Harper, Evansville Coll.; 
Howell A. King, U. of Baltimore; M. H. Knud- 
sen, Snow Coll.; Clyde L. Lyon, Eureka Coll.; 
Henry T. Moore, Skidmore Coll.; Earl A. Road- 
man, Dak. Wesleyan U.; Chas. J. Smith, Roanoke 
Coll.; Paul F. Voelker, Battle Creek Coll.; John 
H. Wood, Culver-Stockton Coll.; Paul H. Buch- 
ho!z, U. of Dubuque; Arlo Ayres Brown, Drew 
U.; W. J. Hutchins, Berea Coll.; W. Douglas 
Mackenzie, Hartford Sem.; F. E. Eiselen, Gar- 
rett Bibl. Inst.; Arthur E. Morgan, Antioch 
Coll.; Wallace W. Attwood, Clark U.; I, N. 
McGash, Phillips U.; W. H. Hall, Wilmington 
Coll.; William T. Holmes, Tougaloo Coll.; H. L. 
Kent, N. M. Coll. of Agr. and Mech. Arts; 
Lucien Koch, Commonwealth Coll.; Robt. Wil- 
liams, Ohio Northern U.; C. P. McClelland, 
MacMurray Coll.; W. O. Mendenhall, Friends U.; 
Margaret S. Morriss, Pembroke Coll.; Wm. H. 
Powers, S.D. State Coll.; John O. Spencer, Mor- 
gan Coll.; Wm. J. Wilkinson, Colby Coll.; Harry 
A. Garfield, Williams Coll.; Daniel L. Marsh, 
Boston U.; Henry Sloane Coffin, Union Theol. 
Sem. ; Thomas E. Jones, Fisk Univ. ; Henry J. 
Doenmann, U. of Toledo; Wm. Pearson Tolley, 
Allegheny Coll.; B. I. Bell, St. Stephens Coll.; 
Harvey N. Davis, Stevens Inst.; Ralph K. Hickok, 
Western Coll.; O. E. Kriege, New Orleans U.; 



H. L. McCrorey, Johnson C. Smith tT.; John S. 
Nollen, Grinnell Coll.; Albert B. Storms, Bald- 
win-Wallace Coll.; Robert E. Blackwell, Ran- 
dolph-Macon Coll.; Albert W. Palmer, Chicago 
Theol. Sem.; Ernest H. Wilkins, Oberlin Coll.; 
W. P. Behan, Ottawa U.; Norman F. Coleman, 
Reed Coll.; Franklin S. Harris, Brigham Young 
U.; V. F. Schwalin, McPherson Coll.; C. W. 
Tenney, Gooding Coll.; Arthur Braden, Tran- 
sylvania U. 

Some of the 350 Professors who signed are: 
Earle Eubank, Cincinnati U.; Jerome Davis, Yale 
U.; Gordon W. Allport, Harvard U.; Ernest F. 
Tittle, Garrett Bibl. Inst.; T. V. Smith, U. of 
Chgo.; Daniel A. Prescott, Gen. Edu. Bel.; H. A. 
Overstreet, City Coll. of N.Y.; Paul Monroe, 
Teachers Coll.; Frederick Efershuer, Butler U.; 
Charles P. Rowland, Yale U.; Charles W. Gil- 
key, U. of Chgo.; D. F. Fleming, Vanderbilt U.; 
John Dewey, Columbia U.; Zechariah Chafee, 
Harvard U.; Benj. H. Williams, U. of Pitts.; 
Ida Sitler, Hollins Coll.; Ernest Minor Patterson, 
U. of Pa.; Reinhold Niebuhr, Union Theol. 
Sem.; James C. Miller, U. of Pa.; Robert Morss 
Lovett, U. of Chgo.; S. Ralph Harlow, Smith 
Coll.; Arthur N. Holcombe, Harvard U.; Her- 
bert F. Fraser, Swarthmore Coll.; Stephen P. 
Duggan, Inst of Intl. Edu.; John R. Commons, 
Wis. U.; Thomas Woody, U. of Pa.; Edwin R A 
Seligman, Columbia U.; 0. Myeing Niehus, No. 
Tchrs. Coll.; Edward C. Lindeman, N.Y. Sch. of 
Soc. Wk.; Hugh Hartshorne, Yale U.- Wm 
Trufant Foster, Pollak Found.; Horace A. Eaton, 
Syracuse U.; Phillip W. L. Cox, N.Y. U.; Henry 
Nelson Wieman, U. of Chgo.; Alva W. Taylor, 
Vanderbilt U.; Wm. F. Russell, Columbia U.; 
Paul Jones, Antioch Coll.; Wm. H. Kilpatrick, 
Columbia U. Tchrs. Coll.; Harry Emerson Fos- 
dick, Union Theol. Sem.; Harold U. Faulkner, 
Smith Coll. 

FELLOWSHIP OF SOCIALIST 

CHRISTIANS 

A Union Theological Seminary (see) 
movement. 

FELLOWSHIP OF YOUTH FOR PEACE 

Became the Youth Section of the Fellow- 
ship of Reconciliation, about 1928. 

FELLOWSHIP PRESS 

Formerly published the Socialist "World 
Tomorrow" and rec'd. money from the 
Garland Fund for this purpose. 

FINNISH CULTURAL FEDERATION 

Section of the Revolutionary Writers 
Federation (Communist). 

FINNISH PROGRESSIVE SOCIETY 
A Communist Party affiliated group. 

FINNISH WORKERS AND 
FARMERS LEAGUE 

Affiliated with the Workers and Farmers 
Cooperative Alliance of the communist 
T.U.U.L. 

FINNISH WORKERS 
FEDERATION, INC. 

Of the Communist Party Foreign Lan- 
guage Groups (see) ; includes Finnish 



156 



The Red Network 



Workers Clubs, Finnish Women's Club 
(Chicago), and groups in various cities; 
conducted Young Pioneer Camp at Lake 
Zurich, 111. 1933; its publishing plant in 
N.C. City printed the "Pioneer Song Book" 
for Young Pioneers 1933. 

FIRST AMERICAN TRADE UNION 

DELEGATION TO RUSSIA 
1st Am. Tr. Un. Delg. to Russia 

In Aug.-Sept. 1927; was exulted over 
by the Communist Party; repudiated and 
denied the sanction of the A.F. of L. be- 
cause of its communistic character; its 
trip was reported for the Federated Press 
and Daily Worker; its first report "Russia 
After Ten Years" was published by the 
communist International Publishers; its 
later report entitled "Soviet Russia in the 
Second Decade" sold by Communist book 
stores and recommended by the Soviet 
Union Information Bureau (see Mar. 1931 
issue of its official publication "Soviet 
Union Review") ; this book report was 
edited by Stuart Chase, Rex. Tugwell and 
Communist Robert W. Dunn, fellow mem- 
bers of the delegation, and is a mass of 
misleading communistic propaganda; Frank 
P. Walsh, counsel for the expedition in a 
letter soliciting funds, dated July 12, 1927 
(reproduced in the Better America Fed- 
eration Bulletin of July 27, 1927) said 
in part: 

"Dear Comrade: We are running into strong 
opposition from the reactionary president, Wm. 
Green, of the A.F. of L., who has learned about 
our planned mission to Russia and has refused to 
this date to sanction and authorize our commission 
to be a representative body of the A.F. of L." 
(gives names of members, etc.). "We have 
picked these men personally and there is no 
danger of sabotaging the mission by any one of 
the delegation's rostrum, for the majority is in 
our hands. However. 1 do expect opposition from 
Johnson, Ziegler" (these evidently did not go) 
"and Fitzpatrick but since I am the Counsel for 
the mission you may trust the rest to me. The 
American Trade Union Delegation . . . feels 
justified in calling upon all persons outside the 
ranks of the organized labor movement to defray 
the cost of pur traveling expenses and of cover- 
ing the publication of our report. . . . Knowing 
your relations with the Liberal movement of Cali- 
fornia especially with Mrs. K. C. Gartz" (see 
this "Who's Who") "I am forced to ask you 
for financial contribution to the amount of at 
least $5,000, which I figure should be California's 
contribution to this greatest of all undertakings 
for the cause of Russia. . . . Remember we need 
$20,000 and by the end of July. For cooperation, 
Sincerely Yours, Frank P. Walsh, Counsel, The 
American Trades Union Mission to Russia." 

Efforts of the Delegation to pose as offi- 
cially representative of the A.F. of L. were 
quickly spiked by Wm. Green, President 
of the A.F. of L., who on May 27 issued 
a statement asserting in part: 



"For the purpose of relieving any wrong public 
impression which may prevail, this delegation is 
not clothed with authority to speak for American 
labor, or for the American Federation of Labor." 
(Chicago Tribune, May 28, 1927). 

At the Workers Party (the name of the 
Communist Party at that time) Cenvention 
held Sept. 1927 in N.Y. City, Jay Love- 
stone, then national secretary of the Com- 
munist Party, called special attention to 
the fact that the Communists had been able 
over the protest of the A.F. of L. to send 
a "labor" delegation to Soviet Russia 
(Marvin Data Sheets) ; during the tour 
Frank Palmer (see this "Who's Who") 
wrote reports for the Federated Press, the 
first from aboard ship appearing in the 
"Federated Press Labor Letter," August 
18, 1927, and headed "Labor Mission on 
Way to Europe and Russia"; the Daily 
Worker published an article Oct. 12, 1927, 
after their return, headed "Palmer Praises 
Labor in U.S.S.R."; in 1930 Palmer was 
made field secretary of the Chicago A.C. 
L.U. committee headed by Arthur Fisher, 
a fellow delegation member and president 
of the A.C.L.U. Chicago branch. Fisher 
is a Winnetka neighbor of Carleton Wash- 
burne of the delegation, who is Supt. of 
Winnetka Public Schools. 

The book report "Soviet Russia in the 
Second Decade a Joint Survey by the 
Technical Staff of the First American Trade 
Union Delegation, edited by Stuart Chase, 
Robt. Dunn and Rexford Guy Tugwell," 
lists as labor members of the American 
Trade Union Delegation to the Soviet 
Union: James H. Maurer, John Brophy, 
Frank L. Palmer, Albert F. Coyle, James 
W. Fitzpatrick; and as "technical staff" 
members: Stuart Chase, Robt. W. Dunn, 
Jerome Davis, George S. Counts, Rexford 
Guy Tugwell, Paul H. Douglas, Arthur 
Fisher, Carleton Washburne (all listed in 
this "Who's Who") and a few other pro- 
Soviets ; the preface states that "The mem- 
bers of the party did not travel or work 
singly and at all stages of the tour there 
was discussion and exchange of experience. 
. . . Some of us were in Russia for over 
two months, one or two remained only a 
fortnight. We visited Moscow, Leningrad 
and then split into five small parties. .^ . . 
Collectively we interviewed the most im- 
portant figures in the country, including 
Stalin, Menjhinsky, Kalinin, Chicherin, 
Lunacharsky, Schmidt, Trotsky," etc. 

Washburne in his section of the book on 
"Soviet Education" says, p. 305: "This 
study was made unfortunately in August 
(1927) when most schools were not in 
session. . . . This fact, the shortness of the 



Organizations, Etc. 



157 



time available and the necessity of talking 
through interpreters constitute the prin- 
cipal and most serious limitations of the 
study"; yet, he sympathetically says on 
the same page: "We almost never felt any 
attempt to suppress unfavorable facts or to 
exaggerate favorable ones" (!) and feels 
able to enthuse on p. 306 that "Today 
Soviet Russia as a whole probably has 
the most modern and progressive school 
program and methods of any country in 
the world," a conclusion labeled as just 
pure "bunkum" by those unbiased by com- 
munistic sympathies. 

Washburne's "alibi" for his membership 
in this delegation (see North Shore Topics, 
Winnetka, Apr. 7, 1933) was: "I was 
crossing the Atlantic to speak to an Edu- 
cational Conference in Locarno, Switz., in 
the summer of 1927. On the same ship were 
some university professors who had been 
asked by a group of trade unionists to 
make an unbiased study of the situation in 
Russia." (Note Walsh's letter) "They had 
no one to study Russian schools and asked 
if I would go with them and do this job." 
As a matter of fact, George S. Counts, 
Washburne's associate in the Progressive 
Edu. Assn., and a member of this staff, 
writes the companion section of the book 
on education, of which Washburne in his 
part says: "This section of the report 
confines itself to what is called in Russia 
'Social Education' the regular education 
of children from 3 to 16 or 17 years of age. 
Prof. Counts' report takes up the other 
phases of education higher education, fac- 
tory schools, the abolition of illiteracy, 
etc." 

FOOD WORKERS INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union; 4 W. 18th 
St., N.Y. City. 

FORD PEACE PARTY 
"To get the boys out of the trenches 
by Christmas," according to its slogan; 
organized by Rosika Schwimmer with 
Louis P. Lochner acting as general secre- 
tary ; financed by Henry Ford, who not 
only paid all expenses of the exposition 
but handsome honorariums to the delegates 
besides; sailed on Oscar II, the Peace Ship 
Dec. 4, 1915; the Lusk Report says: 
"Among the passengers ... we find the 
names of some thirty-odd men and women 
afterward active in furthering 'peace' pro- 
German or inter-nationalist movements, 
many of whom are active revolutionaries 
today"; Jane Addams whose place because 
of illness was taken by Emily Balch, Wm. 



C. Bullitt "well-known radical" (adviser 
of U.S. State Dept. and now Ambassador 
to Soviet Russia), Lola Maverick Lloyd 
and her brother Lewis Maverick, Carl D. 
Thompson, etc., are listed among members 
"afterwards active in radical movements." 
Altho Ford and Lochner finally broke, 
"Lochner considered a great deal had been 
gained for the cause through the Ford 
Party. . . . The 'Conference of Neutral 
Internationalists and Pacifists' entirely 
financed by Mr. Ford was held in Stock- 
holm from about March to July, 1917" 
(two years later) ; "Miss Balch was 
appointed to organize an American Neutral 
Conference Committee in New York on 
her return; the Central Organization for a 
Durable Peace was enriched by at least 
$2,000," etc., "though the Ford Peace trip 
was generally ridiculed as the irresponsible 
venture of nebulous dreamers, Lochner and 
Mme. Schwimmer had in the undertaking 
a perfectly practical object. This was to 
effect a powerful international 'Conference 
of Neutrals' to which the Ford Pilgrims 
were to be delegates and the foreign dele- 
gates of the Central Organization for a 
Durable Peace a sort of steering Com- 
mittee. . . . Miss McMillan is still an officer 
of the International Suffrage Alliance; and 
Mme. Schwimmer has had the distinction 
of being the first Bolshevik Ambassador 
from Hungary to Switzerland in 1919, her 
career being cut short by the fall of Bela 
Kun . . . perhaps then the Ford Peace 
Party may have served a useful purpose 
not generally understood." 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE GROUPS 

The Communist Party central committee 
operates about 16 Bureaus which control 
foreign language federations of Lettish, 
Italian, Hungarian, Finnish, Chinese, 
Ukrainian, Czechoslovak, Albanian, Polish, 
Jaivish, Esthonian, Lithuanian, Russian, 
Spanish, Armenian, Japanese groups. Each 
federation is composed of various "Work- 
ers" clubs, cultural and insurance societies, 
etc., called "mass organizations," officered 
and controlled by "Party fractions" (or 
"nuclei" of Party members). These "frac- 
tions" hold separate meetings and are 
expected to control, in accordance with 
instructions, the "mass" group. The Fed- 
eration pays a per capita membership fee 
to the Communist Party as a federation. 
Many of the federation members are not 
individual members of the Party. The 
policy in fact of the Communist Party is 
that all party members must be active 
Party workers and organizers and control 



158 



The Red Network 



from ten to fifty or more non-party mem- 
bers each by officering and boring from 
within mass groups in order to influence, 
bring and hold these groups under Com- 
munist control. Each federation has a 
secretary and an official Communist pub- 
lication in its own language. A secretary 
of all the federations directs activities from 
N.Y. City. There are 8 daily foreign 
language Communist newspapers published 
in the United States and, besides the pub- 
lications of the foreign language fed- 
erations named above, there are Greek, 
Armenian, Bohemian, German, Bulgarian, 
Rumanian, Portuguese, Slovak, Jugo Slav, 
Yiddish, communist publications. 

The "Party Organizer" (for Communist 
Party members), June- July, 1930 issue, 
page 10, in an article entitled "Short- 
comings of Party Fractions in Language 
Work," stated: "Reports given by 16 
Language Bureaus of the Central Com- 
mittee uncover many weaknesses in our 
language fractions. . . . The fractions 
directed by 16 bureaus and numbering 
about 5000 Party members control organ- 
izations having about 50,000 members. 
About 800 Party members work among 
140,000 workers in organizations in which 
we have influence. . . . Work in small, Party 
controlled organizations in which in some 
cases the Party members are the majority 
of those present at the meetings develop a 
tendency of giving these organizations 
almost a role of the Party, at least similar 
political functions. ... A redistribution of 
these forces so that most of the Party 
members shall be organized in real mass 
organizations for struggle against reaction, 
for Party policies and leadership, is neces- 
sary." 

FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION 
For. Pol. Assn. 

Named in "Congressional Exposure of 
Radicals" (see) as one of the organizations 
interlocked by membership with the Ameri- 
can Civil Liberties Union "that play into 
the hands of the Communists"; it organ- 
ized the National Council for Prevention 
of War 1921; changed its own name from 
League of Free Nations 1921; claims 11,000 
members and stated in 1932: "Last year 
41,000 men and women met at 108 meetings 
in 19 cities"; in order to "educate public 
opinion" conducts long series of radio 
addresses, Institutes, study groups, discus- 
sion meetings, luncheons, lectures; issues 
pamphlets, maintains a "research staff." In 
its 1932 pamphlet series such authors are 
listed as Morris Hillquit, Paul Douglas, 



John A. Ryan, Harry D. Gideonse, Geo. 
H. Blakeslee (Am. Friends Peace Institute 
faculty member at Evanston), Max East- 
man, Maurice Hindus, George Soule, John 
Dewey, Wm. E. Borah. 

In an able and lengthy paper Matthew 
Woll, vice pres. of the A.F. of L., in April 
1929, referred to the Foreign Policy state- 
ments favoring recognition of Russia and 
its pamphlets prepared by Vera A. Micheles 
(Dean) of the Foreign Policy research 
staff, saying in part: "These pamphlets 
are not merely partisan in adopting the 
Soviet view on this question but by wholly 
repressing important sections of the U.S. 
documents quoted and by giving other 
sections out of their context, have mis- 
represented our State Dept. policy to the 
point of presenting it as being the very 
reverse of what it actually is." 

James G. McDonald, who has been the 
Foreign Policy Assn. chairman since 1919 
and who gives radio addresses for the 
Assn. about foreign affairs, in a speech 
before the Phila. branch stated that Soviet 
Russia wished to maintain peace, "But 
intentions are hampered frequently by the 
activities of the Russian Communist Party 
and the Third International neither of 
which the government has power to con- 
trol." To this false statement, long used 
by the Communists when trying to side 
step retaliation for their own activities, 
patriotic Ralph Easely retorted by show- 
ing that the executive committees of the 
Third International, the Soviet Government 
and the Communist Party of Russia are 
practically identical, Stalin, Buhkarin, 
Tchitcherin, Rykoff, for example, being on 
all three, also by quoting Pravda's official 
statements concerning their plans for world 
revolution. He commented on McDonald's 
statement that he had never felt he knew 
enough about alleged Bolshevik activities 
in America to warrant the expression of a 
positive opinion, by saying: "If you can 
display such ignorance in the matter of 
Red propaganda in a country where you 
have lived for years, how reliable would 
you be likely to be in telling what is hap- 
pening in Europe and Asia where you spent 
only a few months on a tour last summer?" 

Francis Ralston Welsh says: "Of course 
there are some respectable fronts in the 
Foreign Policy Assn., of course they do not 
realize what it is, and equally of course 
it is the object of the Foreign Policy Assn. 
to have respectable fronts as part of their 
camouflage. There is no room for doubt 
that it belongs in the class with the Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union, the League for 



Organizations, Etc. 



159 



Industrial Democracy, the Fellowship of 
Reconciliation, the International League 
for Peace and Freedom, the Peoples Lobby, 
the National Popular Government League 
and others of the sort as some of the well 
camouflaged organizations of the American 
Civil Liberties Union crowd which help 
the Communist cause." 

Among those on the national council are: 

James G. McDonald, chmn., Jane Addams, 
Stephen P. Duggan, Bishop Francis J. McConnell, 
Wm. A. Neilson, Roscoe Pound, Rev. John A. 
Ryan, Wm. Allen White, Wm. Scarlett, Capitalist 
Thos. Lament (a member of the firm of J. P. 
Morgan, international bankers, and father of 
Corliss, who is a radical). Among the directors are 
Mrs. Thos. Lament, Lillian D. Wald, Mrs. Henry 
Goddard Leach, Paul U. Kellogg (chmn. finance 
committee), Bruce Bliven of the New Republic, 
Francis Biddle (signer of appeals for Sacco and 
Vanzetti, whose verse was published in the Libera- 
tor, of which his wife was a stockholder when Max 
Eastman was editor), etc. 

Branches are in Albany, N.Y., Baltimore, Bos- 
ton, Buffalo, Columbus, Elmira, N.Y., Hartford, 
Conn., Phila., Pittsburgh, Providence, R.I., Rich- 
mond, Va., Rochester, N.Y., St. Paul, Minn., 
Springfield, Mass., Toledo, O., Utica, N.Y., Wor- 
cester, Mass. National headquarters: 18 E. 
41st St., N.Y. City. 

FORWARD (JEWISH DAILY) 
A Socialist publication; Abraham Cahan, 
editor, N.Y. City. 

FRAZIER AMENDMENT 
Senator Lynn Frazier's proposal to 
amend the Constitution of the U.S. so as 
to disarm and render the U.S. virtually 
defenseless; introduced for the third time 
at U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee hear- 
ing April 13, 1930; backed by the Women's 
Peace Union, Women's International League 
for Peace and Freedom, Fellowship of 
Reconciliation, War Resisters International, 
American Friends Service Committee, Pa. 
Committee for Total Disarmament; the 
Amendment reads: "War for any purpose 
shall be illegal, and neither the U.S. nor 
any state, territory, association or person 
subject to its jurisdiction shall prepare for, 
declare, engage in or carry on war or other 
armed conflict, expedition, invasion or 
undertaking within or without the U.S. 
nor shall any funds be raised, appropriated 
or expended for such purpose." 

FREE SOCIETY 

Anarchist-Communists that is, believers 
in a cooperative society without state gov- 
ernment. To quote from the Nov. 11, 1933 
manifesto of the Chicago group: 

"Nov. the llth marks an epoch in the 
history of the working class in America . . . 
four anarchists were hanged in Chicago. 



. . . Forty-six years ago Nov. 1887 Par- 
sons, Linng, Fischer, Spies, believed in a 
society without the state ... the abolition 
of private property, the abolition of the 
state and the establishment of a masterless, 
stateless society. They were anarchists. . . . 
We the Free Society Group of Chicago, 
followers of the ideal for which Parsons 
and his comrades stood . . . pledge our- 
selves to continue their noble and liber- 
tarian work." 

At the meeting at which this manifesto 
was distributed, Ben Reitman spoke and 
in answer to questions declared that he is 
still an Anarchist. He read a letter from 
his old amour, Emma Goldman, who 
expressed hope of returning to the U.S.A. 
under the Roosevelt administration. She 
was planning to organize meetings in Can- 
ada and meet the comrades from the 
U.S.A. on Canadian soil meantime. Her 
"slip of paper" marriage for the purpose 
of giving her English citizenship would ad- 
mit her to Canada. Ben criticized her for 
being temporarily downhearted at her 
exile from the U.S.A. and for her antagon- 
ism toward Russia (which he favors) . Her 
wonderful work for Anarchism should be 
enough to keep her happy, he declared. 
He said that he was most optimistic, after 
having spoken in a Theological Seminary, 
at Chicago University, and to a Methodist 
group during the preceding week, at the 
way the students and particularly the 
theological students were coming along in 
radicalism. The seizure of the whole Hor- 
mel Plant at Austin, Minn., by red strikers 
was another encouraging sign of the times, 
he said. 

M. Olay (Spanish anarchist) presided. 
He represents the Chicago anarchists in 
united front activities, such as the Ky. 
Miners Def. and Relief Com. of the 
I.W.W., Nat. Mooney Coun. of Action of 
the Communists, etc., and as a contributor 
to the book "Recovery Through Revolu- 
tion" (see). 

The Chicago groups are conducting 
weekly forums for the 4th year every 
Sunday night at the socialist Workmen's 
Circle school, 1241 N. California Ave. 
Other anarchist forums (in English) are at: 

Free Workers Center, 219 Second Ave., N.Y. 
City, Harry Kelley in charge; Jack London Guild, 
1057 Steiner St., near Golden Gate Ave., Friday 
night forums, Clubrooms International Group, 
2787 Folsom St., San Francisco, Cal.; Freedom 
Forum every Thursday, at 224 S. Spring St., 
Hall 218, Los Angeles, Cal.; Roseland Edu- 
cational Forum every Sunday, 2 :30 P.M., Dutch 
Hall, 233 lllth St., Chicago; Cleveland, O. 
Libertarian Forum, every Sunday night, Garment 
Workers Hall. 



160 



The Red Network 



American 1933 Anarchist publications: "Free- 
dom," a monthly, 219 Second Ave., N.Y. City. 
Harry Kelley, M. Jagendorf, editors; "The 
Vanguard," N.Y. City; "Free Arbeiter Stimme," 
N.Y. City; "L'Adunata," Newark, N.J.J "Alba," 
Pitts., Pa.; "Man," San Francisco, Cal., 1000 
Jefferson St., Marcus Graham, editor, "Culture. 
Proletaria," N.Y. City; "Eresia," N.Y. City; 
"Dielo Truda," Chicago. 

FREETHINKERS OF AMERICA 

National Atheist organization in New 
York City linked with the International 
Freethought Union of Europe; head- 
quarters are with the Freethought Press 
Association (for anti-religious books), and 
the Eugenics Publishing Co. (for sex 
literature of the most revolting type), 
which have the same cable and street 
address (317 E. 34th St., New York City, 
formerly 250 W. 54th St.). The president 
is Joseph Lewis, whose biography, written 
by an admiring atheist, A. H. Rowland, 
with introduction by Prof. H. E. Barnes, 
is entitled "Joseph Lewis, Enemy of God." 
Joseph Lewis threatened Mr. Wm. J. 
O'Shea, Supt. Dept. Education, City of 
New York, 59th and Park Ave., N.Y. City, 
on Dec. 21, 1928, as follows: 

"Sir: 

"It is generally known that the practice pre- 
vails, in the Public Schools of this City, of open- 
ing the sessions by reading selections from a book 
commonly known as 'The Bible,' together with 
the singing of religious hymns,**** 

"As a resident of the City of New York, a 
property owner and a taxpayer, I hereby notify 
you that I demand that this illegal practice be 
discontinued, and that the reading of 'The Bible,' 
and all other religious exercises, in the schools, 
be stopped. 

"Unless this is promptly done, and I am 
advised by you within the next 10 days, or two 
weeks, that 'Bible' reading and psalm singing 
in the Public Schools will be prohibited and ended, 
I shall file a Taxpayer's Suit to enjoin this 
illegal practice. 

"Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) "Joseph Lewis, 
"President." 

The suit was filed and was being carried 
on to the Supreme Court by the American 
Civil Liberties Union (see) (May 3, 1932 
issue "American Teacher"). One wonders 
how minister members of the A.C.L.U. 
can hold up their heads for shame who 
presume to serve Jesus Christ and the Bible 
while paying for and backing such a suit ! 

Officers: Pres. Joseph Lewis; 1st Vice-Pres., 
Dr. Charles A. Andrews; 2nd Vice-Pres., Garabed 
Locke; Sec., J. G. Tallon; Treas., Julius Jano- 
witz; Attorney, Maj. Joseph Wheless; Honorary 
Vice-Presidents: J. F. D. Hoge, Herbert Asbury, 
Rupert Hughes, Clarence Darrow, Clarence H. 
Low, Prof. Ellen Hayes, Mme. Olga Petrova, 
Phillip G. Peabody, Theodore Schroeder, Prof. 
Harry Elmer Barnes, Mrs. Maude Ingersoll 
Probasco. 



FREETHINKERS INGERSOLL 

COMMITTEE 

To quote: "In recognition of Col. Robt. 
G. Ingersoll's most noteworthy contri- 
butions to the emancipation of mankind 
from religious superstition," an "Inter- 
national Committee" was formed by the 
Freethinkers to collect funds for an Inger- 
soll monument to be erected in Washing- 
ton, D.C., and to stage a memorial cele- 
bration during 1933, the hundredth anni- 
versary of Ingersoll's birth. Maude Inger- 
soll Probasco, chmn.; W. McLean Pro- 
basco, treas. ; Jos. Lewis, sec. Officers of 
The Am. Assn. for the Advancement of 
Atheism assisted at the celebration and 
served on the committee. 

FREETHOUGHT PRESS 

See Freethinkers of America; catalogue 
lists 180 anti-religious books. Among these 
are: "Twilight of Christianity," by Prof. 
H. E. Barnes; "Infidels and Heretics," by 
Clarence Darrow and Walter Rice; "To 
the Pure," by Morris Ernst and Wm. 
Seagle ("A study of obscenity and the 
censor A valuable contribution to the 
literature of Man's struggle with his sex 
complex, and the efforts of organized 
religion in politics to stifle his attempts to 
acquire information") ; "The Mistakes of 
Jesus," by Wm. Floyd; "Let Freedom 
Ring," by Arthur Garfield Hays; "Joseph 
Lewis, Enemy of God," by Arthur H. 
Rowland (catalogue quotes preface by Prof. 
H. E. Barnes, who calls Lewis "the most 
aggressive and effective leader of irreligion 
in America today" and adds: "Interesting 
in every line this book by Mr. Rowland 
(once a Methodist minister) makes clear 
the aims and aspirations of Atheism as 
expounded by Jos. Lewis") ; "The Bible 
Unmasked," by Jos. Lewis ("Its analysis 
of so many of the perversions, liaisons and 
licentious escapades of biblical characters 
is a brilliant and daring feat of honest 
scholarship . . . despite the censorship 
which has been placed on it in some coun- 
tries notably Canada, where its sale is 
still prohibited over 50,000 copies have 
been printed"). (Author's note: I have 
this disgusting obscene book which not 
only portrays Christ as a bastard and Mary 
as immoral but imputes immoral conduct 
to the angels in visiting Mary) ; "The 
Tyranny of God," by Jos. Lewis (". . . a 
devastating attack on the theistic con- 
ception of the universe. . . . Says Clarence 
Darrow, The book is bold and true beyond 
dispute. I wish I were the author.' ") ; 
"Atheism What It Is, What It Means," 



Organizations, Etc. 



161 



by Jos. Lewis ("Rev. John Haynes Holmes, 
famous minister of the Community Church 
New York City calls it 'brilliant in the 
extreme, altogether the best statement on 
Atheism I have ever heard.' ") ; "If I were 
God," by Dr. Wm. J. Robinson, who is a 
sex writer for Eugenics Pub. Co. also 
("Albert Einstein, the great discoverer of 
the Theory of Relativity admires this book 
so much that, as he wrote the author, a 
copy is on his desk at all times. It is a 
sweeping criticism of religion with its 
bigotry and intolerance.") ; "Marriage and 
Morals," by Bertrand Russell (containing 
"sufficient dynamite to blast a carload of 
ordinary sex popularizers from the face of 
the earth. Mr. Russell deals most com- 
petently and completely with practically 
every ramification of sex and sex life.") ; 
"Forgery in Christianity," by Maj. Jos. 
Wheless (" . . . proves more than 1000 
notorious frauds and forgeries in the 
Bible") ; "Thinker or Believer," by W. H. 
Williamson; "The History of Prostitution," 
by Dr. Wm. W. Sanger ("shows that this 
social evil had its origin in obscure religious 
rites . . . tends to prove that prostitutes 
of our own times come generally from 
those classes of society where religion is 
taught most thoroughly and that prostitutes 
themselves are generally ultra devout"); 
"My Fight for Birth Control," by Mar- 
garet Sanger ("In this wonderful book 
Margaret Sanger tells how she as a Cru- 
sading Freethinker has struggled," etc.) ; 
"Up from Methodism," by Herbert Asbury 
(" . . . He is descended from a long line 
of clergymen; one of his ancestors being 
Bishop Francis Asbury, who founded the 
American branch of the Methodist Church. 
How Mr. Asbury rose above the faith of 
his fathers is a story every American must 
read") ; and "Bible Comically Illustrated 
A book as good as a farce yet as instructive 
as a schoolmaster. Both text and illustra- 
tions help to expose the absurdities of the 
Bible from Genesis to Revelation"; hdqts. 
317 E. 34th St., New York City. 

FREIHEITS 

Communist Jewish "Foreign Language 
Groups" (see) conducting Freiheit Singing 
Societies, Freiheit Workers Clubs, etc., etc., 
in N.Y., Chicago and other cities. The 
official Jewish Communist newspaper (pub- 
lished in Yiddish) is the Jewish Daily 
Freiheit; Moissaye J. Olgin is editor. The 
building of this newspaper, which in 1930 
had a daily N.Y. sworn circulation of 
64,067 copies, adjoins the building of the 
official communist Daily Worker (pub- 



lished in English). They use the same 
presses. Communist banners, recently, 
decorated the front of both buildings, 26- 
30 Union Square, N.Y. City. Those on the 
Freiheit building read: "Organize Anti- 
War Committees in Shops and Factories," 
"Not a Cent for Armaments All Funds 
for the Unemployed," and "Demonstrate 
on Union Square, Aug. 1, Friday at 5 
P.M." Similar banners decorated the Daily 
Worker building. 

FRIENDS OF SOVIET RUSSIA 

F.S. Russia. 

Formed by the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party 1921; changed name 
to Friends of the Soviet Union 1929. 

FRIENDS OF THE SOVIET UNION 

(Carveth Wells Boycott) 
F.S.U. 

A Communist subsidiary (U.S. Report 
2290); formed as noted above; propa- 
gandizes Soviet Russia as the workers' 
paradise; sponsors lectures; in 1933 driving 
for a million signatures for recognition of 
Russia by the U.S.; staged the Reception 
for Soviet Flyers 1929 (see) ; publishes 
magazine Soviet Russia Today; claims, Jan. 
1934, 2,000,000 members. 

J. C. Coleman of the California section 
of the F.S.U. (June 13, 1933), as well as 
Ella Winter (Mrs. Lincoln Steffens), lec- 
turer for F.S.U., wrote letters protesting 
and threatening Mr. Sol Lesser of Principal 
Pictures, 630 9th Ave., N.Y.C., causing 
this firm to halt the release of a truthful 
moving picture of Russia taken by Carveth 
Wells. Our theatres are flooded with Soviet 
propaganda films. For example, three N.Y. 
Theatres at one time, Sept. 2, 3 and 4, 
1933, were showing a Communist propa- 
ganda film "The Strange Case of Tom 
Mooney" advertised in the "Daily Worker." 
But organized Red opposition quickly 
silences the truth about Soviet Russia. 

Ella Winter's letter, written on stationery 
headed "Lincoln Steffens, Carmel, Cali- 
fornia, The Gateway, Box 855," is signifi- 
cant. She says: 

"Dear Mr. Lesser: I am shocked and astounded 
to read the news that you are releasing a picture 
on Russia called "The Truth About Russia" by 
Carveth Wells. . . . Such a showing as you con- 
template can only discredit your studio as every 
American correspondent in Russia and such well- 
known figures in American literary, professional 
and business-life as Sherwood Anderson, Col. Hugh 
Cooper, Governor Philip LaFollette, Louis Fischer, 
Maurice Hindus, Curtis Bok, Margaret Bourke 
White, Cecil de Mille, Mrs. Cecil de Mille, Walter 
Duranty, Mr. and Mrs. Corliss Lament, Mr. and 
Mrs. Osgood Field, Mr. and Mrs. Sherman Pratt, 
Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell Stuart of the Foreign Policy 



162 



The Red Network 



Association, Mr. Jerome Davis of Yale, Mr. Julian 
Bryan, Elmer Rice, Leopold Stokowski, Martin 
Flavin, Dr. John M. Kingsbury, Dr. Frankwood 
Williams, Alexander Woolcott, Joseph Freeman, 
Charles Malamuth, Alexander Kaun, Max Eastman, 
W. L. Austin (of the Austin Construction Co., 
Cleveland), Senators Borah, Wheeler, Cutting and 
Barkley, and innumerable others, would merely 
ridicule a picture released by such a person on 
Russia." (A nice list of pro-Soviets.) 

"I am afraid that if you do release the picture 
we shall find it necessary in the interests of truth 
and fairness and an Administration which wishes 
to recognize the Soviet Union to take such steps 
as we shall deem necessary and feasible to make 
clear to all movie-goers the kind of a movie 
author you have selected. You will readily realize 
that in a world on the brink of war with war 
feelings created by just such reports as Carveth 
Wells puts out, in which there is not one glimmer 
of truth, one cannot allow your studio to proceed 
without mobilizing every voice in denunciation, 
opposition and boycott. Very truly yours, Ella 
Winter." 

Mr. Carveth Wells wrote to the chair- 
man of the American Coalition of Patriotic 
Societies as follows: 

"Dear Sir: "Having learned that you have 
organised a coalition of about one hundred 
Patriotic Societies, permit me, although a perfect 
stranger, to appeal to you as a fellow citizen for 
assistance in bringing to the attention of the 
American people, a concrete example of a Com- 
munist boycott, organized to prevent the pre- 
sentation of an ordinary travel picture showing 
the people and scenery of Russia from Leningrad 
to the Turkish border. 

"I am an author and lecturer and am not con- 
nected in any way with propaganda. For the 
last twenty years I have devoted my entire time 
to exploration in foreign countries, in order to 
secure pictures and general information which I 
present to the public in the form of illustrated 
lectures. Entertainment of an educational nature 
is my sole object, and I have not now nor have 
I ever had any political affiliations. 

"So much interest was aroused by my descrip- 
tion of Russia that I decided to have the motion 
pictures synchronized with my voice and dis- 
tributed to the theatres of the United States, by 
Mr. Sol Lesser, of Principal Distributing Cor- 
poration, whose offices are in the RKO Building, 
Radio City, New York. 

"The moment the news leaked out that I had 
prepared a Motion Picture entitled 'Russia Today,' 
which showed a true picture of the condition of 
Russia and the Russian people after fifteen years 
of the Great Experiment, The Friends of the 
Soviet Union, which I am ashamed to say is an 
American Institution with branches all over the 
United States, organized /a protest, by requesting 
their various branches and individual members 
to write letters to Mr. Sol Lesser threatening to 
boycott all his pictures if he dared to distribute 
my picture. 

"Here is an educational motion picture which 
has been shown before the National Geographical 
Society in Washington, and was actually taken 
for the Geographic Society of Chicago, yet, by 
means of a snowball threatening letter organized 
by Communists, such fear has been instilled in 
the heart of Mr. Sol Lesser, that he is afraid to 
release it to the Theatres. 

"It is a good illustration of what a well 
organized and active minority can accomplish. 

"I am most anxious to bring this matter before 
your Coalition and before as many other patriotic 
societies as possible, in the hope that I may 



interest them to organize a similar snowball of 
protests against this weakkneed submission to the 
demands of American Communists. 

"For many years the theatre-going public has 
been forced to look at a whole series of Russian 
propaganda pictures, yet the moment a genuine 
picture of a purely Travel Nature is placed upon 
the market, the American Communist Party has 
succeeded at least temporarily, in having it banned. 

"My picture 'Russia Today' has never been 
publicly shown. The fact that in their letters 
of protest they refer to the title as 'The Truth 
About Russia' clearly shows that the picture has 
been condemned without ever being seen. 

"I should be most grateful to you for any sug- 
gestion you have to make as to my best course 
of action. "Faithfully yours, Carveth Wells." 

The American Coalition of Patriotic 
Societies, 823 Albie Bldg., Wash., D.C., sent 
photostatic copies of these letters to officers 
of patriotic societies, stating: 

"We trust your indignation will be sufficiently 
aroused to organize immediately among your 
friends a counter protest against the action of 
the Friends of the Soviet Union . . . urging the 
immediate release of Mr. Carveth Wells' film for 
the information of the public on conditions in 
Russia. Mr. Wells assures us that the film was 
censored and returned to him by agents of the 
Soviet Government before he left Russia at which 
time there was small probability that the American 
people would permit their government to loan 
taxpayers' money to a country which has been 
stripped of every marketable commodity and the 
mass of its population reduced to the verge of 
starvation and hopeless misery by a remorseless 
clique of political theorists. We make this appeal 
because it is obvious that this attack on the 
Carveth Wells film by the Friends of the Soviet 
Union is part of Communist propaganda for the 
recognition of Russia." 

F.S.U. nat. hdqts. 80 E. llth St., N.Y. 
City; Norman Tallentire, nat. organizer. 

California branch, 129 West Third Street, 
Suite 415-416, Los Angeles, Cal.; Dr. Robt. 
Whitaker, chmn.; Delta Weinrich, vice 
chmn.; Dr. J. C. Coleman, educational 
director; Robt. Edwards, treas.; Clara 
Ward, sec.; M. Movshovitch, literature 
agent. 

Nat. com. F.S.U. endorsing call for 
F.S.U. Convention, Jan. 26, 27, 28, 1934, 
N.Y. City: 

Thos. R. Amlie, Roger Baldwin, Carleton Beals, 
Alfred M. Bingham, Frank Borich, "Bishop" W. 
M. Brown, Earl Browder, Julian Bryan, Anne Bur- 
lak, George S. Counts, Malcolm Cowley, Edw. 
Dahlberg, H. W. L. Dana, Floyd Dell, James W. 
Ford, Richard Farber, Wm. Z. Foster, Waldo 
Frank, Jos. Freeman, Ben Gold, Michael Gold, 
Lem Harris, Clarence Hathaway, Donald Hender- 
son, Granville Hicks, John Haynes Holmes, Roy 
Hudson, Langston Hughes, Wm. N. Jones, Howard 
Kester, Mary Van Kleeck, Corliss Lamont, Mar- 
garet Lamont, Katherine Lewis, Robt. Morss 
Lovett, J. B. Matthews, John Meldon, Robt. 
Minor, Scott Nearing, A. Overgaard, Wm. Pat- 
terson, Philip Raymond, Jack Stachel. Maxwell 
Stewart, Genevieve Taggard, Justine Wise Tulin, 
Chas. R. Walker, Dr. Harry F. Ward, Louis 
Weinstock, Susan H. Woodruff, Albert Rhys 
Williams, Walter Wilson. ("Soviet Russia Today," 
12/33.) 



Organizations, Etc. 



163 



FRIENDSHIP TOURS 

"A non-commercial cultural organiza- 
tion" conducting (1933) propaganda tours 
to Soviet Russia. Leaders: Phil Brown; 
F. Tredwell Smith (in Russia) ; Sponsoring 
Committee: Prof. Geo. S. Counts, Prof. 
Harry Ward, Prof. Harold O. Rugg, Prof. 
Goodwin Watson, Prof. Harrison Elliott, 
Prof. Reinhold Niebuhr, Dr. Addison T. 
Cutler. Hdqts. 261 Fifth Ave., N.Y. City. 
(Same address as Intourist, Soviet Govt. 
agency.) 

FURNITURE WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

Communist T.U.U.L. union with organ- 
izations at Grand Rapids, Jamestown, N.Y., 
Rockford, 111., Chicago, etc.; 818 Broad- 
way, N.Y. City. 



GARLAND FUND 

The AMERICAN FUND FOR PUBLIC 
SERVICE is popularly known as the 
"Garland Fund" or the "Free Love Fund" 
because it was founded by a radical, Chas. 
Garland of Mass., who served a term in 
the penitentiary for running a "Free Love 
Farm." Being an opponent of private 
ownership of property, he turned over his 
inheritance to form this fund in order to 
further the radical cause. The Fund's offi- 
cial report states that between 1922, when 
it was founded, and 1930, $1,378,000 was 
given away and $780,000 loaned. (The 
Fund is practically exhausted now.) To 
quote: "The Board of Directors of the 
Fund is a self perpetuating group, the 
directors serving for terms of three years 
each. The original directors were picked 
out as persons of diverse connections with 
radical, labor and liberal movements, who, 
despite philosophical differences, were prac- 
tical-minded enough to deal harmoniously 
with immediate issues." These directors 
have been members of the I.W.W., Com- 
munist and Socialist parties, which are all 
basically aiming for the same ends the 
abolition of the property right and the 
undermining and eventual overthrow of 
our present form of government the dif- 
ferences between them being largely those 
of stress on certain tactics, such as use of 
violence or of parliamentary action, to 
gain control. 

The Fund has been the life stream of 
the Red Revolutionary movement in the 
U.S., having sustained all the leading Com- 
munist, Socialist and I.W.W. activities. 
Samuel Gompers of the A.F. of L. wrote 



the Fund asking for money for a legitimate 
labor cause and was refused, Roger Baldwin 
of the Fund replying that: "We do not 
see our way clear to financing any enter- 
prise except those definitely committed to 
a radical program . . . ", etc. 

The original directors and officers were 
(from the Fund's report of July 31, 1923, 
"for the first year of operation"): 

Roger N. Baldwin, Wm. Z. Foster, Lewis S. 
Gannett, Sidney Hillman, James Weldon Johnson 
(colored), Robt. Morss Lovett, Scott Nearing, 
Mary E. McDowell, Judah L. Magnes, Norman M. 
Thomas, Harry F. Ward, Morris L. Ernst, Walter 
Nelles. 

The report of June 30, 1924, "for the 
second year," lists: 



Scott Nearing, pres. ; Robt. Morss Lovett, vice 
pres.; Roger N. 
treas.; Walter Nelles, counsel, and Eliz. Gurley 



Baldwin, sec.; Morris L. Ernst, 



Flynn, Wm. Z. Foster, Lewis S. Gannett, Clinton 
S. Golden, James Weldon Johnson, Freda Kirch- 
wey, Norman M. Thomas, Leo Wolman, fellow 
directors. 

The reports show that the directors 
changed about during the year in serving 
as officers. The report of Feb. 1929 (for 
the three years 1925-8) lists the same 
directorship with the exceptions that Com- 
munist Wm. Z. Foster, Robt. Morss Lovett 
and Leo Wolman are replaced by Com- 
munists Clarina Michelson, Benj. Gitlow 
and Robt. W. Dunn. The report of May 
1931 (for 1928-30) lists same directors 
except for the omission of Eliz. Gurley 
Flynn. The 1932 officers (given in the 
statement of ownership of the Communist 
magazine "New Masses," which states that 
its owner and publisher is the Am. Fund 
for Pub. Service) were: 

James Weldon Johnson, pres.; Robt. W. Dunn, 
sec.; Morris L. Ernst, treas. 

1933 Officers are: 

Roger Baldwin, pres.; Clinton S. Golden, vice 
pres.; Robt. W. Dunn, sec.; Morris Ernst, treas.; 
with Gannett, Gitlow, Johnson, Kirchwey, Michel- 
son and Thomas fellow directors as before. 

FOR ANARCHIST-COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
The inextricable interweaving of Red 
forces is shown not only in the personnel 
of the Fund's directorship but also in the 
organizations it has supported. Studying 
the Fund's reports is like studying the 
whole Red network. Socialists, Commu- 
nists and I.W.W.'s intermingle in organ- 
izations, on committees and in practically 
all Red activities. One sees, for example, in 
the reports the sums of $500 and $500 
donated to the anarchist-communist Fer- 
rer or Modern School at Stelton, N.J., 
aided by Emma Goldman and Berkman. 
In 1925-6, $1125 and $875 were given to 



164 



The Red Network 



it. Wherever treason has lifted its head, 
it seems, the Fund has aided financially. 
When Wm. Z. Foster and other Commu- 
nists were seized at Bridgman, Mich., with 
two barrels full of documentary evidence 
of their plans to overthrow the U.S. Govt, 
the Labor Defense Council (later I.L.D.) 
was formed to defend these criminals 
caught in their Moscow-directed conspir- 
acy. The Fund lists: "To Labor Defense 
Council for defense of Michigan criminal 
syndicalism cases $10,000," then "$3,000," 
then "$200." (Incidentally, treason is now 
practically unchallenged and quite in the 
open. Then traitors had to meet secretly.) 
Then, to its successor the I.L.D. Chicago 
"for substitution of bail in Michigan 
criminal syndicalism cases $7,000," and 
again "$5,000," and "for legal fees in en- 
deavoring to secure dismissal of Michigan 
criminal syndicalism cases $500"; also such 
enlightening items as: To I.L.D. (1) Chi- 
cago Office for legal expenses in the cases 
of the Ziegler, 111. miners, $2,000. (2) Pitts- 
burgh Branch for legal expenses in Pitts- 
burgh sedition cases, $1,500. (3) Boston 
Branch for legal expenses in Bimba blas- 
phemy case, $500. (4) National Bail 
Fund for substitution of bail in deportation 
case, $1,000. 

The "Daily Worker" official Communist 
newspaper, received sums of $38,135, 
$1,200, $6,500, $3,900, $1,050 and $6,875, 
at different times. 

The Fund's own Communist magazine, 
"New Masses" received sums of $1,500, 
$30,000, $28,000, $3,000, $2,000 and $400. 

The Communist N.Y. "Workers School" 
(to train leaders for the Communist Revo- 
lution in the U.S., so it states) received 
"for books for library $859.25" and also 
for general expenses, $11,122 and $641. 

International Publishers, the Communist 
publishing house, received "for promotion 
of Americanization of Labor by Robt. W. 
Dunn, $298.95," and for publication of 
fifteen Communist "International Pam- 
phlets," $1,400 and $1,500. 

Workers Library Publishers (Commu- 
nist) received for publishing three pam- 
phlets, $800. 

The Passaic, N.J. Communist strike in 
1926 was called the "first lesson in Revo- 
lution" and the Fund spent generously in 
supporting it. The committee formed for 
this purpose by Norman Thomas, the 
A.C.L.U. and L.I.D., called the "Emer- 
gency Committee for Strikers Relief," re- 
ceived $1,520 in 1926, and, later, for Passaic 
and other activities, sums of $5,000 and 
$1,000. The United Front Textile Com- 



mittee, Passaic, N.J., "for expenses of Mary 
Heaton Vorse for publicity work on textile 
strike" reed. $818. Other items are: 
"Passaic, N.J. strike relief, publicity and 
research $25,318"; "bail underwritten 
$45,000"; "Wm. Jett Lauck, for investi- 
gating textile industry Passaic, N. J., 
$4,500," also $500; "/..>. for premiums 
on bail in Passaic, N.J. cases, $3,022," and 
other fees, $200. 

Another Communist strike, well sup- 
ported by the Fund, was the Gastonia, N.C. 
strike, where, to quote U.S. Report 2290, 
"there was a bloody conflict between the 
Communist-led textile workers and the 
police, in which the chief of police was 
shot and killed and two of his assistants 
wounded. Seven Communists were sen- 
tenced to long terms in prison, but jumped 
their bonds and went to Russia, where they 
presumably are today. The I.L.D. headed 
by J. Louis Engdahl, a well-known Com- 
munist, and the A.C.L.U. cooperated in the 
defense of the convicted strikers and 
assisted in securing the money for the bail 
bonds from the Garland Fund, which was 
forfeited." And so we see in the Fund's 
reports the items: "I.L.D. $29,218" and 
"I.L.D. for legal fees and expense in con- 
nection with Gastonia, N.C. cases," $15,000 
and $5,475. The I.L.D. (N.Y. branch) 
received other sums, such as $2,850 and 
$2,000, for its general activities. 

The Communist " Young Workers 
League" (now called Young Communist 
Lg.), at Superior, Wis. was graciously pre- 
sented with $1,200; and its Chicago branch 
the same amount. These gifts are listed 
under "Education" one may well imagine 
what sort. 

The Russian Reconstruction Farms (Jan. 
1926) reed. $3,000, then $1,015, and "for 
purchase of equipment in U.S.," $20,000. 

The Communist (there is also an I.W.W. 
union of same name) Agricultural Workers 
Industrial Union reed. $3,000. The Com- 
munist National Textile Workers Union 
reed. $5,570 "for organizational work in the 
South," and $500 "to Local No. 2, New 
Bedford, Mass, for final payment on a lot 
in Fall River on which to hold meetings." 
The Communist Marine Workers League, 
N.Y., reed, "for books for their library 
$599.87." The House of the. Masses (Com- 
munist) in Detroit reed. ?4,000. 

In 1927 the Communist A A. A. I. Lg., 
then being organized all over the U.S., re- 
ceived a nice gift of $1,000 "for organ- 
ization work during summer months," and 
in 1929-30, is listed "Anti-Imperialist 
League of the U.S., N.Y.C. for preliminary 



Organizations, Etc. 



165 



expenses of reorganization $500" (same 
organization). 

The Communist Trade Union Edu- 
cational League, of which Wm. Z. Foster 
was the head (now the T.U.U.L., and he 
is still the head), reed, at the Chicago 
branch "for publication of pamphlet on 
Company Unions by Robt. W. Dunn 
$600"; the N.Y.C. branch reed. $900; etc. 

The Labor Research Assn., N.Y.C., a 
Communist subsidiary organized by Robt. 
W. Dunn, reed, "for secretarial assistance 
for Scott Nearing in connection with series 
of books on economic subjects $1,000"; 
it also reed. $750. 

"Novy Mir," the Russian Communist 
paper published in N.Y., reed, gifts and 
loans of $3,000, $500, etc. 

The Communist "Daily Worker Pub. 
Co." reed. (1) For publication of one 
volume of the works of Lenin in English 
$2,500; (2) For publication of ten volumes 
of the 'Little Red Library' $1,875; (3) 
For the publication of Report of British 
Trade Union Delegation to Russia $2,500, 
etc. 

The Communistic Vanguard Press was 
started by the Fund itself and was a big 
favorite, receiving in one report alone 
$139,453 for capital, for books on Negro 
labor, and for "series of studies on Russia," 
for which other large sums were also 
appropriated. 

To Communist "Max Eastman, Croton, 
N.Y. for preparation and production of a 
historic film on the Russian Revolution, 
$2,500." (Loan.) 

The Federated Press, regarded by Com- 
munists as their own press service, reed, 
generous aid; the first year, $15,640 (partly 
for salary of director Leland Olds), the 
second year, $12,640, the third year, 
$10,130, for the next three years, $26,441, 
and the next two years, $12,000. 

FOR A.C.L.U. ACTIVITIES 
The A.C.L.U., ever on the firing line in 
behalf of Red revolutionaries, reed, sums 
almost too numerous to list. These are 
representative: "A.C.L.U., for special cam- 
paign against criminal syndicalism law, 
$5,000"; "A.C.L.U. for expenses in con- 
nection with Tennessee Anti-Evolution 
case, $500"; "A.C.L.U., N.Y.C. June 5 
and July 12, 1923 for an investigation of 
reactionary organizations, $1,972.50"; "A.C. 
L.U., Southern Cal. Branch, Los Angeles, 
Cal., Aug. 1, 1923 $1,000," (also other 
sums) . The close connection between the 
A.C.L.U. and the Fund is shown by such 
items as these: "A.C.L.U., N.Y.C. revolv- 



ing loan fund for civil liberties cases admin- 
istered by agreement between the Union 
and the Fund, $2,000"; "Emergency Case 
Fund, administered by the A.C.L.U. 
$14,989" (1925-28); "A.C.L.U. So. Cal. 
Branch for deficit incurred in campaign 
for release of Mooney and Billings $800"; 
"A.C.L.U., special projects, $4,197" (1928- 
30) ; "A.C.L.U. Northern Cal. Branch, San 
Francisco, Cal. $2,395.07" ; A.C.L.U., 
N.Y.C. (1) For lawyers fees in connection 
with recovering of bail bond $750. (2) 
For legal expenses in connection with Pas- 
saic, N.J. strike cases $500; "Pa. Civil 
Liberties Committee, Harrisburg, Pa. 
$500"; "A.C.L.U. for free speech fight in 
West Va. $1,000"; A.C.L.U. (1) For 
expenses of field organizer for definite work 
in civil liberties cases $500; (2) For cam- 
paign against injunctions in labor disputes 
$500; (3) For emergency case fund 
$1,726.67 (1929-30) ; etc., etc., etc. 

Criminals convicted of treason, sedition 
and Red revolutionary activities are always 
referred to sympathetically by the Reds as 
"political prisoners." The International 
Committee for Political Prisoners, formed 
by the A.C.L.U. to aid them, reed. $300 
and $1,527.50 from the Fund. 

Loyal aid to Communists is indicated in 
items like these: 

"Walter Pollak and Carroll Weiss King, 
N.Y.C. For fees and expenses in case of 
Emanuel Vatjauer, in the U.S. Supreme 
Court, held for deportation as a Commu- 
nist $1,900"; Isaac Schorr, N.Y.C. Ex- 
penses in the case of Herbert Mahler and 
others, U.S. Supreme Court, ex-political 
prisoners held for deportation $300." 

As soon as the U.S. Govt. tries to protect 
its existence by jailing or deporting Reds, 
the Fund, the I.L.D., the A.C.L.U., and the 
whole army of Reds and their organizations 
are there to fight it. A united Red fight 
against Criminal Syndicalism laws in the 
States is now being waged in order that 
sedition shall not be punished. 

FOR I.W.W. ACTIVITIES 
These donations to I.W.W. activities 
show a "unity of spirit" in the "class war": 
"General Defense Committee (of I.W.W.) 
San Francisco, Cal. for fighting criminal 
syndicalism cases $500" (1923); to Chi- 
cago branch "for relief of released polit- 
ical prisoners, $1,250"; to Cal. branch 
"$500"; "for payment and repairs on build- 
ing, $6,500"; "for expenses in connection 
with Centralia case," $170 and $170; "To 
Chgo. Gen. Def. Com. $20,007.79"; items 
of $10,475.68, $12,000 and $6,000 are listed 



166 



The Red Network 



to the Equity Printing Co. (owned by the 
I.W.W.). 

Harry F. Ward, director of the Fund in 
1922 and chmn. of the A.C.L.U., had shown 
his friendly spirit of cooperation with the 
defense of the I.W.W. murderers of four 
American Legion men at Centralia, Wash., 
by presiding over a meeting held at the 
Rand School, N.Y.C., Feb. 9, 1920, to raise 
money for their defense (Lusk Report). 
The Fund, later, donated to "Centralia, 
Publicity Committee For publicity in con- 
nection with release of Centralia prisoners 
$250." 

The Rand School, at which the I.W.W. 
defense meeting and so many other Red 
meetings have been held, must practically 
have been supported by the Fund, to 
judge by the contributions, sums of $5,000, 
$3,200, $400, $4,400, $7,200, $10,140, 
$16,116, $7,957.26, etc., being listed from 
time to time, and large sums to the Rand 
Book Store for publication of the "Am. 
Labor Year Book" (covering radical 
activities) . 

Brookwood Labor College, another So- 
cialist institution, fared bountifully also 
at the Red feeding trough, receiving in one 
period (1928-30) $41,751 and in another 
(1925-28) $74,227. 

The National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.) 
was well cared for with appropriations of 
$31,552 (1925-28), $7,365 in 1923-24, and 
a loan of $5,000 in 1929-30. 

Significant items are these: "Teachers 
Union, N.Y.C." (1) "towards the campaign 
for the repeal of Lusk Laws $500"; (2) 
"For research and publicity work outside 
of regular activities, mimeograph machine, 
$3,172.50"; the Teachers Union also reed. 
$6,000 in a three-year period for "oper- 
ating expenses"; the "Minneapolis Fed- 
eration of Teachers, Mpls., Minn. for 
legal expenses and publicity in connection 
with dismissal of two members $250"; 
"American Federation of Teachers 
$2,000"; and "The New Student, N.Y.C. 
for traveling expenses of editors of col- 
lege papers to conference $333.06." 

The Manumit School at Pawling, N.Y., 
which is directed by Nellie Seeds (wife of 
Communist Scott Nearing), reed. 1928-30, 
$5,000; and 1925-28, $10,907. 

Communism-Socialism fights the Chris- 
tian standards of marriage and morality. 
Ben Lindsey is looked upon evidently as an 
ally of this Red cause, since this item was 
voted to him: "Ben B. Lindsey, Denver, 
Colo. For election contest in Denver, 



involving the issue of the Ku Klux Klan 
$1,000" (1924-25 Report, April 22). 

The League for Mutual Aid received for 
"Social Service for radicals" sums of $200, 
$450, $3,000, and $500. 

The Brooklyn, National and N.Y. Urban 
Leagues reed, gifts and loans of $15,000, 
$1,000 and $500. One item was for the 
study of "relations of Negroes to trade 
unions." 

The American Birth Control League, 
another movement used by Reds to break 
down the fear of sex relations outside of 
marriage and to generally loosen the mar- 
riage tie, reed. $10,400, $500, and "for 
salary and expenses of organizer $2,000" 
(1928-30). 

The Red agitation in behalf of Anarchist- 
Communist Mooney reed, hearty support 
from the Fund. The "National Mooney- 
Billings Committee" (1928-30) reed, "for 
publicity campaign for Mooney and Bill- 
ings $1,000," and also $800. "Mooney 
Holders Defense Committee for campaign 
for pardon of Mooney and Billings $500"; 
"N. Col. Committee for Mooney and Bill- 
ings $250"; "Mooney Defense Committee 
$900" (also $100 and $100), etc. 

Sacco and Vanzetti, the gentle Anarchist 
murderers and thieves who died yelling 
"Long Live Anarchy," reed, loving aid as 
well; "Provisional Committee for calling 
Sacco and Vanzetti conference, N.Y.C., 
expenses in connection with meeting 
$1,000"; "Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Com- 
mittee $20,000" (loan), and gift of 
$2,500. Between 1925 and 1928, $11,000 
was given to "Sacco-Vanzetti case." 

Intellectual-Red papers and periodicals 
were evidently considered suitable agen- 
cies, for the New Republic (the Fund 
director, Robt. Morss Lovett, being an 
editor) reed, a loan of $1,000, "for book 
on 'The Supreme Court and Minimum 
Wage Legislation,' published by National 
Consumers League"; The World Tomorrow 
(of Kirby Page) reed, "for general ex- 
penses $3,000" (1925), $1,000 (1923), 
$2,000 (1924); and to "Fellowship Press, 
N.Y.C. For operating expenses of the 
World Tomorrow, to Dec. 31, 1925, (May 
27) $3,000," etc. 

The Socialist New Leader reed, large 
sums, as did Labor Age (organ of the Conf. 
Prog. Lab. Act.) ; one item was "For 
financing testimonial dinner to James 
Maurer $250." 

"For Mr. Brophy's salary as director," 
the Pittsburgh Educational Forum and 
Labor College, Pittsburgh, Pa., reed. 
$1,700. 



Organizations, Etc. 



167 



The Conference for Progressive Labor 
Action reed. $5,266 at one time and also 
"for publication of a pamphlet $1,065.76." 
The Committee on Coal and Giant Power 
"for completion of Mr. Raushenbush's 
research work and half budget of Com- 
mittee under Prof. Bird $5,266," and also 
$2,847, 1928-30. The New York Call, and 
Leader reed. $54,500; etc. 

The reports are peppered with donations 
to the LJ.D., which changed its name 
from "Intercollegiate Socialist Society" 
after the unsavory Socialist War record, 
in order not to frighten off prospective 
student members, but which now grows 
ever bolder and bolder in its talk of Red 
Revolution. That it was always con- 
sidered a useful organization is shown by 
gifts of $6,400 the first year; $3,500 and 
$2,000 the second year "for field secretary's 
salary" and "for field secretary's traveling 
expenses, contingent upon raising their 
budget for the year"; between 1925 and 
1928, $10,500 was given for "field secre- 
tary's salary"; also (1) "For study on 
Coal and Superpower by H. Stephen 
Raushenbush $5,000." (2) "For survey of 
conditions in cotton mills in the South by 
Paul Blanshard $700." (3) "For study on 
'New Developments of Capitalism in the 
U.S.' $600"; and many thousands for 
publication of pamphlets (to be found in 
student Y.M.C.A.'s such as at N.U., Evan- 
ston). 

The International Ladies Garment 
Workers reed, a huge loan of $100,000 (in 
Communist-led strike of 1926) and also 
a loan of $25,000 for their Workers Center 
at Forest Park, Pa. Nor were their friends 
the Amalgamated Textile Workers Union 
forgotten, receiving thru L. Hollingsworth 
Wood and Albert De Silver (in strike of 
1919) $850. The Central Trades and 
Labor Council reed. $2,000. The Nat. 
Women's Trade Union Lg., Chgo. branch, 
reed. $1,147.33 and $629, and the N.Y. 
branch, $2,500, $2,500, and $913. The 
Nat. Consumers Lg. reed. $2,945.84, $1,000, 
etc. The Cooperative League of America, 
N.Y., reed. $2,000 and $1,500. The 
Northern States Cooperative League, "For 
organization work in Minn., Wis., and 
Mich.," reed. $1,000. The Cooperative 
Central Exchange, Superior, Wis. reed, 
loans amounting to $10,000. 

Commonwealth College, where the Inter- 
nationale is sung with fervor, was hand- 
somely provided for, being given $1,000 
in 1924 and $23,580 in the next three- 
year period. After this Red sympathizers 



were called upon to take up its support 
by donations. 

Pioneer Youth of America reed. $25,710, 
1925-28, $6,227, 1928-30, and other sums. 

W. E. B. Du Bois was paid $5,000 for 
services evidently considered valuable to 
the cause. "For expenses Albert Coyle's 
trip to Mexico $549.64"; "For expenses of 
trip to Pa. and W. Va. coal fields by Louis 
Budenz $321.29." These last two items 
appear under Federated Press gifts for the 
year 1925-26. // Nuovo Mondo, a daily 
paper, reed. $12,000, 1925-28, and was a 
mainstay in the Sacco-Vanzetti agitation. 

"Am. Student Delgation to Russia, 
N.Y.C." cost $950, plus $350 for "organ- 
ization." The item in the 1924 report, 
"Investigation of Department of Justice 
'spy system' $1,345," coincides nicely with 
the cessation of funds granted the Dept. 
of Justice the following year for investi- 
gation of radical activities and the Dept. 
is crippled today because of this lack. 

FOR "PACIFISM" 

Truly the Red tentacles reach far. While 
opposing the mild, liberal, modern, so-called 
"Imperialism" of America, England and 
France, which has brought civilization to 
still barbarous lands, the Socialists and 
Communists strive to bring about a world 
imperialism on Russian lines in which 
absolute autocracy and force would rule. 
While talking "Peace," they work to weaken 
national defense and patriotic spirit in 
order that at the right moment a bloody 
revolution may put the "dictatorship of 
the proletariat" (in reality a dictatorship 
of combined intellectual and gutter Red 
revolutionaries) into power. Bearing in 
mind the Fund's policy to give only to 
enterprises "definitely committed to a rad- 
ical program," the following donations to 
"Peace" causes are interesting: 

"To a group of students at Northwestern 
University and Garrett Biblical Institute, 
Evanston, 111. April 9, 1924 for anti- 
militaristic movement $497.41"; To 
"Wyoming State Conference Methodist 
Church, Laramie, Wyo. for publication of 
literature against compulsory military 
training $300" (1926); "Fellowship of 
Youth for Peace, N.Y.C. for distribution 
of 1,100 copies of June number of 'World 
Tomorrow,' among Japanese students in 
America $88" (now Fell. Recon.) ; 
"Women's International League for Peace 
and Freedom, N.Y.C. For traveling ex- 
penses of speakers on imperialism to 
Senate Committee hearing and to Chicago 
conference, (Mar. 4th and May 22nd) 



168 



The Red Network 



$543.17" (1924-25) ; To "W.IJ..P.F.," 
Wash, D.C., "For general expenses, 6 
months (Oct. 22nd) $1,000"; To W.I.L. 
P.F., Wash., B.C., "For publication of 
monthly bulletin Tax' $2,400" (1925-26); 
To W.I.L.P.F., "For publication of 
Monthly bulletin Tax' $1,200" (1926-27) ; 
To W.I.LP.F. "For publication of 
monthly bulletin Tax' $1,200" (1927-28); 
To "Committee on Militarism in Edu- 
cation, N.Y.C." (1) "For preparation and 
distribution of pamphlet on 'Military 
Training in Schools and Colleges in the 
U.S.' $5,400" (Lane Pamphlet), and (2) 
"Toward general budget $5,000" (1925- 
26) ; also "To Committee on Militarism in 
Education for general expenses $2,000" 
(1926-27). 

For "Studies of American Imperialism 
(research and publication) $27,956" 
(1925-28), is a staggering item indicating 
to what pains the Fund went to discredit 
America by propaganda representing the 
U.S. as "bullying" and "imperialistic." Red 
intellectuals hired to "research" must have 
been well pleased at this appropriation. 

The Communist Workers International 
Relief, many radical "Labor" schools, 
periodicals, Pioneer Camps, and "Summer 
Schools for Workers in Industry," were 
financed; for the I.W.W.'s, "Wayne, 
Alberta, Canada for relief to striking 
miners, $500"; and the "Speakers Service 
Bureau" reed. $12,500. Donations to the 
Labor Bureau were $1,107.24, $1,000, 
$381.07; to the Bureau of Industrial 
Research, N.Y. "for Mr. Raushenbush's 
studies on coal situation $5,700"; "Mid- 
land Empire Coop. Publishing Co., Bill- 
ings, Mont. for 4 Farmer-Labor papers 
$1,500"; "Oklahoma Leader, Oklahoma 
City $6,000"; "Camp Tamiment, Forest 
Park, Pa." reed, help; "Trade Union Com- 
mittee for organizing Negro Workers" reed. 
$2,434 and $600. 

"In order to get a complete picture of 
the enterprises in the labor and radical 
movements in the U.S., a survey was made 
jointly by Roger Baldwin and Stuart 
Chase . . . ", so a Fund report says (It 
covered them nicely it would seem) ; and 
"after being assured of the sound manage- 
ment of an enterprise, of the effectiveness 
of its directing personnel and the signifi- 
cance of its objects, the Fund has given or 
loaned without further questions." 

GARLAND FUND COMMITTEE 
ON AMERICAN IMPERIALISM 

Says the 1925 official report: "A number 
of research jobs which no enterprise was 



equipped to tackle were organized and 
financed by the Fund. Chief among these 
is a study of American imperialism under 
the direction of Prof. Harry Elmer 
Barnes of Smith College who heads an 
advisory committee composed of Prof. 
E. M. Borchard, Emanuel Celler, Prof. 
Paul H. Douglas, Robt. W. Dunn, Ken- 
neth Durant, Prof. Edw. M. Earle, Ernest 
Gruening, Prof. Manly O. Hudson, Dr. 
Samuel Guy Inman, Basil M. Manly, Dr. 
Chas. Clayton Morrison, Kirby Page, 
Judge Otto Schoenrich, Henrik Shipstead, 
Edgar Speyer, Moorfield Storey, John F. 
Sinclair, Oswald Garrison Villard and 
Arthur Warner." 

"Studies are now being made by Amer- 
ican investigators in Cuba, Santo Domingo 
and Bolivia. . . . Two studies made last 
year under the auspices of the Fund have 
been published in book form. They are 
'American Foreign Investments' by Robt. 
W. Dunn and 'Dollar Diplomacy' by Scott 
Nearing and Jos. Freeman. These studies 
are made under the direction of a com- 
mittee of the Fund composed of Lewis S. 
Gannett, Chairman; Morris L. Ernst, 
James Weldon Johnson, Roger N. Baldwin 
and Scott Nearing." (See A.A.A.I. Lg., etc.) 

GENERAL DEFENSE COMMITTEE 
Legal defense association of the I.W.W. 

corresponding to the Communist I.L.D.; 

hdqts. 555 W. Lake St., Chicago. 

GORKI AWARD 

Given yearly by Maxim Gorki of Russia 
to American Communist authors who pro- 
duce the best revolutionary literature of 
the year. 

GREEN INTERNATIONAL 

To quote from its own literature, it "Is 
a League of students from among the 
schools, colleges and universities of the 
world, intent on War Resistance. Aims: 
To direct, to encourage . . . systematic 
War Resistance. ... To radicalize the cause 
of peace. . . . Symbol: The Green Inter- 
national Shirt will be the outward symbol 
of War Resistance the visible expres- 
sion of World Patriotism. . . . The Green 
International requires from its members a 
personal spiritual pledge to refuse to take 
part in or to support any kind of war 
either directly or indirectly." 

It aims to enlist at least 2 per cent of all 
college students in the U.S. to affiliate with 
war resisting societies. The 2 per cent idea 
was advanced by Prof. Einstein in 1931 
(see "Who's Who" for his Communist 



Organizations, Etc. 



169 



affiliations). The theory is that if 2 per 
cent of the population are organized as 
militant war resisters they can cripple their 
government in the prosecution of any war. 
At that time thousands of buttons bearing 
the insignia "2 per cent" were distributed 
by radical pacifist groups. The Green 
International is "Sponsored by Peace 
Patriots, War Resisters International, War 
Resisters League, Women's Peace Society, 
New History Society; Cooperating organ- 
izations: Committee on Militarism in 
Education; Fellowship of Reconciliation"; 
hdqts. 132 East 65th Street, N.Y. City. 
(See W. R. Intl. and W. R. Lg.). 

GRIFFIN BILL COMMITTEE 

Formed to uphold the radicals' Griffin 
Bill, backed by the A.C.L.U., which pro- 
posed admission of aliens without their 
taking an oath to bear arms in defense of 
the U.S. government. A letter signed by 
the nat. sec., Alfred Lief, asking that 
friends of the Griffin Bill come out to a 
Hearing Jan. 26, 1932, and saying "Our 
experience at the first Hearing of this Bill 
during the past session was that the 
patrioteers and militarists filled the room 
ahead of us, thus creating an atmosphere 
of hostility," lists on the letter head as 
national chairman of the Griffin Bill Com- 
mittee, Lola Maverick Lloyd. 

Chmn. N.Y. City committee, Elizabeth Black; 
chmn. Boston committee, Helen Tufts Bailie; 
chmn. Northampton committee, Elaine Goodale 
Eastman; chmn. Chgo. committee, Olive H. Rabe; 
National sponsors: Willis J. Abbott (Boston), 
Jane Addams, Emily Greene Balch, Harry Elmer 
Barnes, Mrs. Victor Berger, Alice Stone Black- 
well, Roy E. Burt, Carrie Chapman Catt, Dr. 
Wm. C. Dennis (Pres. of Earlham College), John 
Dewey, Arthur Fisher, Dorothy Canfield Fisher 
(Arlington), Mrs. Caroline Foulke Urie (Yellow 
Springs, O.), Felix Frankfurter, Dr. Alice Hamil- 
ton. John Haynes Holmes, Fannie Hurst, Mercer 
G. Johnston, Harold D. Lasswell, Alfred Lief, Robt. 
Morss Lovett, James H. Maurer, Prof. Samuel E. 
Morison (Harvard U.), Agnes Nestor, Willy 
Pogany (Hollywood), Elmer Rice (N.Y.), James 
T. Shotwell (Columbia U.), Lillian D. Wald, Dr. 
Mary E. Woolley (Pres. Mt. Holyoke College), 
and about twenty others. Hdqts. 135 W. 79th 
St., N.Y. City, Alfred Lief. 






H 
HANDS OFF COMMITTEES 

Various committees, such as the Amer- 
ican Committee for Justice to China, 
American Committee for Fair Play to 
China, American Committee for Chinese 
Relief, and Hands Off China Committees, 
were formed under Communist inspiration 
to create propaganda against U.S. inter- 
ference in China when Red revolutionaries 



were endangering American lives and 
property there. 

The Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party 
of China, founded by Sun Yat Sen, were 
in full alliance with the Communist Inter- 
national and were at the height of their 
revolutionary activities between 1924 and 
1927, with the Soviet agent Grusenberg, 
alias Borodin, as he was known when he 
visited Chicago and Hull House circles, 
acting as chief adviser of Chiang-Kai-Shek, 
the Kuomintang leader. Communists claim 
that the Kuomintang Party broke with 
them and started fighting Communists 
April 12, 1927. Kuomintang spokesmen 
place this date as much as two years later. 
However that may be, the Feb. 28, 1927 
issue of the Third International pub- 
lication, called "The Communist Inter- 
national," stated: "In order to mobilize 
all the reserves of the International Revo- 
lutionary Movement, it is necessary to 
carry out, with the speed commensurate 
with the exceptional importance of the 
matter, the united front under the slogan 
'Hands Off China,' while, at the same 
time, the Communists' parties must act 
independently and employ all forms of 
mass revolutionary struggle." 

The Marvin Data Sheets report: that 
Communist Manuel Gomez speaking at a 
meeting of the "Hands Off China Com- 
mittee" in Chicago, May 8, 1927, said his 
organization, the Communist All-America 
Anti-Imperialist League, had formed 172 
Hands Off China Committees in the United 
States and England; that Carl Haessler 
presided at this meeting and Jane Addams 
spoke, as did also Chandra Sena Gooner- 
atne, "a Hindu U. of Chgo. student said 
to be an active propagandist in the U.S. 
for a revolution in India similar to the 
one going on in China" ; Marvin adds that, 
counting the "Hands Off Nicaragua" (Nica- 
ragua was then seething under Communist- 
supported Gen. Sandino) and "Hands Off 
Mexico" Committees formed for similar 
purposes, the total number of Communist- 
inspired "Hands Off" Committees organ- 
ized then was probably around 250. 

A full page advertisement in the World 
Tomorrow of Aug. 1925 said that Harry 
Ward and Paul Blanshard were then in 
Shanghai and had cabled a request asking 
for immediate funds to aid the Chinese 
Communist group then in charge of the 
Hankow government, saying there was 
little financial support from Russia and 
urging the stopping of "every effort to 
use American gunboats, American money 
and American men to fasten foreign im- 



170 



The Red Network 



perialism on China." This cablegram was 
quoted with the appeal that contributions 
be sent to the Garland Fund to aid this 
cause ; and the appeal was signed by Kirby 
Page, Robt. Morss Lovett and Rose 
Schneidermann. 

The N.Y. Herald Tribune of April 27th, 
1927 referred to Harry Ward as Chairman 
of the executive committee of the Amer- 
ican Committee for Justice to China, the 
same article referring to "another plea for 
justice received by William Pickens of the 
Hands Off China Association from Earl 
Browder, American Communist editor, 
who went to China as a delegate to labor 
conference there and since Feb. 23 has 
been a guest of the Cantonese government." 

A vivid description of the great commu- 
nist Hands Off China mass meeting staged 
in Union Square, N.Y. City and quotation 
from the columns of space proudly given 
it in the communist Daily Worker are cited 
in Marvin Data Sheets, and the following 
committee listed: 

Hands Off China Committee: Prof. John 
Dewey, Paul Jones, H. H. Broach, Rev. 
J. H. Holmes, Dr. James M. Yard, Louis 
Budenz, Rev. Edmund B. Chaffee, Rev. 
Chas. C. Webber, Lewis G. Gannett, Wm. 
Pickens, H. Lanson, chmn. Chinese Stu- 
dents Com. of Columbia. Speakers for 
their meeting, May 9, 1927 (printed in 
Daily Wkr.): Louis Budenz, L. Linson, 
Alex. Trachtenberg, D. Benjamin (Wkrs. 
Sch.), Richard B. Moore, L. Navarez 
(Anti-Imp. Lg.), S. D. Ogino, Jap. Wkrs. 
Alliance (Communist), Geo. Siskind, A. 
Rosemond, Haitian Patriotic Lg. (Com- 
munist), N. Napoli, Anti-Fascist Lg. 
(Communist), Rebecca Grecht, A. Mark- 
off, Lena Cherbnenka, and Juliet Poyntz 
(all of Communist Party), Scott Nearing, 
Robt. W. Dunn, H. M. Wick (Daily Wkr.), 
Powers Hapgood. (Marvin Data Sheets, 
28-29, May 11, 1927.) 

HARLEM LIBERATOR 

See Liberator. 

HARLEM PROGRESSIVE 
YOUTH CLUB 

Communist club; 1538 Madison Ave., 
N.Y. City. 

HARLEM TENANTS LEAGUES 

Communist Negro subsidiary groups. 
Richard B. Moore, director of the National 
Negro Dept. of the Communist Party, 
mailed out a report after the 1928 Com- 
munist Party Convention in N.Y. City 



saying: "The establishment of the Harlem 
Tenants Leagues is considered by the Cen- 
tral Executive Committee as an achieve- 
ment in united front work among the 
Negroes. It is necessary to link up the 
problems of housing with the issues of 
unemployment, segregation, etc." (Marvin 
Data Sheets, 62-3.) 

HOSPITAL WORKERS LEAGUE 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

HUMANISM 

A new religion without God, without 
worship or prayer and without belief in a 
future life. The American Assn. for the 
Advancement of Atheism in its June 1930 
report said: "However much Humanists 
for reasons of expediency shun the title 
'Atheist,' they are godless. Consequently 
we welcome their aid in overthrowing 
Christianity and all other religions based 
on the supernatural." 

The first Humanist Society of New York 
was founded by a New York preacher, 
Chas. Francis Potter, several years ago. A 
1933 conference on Humanism of about 
40 ministers and educators meeting in Chi- 
cago, signed the following resolutions said 
to have been drawn up originally by Prof. 
Roy Sellers of the U. of Michigan and 
made public by Rev. Raymond B. Bragg, 
Chicago Unitarian minister. 

"Religious humanists regard the universe as self- 
existing and not created. 

"Religion must formulate its hopes and plans 
in the light of the scientific spirit and method. 

"The distinction between the sacred and the 
secular can no longer be maintained. 

"Religious humanism considers the complete 
realization of human personality to be the end of a 
man's life, and seeks its development and fulfil- 
ment in the here and now. 

"In place of the old attitudes involved in wor- 
ship and prayer, the humanist finds his religious 
emotions exprest in a heightened sense of per- 
sonal life and in a cooperative effort to promote 
social well-being. 

"There will be no uniquely religious emotions 
and attitudes of the kind hitherto associated with 
belief in the supernatural. Man will learn to face 
the crises of life in terms of his knowledge of 
their naturalness and probability. Reasonable and 
manly attitudes will be fostered by education and 
supported custom. 

"We assume that humanism will take the path 
of social and mental hygiene, and discourage 
sentimental and unreal hopes and wishful thinking. 

"The goal of humanism is a free and universal 
society in which people voluntarily and intelligently 
cooperate for the common good. 

"The time has come for wide-spread recog- 
nition of the radical changes in religious thoughts 
throughout the modern world. Science and economic 
change have disrupted the old beliefs. 

"Religions the world over are under the necessity 
of coming to terms with new conditions created 
by a vastly increased knowledge and experience." 

Signers and endorsers of the above Program 
include Prof. J. A. C. Fagginger Auer, Harvard 



Organizations, Etc. 



171 



University; John Dewey; Prof. Robert Morss 
Lovett, University of Chicago; Chas. Francis 
Potter; Rabbi Jacob J. Weinstein, Advisor to Jew- 
ish students at Columbia University; Prof. Edwin 
Arthur Burtt, Cornell University; Prof. Frank 
Hankins, Smith College; Prof. A. Eustace Hay- 
don, University of Chicago; Prof. Oliver L. 
Reiser, University of Pittsburgh; and Prof. Roy 
Wood Sellers, University of Michigan. 

HUNGARIAN DRAMATIC CLUB (N.Y.) 
Communist mass foreign language section 
cultural group. 

HUNGARIAN PROLETARIAN 

WRITERS ASSN. 

Section of communist Revolutionary 
Writers Federation. 

HUNGARIAN SICK AND DEATH 
BENEFIT SOCIETY 

Communist fraternal insurance foreign 
language organization. 

HUNGARIAN WORKERS CLUB 
HUNGARIAN WORKERS 

HOME SOCIETY 

Communist Hungarian mass organ- 
izations. 

I 

ICOR 

Jewish Communist society helping the 
colonization of Biro Birdjan, the Jewish 
Soviet Socialist Republic in Russia; has 
branches in Brooklyn, New York City, 
Chicago, etc. Chicago hdqts. 3301 W. 
Roosevelt Road. 

IL NUOVO MONDO NAT. COM. 

The full title is "The American Commit- 
tee for the Support of II Nuovo Mondo." 
II Nuovo Mondo was previously heavily 
financed by the Garland Fund (see). A 
letter in 1931 signed by Marguerite Tucker 
the secretary of the Committee said: "II 
Nuovo Mondo is a pro-labor, anti-mili- 
tarist and anti-fascist daily for the Italians 
living in this country. Without II Nuovo 
Mondo the long Sacco-Vanzetti campaign 
could never have been carried on," and 
solicited funds to aid the campaign of II 
Nuovo Mondo "to amend our immigration 
laws so that the right of asylum for political 
prisoners from other lands . . . may be 
assured." Radicals use the term "political 
prisoners" to indicate those jailed for revo- 
lutionary activities. Headquarters 81 East 
10th Street, New York City. 

Clinton S. Golden (of the Garland Fund), 
treas. ; Marguerite Tucker, sec. ; Nat. Com. : 
Morris Berman, Sarah Bernheim, Leroy Bowman, 
Paul F. Brissenden, Heywood Broun, Louis F. 
Budenz, Dr. Charles Fama, Dr. Ninon Firenze, 



Elizabeth Gilman, Arturo Giovannitti, Clinton S. 
Golden, Florence Curtis Hanson, John Haynes 
Holmes, Alexander Howat, Harry W. Laidler, Vito 
Marcantonio, James H. Maurer, Mrs. John F. 
Moors, A. J. Muste, Jacob Panken, J. Nevin 
Sayre, Joseph Schlossberg, Vida Scudder, A. I. 
Shiplacoff, Dr. M. Siragusa, Norman Thomas, 
Girolamo Valenti, Stephen S. Wise. 

INDEPENDENT LABOUR PARTY 

OF GREAT BRITIAN 
Ind. Lab. Party or I.L.P. 

A left wing Socialist Party founded by 
Friedrich Engels, collaborator of Karl 
Marx, in 1893, aided by Marx' youngest 
daughter, "Tussy" (who disdained "bour- 
geois" marriage with Dr. Aveling, her "hus- 
band"), G. B. Shaw and others. The April 
17, 1933 issue of the American communist 
Daily Worker quoted from the National 
Administrative Council of the Independent 
Labour Party recommendation " 'to the 
party that its affiliation with the Labor and 
Socialist International (2nd International) 
should be terminated. ... It takes the view 
that there is now no hope of the Labor 
and Socialist International becoming an 
effective instrument of revolutionary so- 
cialism,' " etc. Whether the I.LP. will now 
join the Third International (Communist) 
remains to be seen. It has long been in 
close sympathy with Moscow and "took 
the lead in Pacifist agitation 'during the 
war'; its anti-recruiting meetings formed 
the nucleus out of which all Defeatist and 
Bolshevik movements developed." (From 
"Socialist Network" by Nesta Webster.) 
Among its past and present leaders are 
Ramsay MacDonald (recently expelled for 
cooperating with the present Coalition 
Government), Tom Mann (now Commu- 
nist), Arthur Ponsonby, Chas. Trevelyan, 
H. N. Brailsford, Josiah Wedgewood, E. D. 
Morel, Philip Snowden, Pethwick Lawrence, 
A. Fenner Brockway (recent lecturer in the 
United States for the L.I.D.), etc. The 
I.L.P. program states: "The I.L.P. is a 
Socialist organization and has for its object 
the establishment of the Socialist Common- 
wealth." Mrs. Pethwick Lawrence was a 
co-worker with Jane Addams in the United 
States in forming the W.I.L.P.F. (see). 
Socialist Margaret Bondfield was the long 
time associate in the Labor Party move- 
ment of Ramsay MacDonald, who made 
her Britain's first woman Cabinet Minister 
in his 1929-31 Cabinet when he was I.L.P. 
Premier of England. She was not made a 
member of the Coalition government which 
followed. She took a prominent part with 
Jane Addams in the congress of the Inter- 
national Council of Women held July 16, 
1933 in Chicago (see Ramsay MacDonald's 



172 



The Red Network 



activities ay I.LP. leader under "Who's 
Who," also "English Reds" for further 
information). 

The Daily Worker, Oct. 4, 1933, report- 
ing the arrival of Tom Mann, English 
Communist, said: "Responding to a ques- 
tion about the recent action of the I.L.P. 
of Great Britain in support of united front 
action with the Communist International, 
Mann said that 'the rank and file of the 
I.L.P. is more and more taking part in 
joint actions with the Communists not 
gingerly, mind you, but heartily!'" 

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS 

OF THE WORLD 
I.W.W. 

From 1905, when it was founded, until 
the advent of the Bolsheviks to power, 
after which many of its unions and leaders 
joined the Communist forces, the I.W.W. 
was the most formidable revolutionary 
organization in the United States. Only 
about 25,000 of the 100,000 membership 
remained in 1933, but new blood is now 
being recruited. 

Among the Socialists and Anarchists who 
founded it or served as its early leaders 
were Eugene V. Debs, "Big Bill" Hay- 
wood, Wm. Z. Foster, Eliz. Gurley Flynn 
and her husband Carlo Tresca, "Mother" 
Jones, Ernest Untermann, etc. Wm. Z. 
Foster and "Big Bill" Haywood went over 
to the newly-formed Communist Party, 
which began assuming the more dominant 
role. However, the Garland Fund donated 
thousands of dollars to the I.W.W. and 
during the depression it has had a con- 
siderable revival, largely in the west. 

As an Anarcho -Syndicalist organization 
its purpose is the organization of industrial 
workers into unions to war against em- 
ployers by any and all means, including 
sabotage, burning of forests and wheat 
fields, murder and violence, and eventually, 
by means of the General Strike, to over- 
throw the government and present capital- 
ist system of society. A 48-page I.W.W. 
booklet, sold in 1933, entitled "The General 
Strike," is entirely devoted to the subject 
of the General Strike as the I.W.W. revo- 
lutionary weapon. After the revolution the 
plan is to have no central government but 
only a government by unions. 

Its organ "One Big Union Monthly" 
(Oct. 1920), describing its "Chart of 
Industrial Communism," stated: "Please 
note that this plan leaves no room for a 
political party which specializes in gov- 
ernment and ruling other people. All power 



rests with the people organized in branches 
of the Industrial Unions. From production 
and distribution standpoint this means 
Industrial Communism. From Administra- 
tion standpoint it means industrial democ- 
racy. Such is the program of the I.W.W." 
The Aug. 11, 1920 issue stated: "The 
I.W.W. views the accomplishments of the 
Soviet government of Russia with breath- 
less interest and intense admiration. . . . The 
I.W.W. has always expelled members who 
were not true to the basic principles of the 
world revolution." In answer to Zinoviev's 
invitation to the I.W.W. to join the Third 
International, the I.W.W. moved: "That 
we endorse the Third International with 
reservations as follows: 'That we do not 
take any part whatever in parliamentary 
action and that we reserve the right to 
develop our own tactics according to con- 
ditions prevailing.' " 

The few surviving leaders of the old 
I.W.W. are now free from prison and came 
from all sections of the United States to 
attend the I.W.W. convention held Sept. 
29-30, 1933 at the Irving Plaza Hotel, N.Y. 
City. Among these were: James P. Thomp- 
son, leader of the pickets in the great 1912 
textile strike at Lawrence, Mass.; James 
Price, once kidnaped and badly beaten dur- 
ing trouble in Kentucky mines; Arthur 
Boose, agricultural organizer; Monoldi 
from the metal mining districts of the west; 
F. Leigh Bearce, building trades organizer; 
Jack Walsh, marine organizer; and Ben 
Fletcher, Negro waterfront organizer in 
Phila. Herbert Mahler, who was among 
the group arrested after the explosion of 
the bomb in the Chicago post office and 
afterwards sent to Leavenworth Peniten- 
tiary with Thompson, Walsh and Price, 
gave an interview in Sept. 1933 at the new 
I.W.W. headquarters, 94 Fifth Ave., N.Y. 
City, on the I.W.W. present plans to build 
anew a militant aggressive organization on 
the old lines insisting now on a four-hour 
day and four-day week with no wage cuts 
for workers. 

Official organs 1933: Industrial Worker (weekly 
newspaper in English), 555 W. Lake St., Chicago; 
Tie Vapauteen (Finnish monthly), Box 99, 
Duluth, Minn.; Industrialiste (Finnish daily 
newspaper), Box 3912, Sta. F.F., Cleveland, O.; 
II Proletario (Italian weekly), Box 24, Sta. T, 
Brooklyn, N.Y.; Jedna Velka Unie (Czecho- 
Slovakian weekly), 11314 Revere Ave., S.E., 
Cleveland, O. I.W.W. main hdqts. 555 W. Lake 
St. and 1618 W. Madison St., Chicago; branches 
in England and Australia; legal defense society 
is called General Defense Committee (555 W. 
Lake St., Chicago); its unemployed organizations 
are "Unemployed Unions"; cooperates with Social- 
ists, Anarchists and Communists in the revolution- 
ary "united front" "class struggle." 



Organizations, Etc. 



173 



INPRECORR 

An abbreviation, in typical Soviet style, 
of "International Press Correspendence" ; 
published under the latter title in pam- 
phlet form and sold at Communist book- 
stores; published by the Communist Inter- 
national, originally in Vienna, then, until 
Hitler's regime, in Berlin, now in London; 
in four languages German, French, Rus- 
sian and English ; contains articles by Com- 
munist leaders in various countries on 
revolutionary activities, speeches by Stalin, 
etc.; 31 Dudden Hill Lane, London, N.W. 
10. 

INTERCOLLEGIATE STUDENT 
COUNCIL 

Of the League for Industrial Democracy 
(see). 

INTERNATIONALS (1st, 2nd and 3rd) 
The 1st International was formed Sept. 
28, 1864 in St. Martin's Hall, London, by 
a group of peaceful French syndicalists aim- 
ing to improve conditions of labor, joined 
by English members and the Karl Marx 
clique, which latter completely captured 
the organization. It was then known as 
the International Workingmen's Association. 
In 1869, the "Alliance Sociale Democrat- 
ique," a secret society headed by the Rus- 
sian anarchist Michael Bakunin was 
admitted to the International and here 
commenced the struggle for power which 
ended in Marx wrecking the International 
to get rid of these powerful anarchist 
rivals. In advocacy of the class war and 
militant atheism Marxists and Bakunists 
were one, but, while Marx stood for State 
Socialism, conquest of political power, that 
is the State, by the working classes, 
"nationalization of production and distri- 
bution of wealth" unttt all classes should 
become one and "bourgeois" desire for 
individualism should be eradicated, at which 
time (eternity, perhaps) State control 
would become unnecessary and the State 
political machine would then simply 
"wither away," Bakunin, in his own resume 
of his program, advocated: "Abolition of 
the State in all its religious, juristic, polit- 
ical and social realizations; reorganization 
by the free initiative of free individuals in 
free groups"; and declared "I abominate 
Communism because it is a denial of free- 
dom and I cannot understand anything 
human without freedom." In 1872 the 
Anarchists were expelled and the head- 
quarters moved to New York, and four 
years later the 1st International expired 
completely. 



2nd International: After a 13-year 
interval, during which there was no Social- 
ist International, a Congress at Brussels, in 
1889, founded the 2nd Intl. and set up an 
Intl. Socialist Bureau composed of three 
delegates from each of the Socialist or 
Labor Parties of the various countries 
represented. Altho Karl Marx had died in 
1883, this 2nd Intl. was more purely Marx- 
ian than the 1st had ever been owing to 
the long educational agitation by his fol- 
lowers. By 1893 the 2nd Intl. had become 
completely Germanized (according to 
Adolphe Smith, Official Interpreter of the 
Congresses from the outset). Altho Con- 
gresses held in Brussels, 1891, Zurich, 1893, 
London, 1896, Paris, 1900, Amsterdam, 
1904, Stuttgart, 1907, Copenhagen, 1910, 
Basle, 1912, each one developed increasing 
Socialist internationalism or "class solidar- 
ity" as opposed to patriotism, yet at the 
outbreak of the World War temporary 
disruption of the 2nd Intl. occurred be- 
cause so many of its 12,000,000 members in 
27 countries, with the exception of those in 
America and Italy, adhered to their coun- 
tries instead of to their Socialist principles. 
While some in each country hindered and 
sabotaged their governments, yet because 
of the general weakening of international- 
ism, present day Communists refer to the 
2nd Intl. as the "Yellow International." 

After the war, conferences held Feb. 2, 
1919 at Berne, in April, 1919 at Amsterdam, 
and at Lucerne, Aug. 2, 1919, revived the 
2nd Intl., not however without violent 
dissension concerning leadership, tactics, 
cooperation with the Bolshevik Socialists, 
etc., these points causing splits in some 
national parties and a going-over en masse 
of others to the 3rd International, then 
being formed. 

The 2nd Intl. has, in 1933, been crippled 
by Hitler's rise to power in Germany, 
which was its stronghold, and is looking 
to Spain and the U.S.A. as its future hope, 
the Rooseveltian regime being considered 
the groundwork for Socialism. There is 
also considerable agitation among Socialists 
for full affiliation with the Communist 
Intl. The Socialist and Labor International 
(see) is also the name of the 2nd Intl. 

3rd (or Communist) International: Rus- 
sia, having by its 1917 revolution been the 
first to achieve a Socialist government, is 
regarded as the "Fatherland" of Socialists 
everywhere. In Jan. 1919, the Soviet gov- 
ernment, with the avowed purpose of plac- 
ing itself at the head of the international 
Socialist movement sent out a call to the 
revolutionaries of the world to send dele- 



174 



The Red Network 



International Committee 

POM AIM HOLLAND 

THEODORE DREISER 



CHICAGO COMMITTEE FOR 



STRUGGLE AGAINST WAR 



CHICAGO. 1UL. 



American Committee 

MALCOLM COWLEV. CHAIRMAN 
OAKLEY JOHNSON. SECRETARY 
A. A. HELLE 



SHERWOOD ANDERSON 
NEWTON ARVIN 
ROGER BALDWIN 
HARRY ELMER BARNES 
JOSEPH R BRODSKV 
WINIFRED CHAPPELL 
JOSEPH COHEN 
IDA DAILES 
H. w. L. DANA 
JOHN Dos PASSOS 
W. E. B. Du BOIS 
JOSERH FREEMAN 
MICHAEL GOLD 
DONALD HENDERSON 
SIDNEY HOOK 
JOSHUA KUNITZ 
CORLISS LAMONT 
LOLA MAVERICK LLOYD 
ROBERT MORSS Lovcrr 
PIERRE LOVING 
J. C. MCFARLAND 
Rev. R.. LESTER MONDALB 
FELIX MORROW 
ALLA NAZIMOVA 
SCOTT HEARING 
WILLIAM SIMONS 
UPTON SINCLAIR 
LINCOLN STEFFENS 
LEOPOLD STOKOWSKI 
BELLE C. TAUB 
THORNTON WILDER 
ELLA WINTER 

Chicago Committee 
ROBT. MORSS LOVETT. CHAIRMAN 
R. LESTER MONDALE. VICE.-CHAIRM 
EDITH M. LLOYD. SECRETARY 



MIRON A. MORRILL, PUBLICITY 

EUGENE BECHTOLD 
JEISIE 3I.NFORD 
KARL BORDERS 



PERCY H. BOYNTON 
SOPHANISBA BRECKENRIDCI 
EDWIN R. EMEREE 
JULIA FELSTENTHAL 



DR. S. B. FREEHOF 
CHARLES w. GILKEY 
MRS. ALFRED HAMBURGER 
CARL HAESSLER 
MRS. ALFRED KOHM 
BLANCHE LOWENTHAL 
DR. LOUIS L. MANN 
HARRIET MONROE 
CURTIS W. REESE 
DR. H. M. RICHTER 
DONALD SLESIMGCM 
T. v. SMITH 
LORADO TAFT 
GRAHAM TAYLOR 
JAN WITTE.NBER 

JAMES M. YARD 



HENRI BAR8USSE TO SPEAK 
AGAINST WAR AND FASCISM ! 



Henri Barbusse, the noted French author, who is in 
America to attend the U.S. Congress Against War, 
now being held in New York, will speak at a mass meet- 
ing against War and Fascism at the Chicago Coliseum 
on Monday evening, October 23rd, 

M. Barbusse is one of the organizers of the Internat- 
ional Committee to Aid the Victims of German Fascism,. 
His work' against war, both in his novels, such as 
Under Fire, and his public activities, is internation- 
ally known. Last year he was Chairman of tti2 Amsterdam 
Congress Against War. 

A preliminary meeting is being called at the CITY CLUB, 
315 Plymouth Court, on Thursday, October 5th at 4 p.m.. 
to make plans for supporting the Barbusse mass meeting. 
All peace societies, and organizations interested in 
fighting German *ascism, are urged to send represent- 
atives. Individuals are also invited to attend. Mem- 
bers of the Chicago Committee for Struggle Against War 
should by all means be present. 

The visit of Henrt Barbusse is a tremendously important 
event. To make the mass meeting a "success it is necess- 
ary that every organization send delegates to this 
preliminary meeting. 

Sincerely yours, 



Robert Morss Lovett 
Chai rman 

Or, S. B. Freehof 

Edith M, Ltoyd 

Secretary 
7921 S.LaSaHe 

Facsimile of notice urging support of Communist Barbusse meeting, which was jointly sponsored by the 
Chicago Committee for Struggle Against War and the Chicago Committee of the communist National 
Committee to Aid Victims of German Fascism, Communist Barbusse being an international officer of 
both organizations. This Chicago Committee for S.A.W. was called to the platform to occupy seats of 
honor. John Fitzpatrick, president of the Chicago Federation of Labor, although a member, sidestepped 
an invitation to speak as a representative of the A.F. of L., according to "Anti-Fascist Action" (maga- 
zine of the Chgo. Com. of Nat. Com. to Aid Victims of German Fascism), which was sold at the meeting. 



Organizations, Etc. 



175 



gates to Moscow, where, as a result, Mar. 
2-6, 1919, 32 delegates representing 12 
countries founded the 3rd International, or 
Komintern as it is sometimes called (from 
a combination of Russian words Kom- 
munistitcheski Internazional) . The plat- 
form proposed in the call (quoted in full 
in Lusk Report) included: "taking pos- 
session at once of the governmental power 
... in order to replace it by the apparatus 
of proletarian power. (4) The dictator- 
ship of the proletariat should aim at the 
immediate expropriation of capitalism and 
the suppression of private property and its 
transfer to the proletarian state under 
Socialist administration of the working 
class. (5) In order to make the Socialist 
revolution secure, the disarming of the 
bourgeoisie and of its agents and the gen- 
eral arming of the proletariat are neces- 
sary." (Naturally, disarmament is backed 
by Communists everywhere for this pur- 
pose.) "(6) The fundamental condition of 
the state is the mass action of the pro- 
letariat going as far as open conflict with 
arms in hand against the governmental 
power of capitalism," etc. Sept. 8, 1919, 
a Manifesto was sent out urging all revo- 
lutionaries, whether I.W.W., Anarchist, or 1 
Socialist, to unite in forming a united 
Communist Party. 

As a result of the formation and call 
of the 3rd International a division occurred 
in other Socialist revolutionary ranks. As 
parties the Norwegian Labour Party, Swed- 
ish Left Socialist Party, Hungarian Com- 
munist Party, Swiss Social Democratic 
Party, Italian Socialist Party, went over 
en masse to the 3rd International, while 
the American Socialist Party' split, the Left 
wing forming the Communist Party on 
Sept. 1, 1919, in Chicago. The British, 
French, Belgian, Dutch and Swedish Par- 
ties and the German majority Socialists 
retained their allegiance to the 2nd Inter- 
national. Communist Parties were, how- 
ever, then formed in all of these countries 
and the 3rd International or Comintern 
now controls parties operating in 57 
countries. 

INTL., AMERICAN AND CHICAGO 
COMMITTEES FOR STRUGGLE 

AGAINST WAR 
Intl., Am., Chgo., 
Com. for S.A.W. 

The communist Intl. League Against 
Imperialism's agencies for agitating against 
national defense in various countries and 
advocating sabotage, revolutionary defense 



of the Soviet Union, and the turning of 
"imperialist war into civil war" or Red 
revolution. 

A letter sent out July 19, 1932 signed 
by Theodore Dreiser asking for funds to 
aid the communist-called World Congress 
Against War at Amsterdam, Aug. 20, 1932, 
listed on its letterhead as the Intl. Com- 
mittee for the World Congress, the same 
committee now listed as the Intl. Com- 
mittee for Struggle Against War on the 
letterhead (see facsimile) of the Chgo. Com. 
for Struggle Against War, which sent out a 
letter calling a meeting at the Chicago 
City Club, Oct. 5, 1933, to "make plans 
for supporting the Barbusse mass meeting," 
which was sponsored jointly with the Chi- 
cago Committee to Aid Victims of German 
Fascism (of the Communist W.I.R.). 

At this Communist mass meeting at the 
Coliseum, called to honor Communist 
Henri Barbusse, only the Red flag was 
displayed and the International, song of 
Red revolution, sung. The Chicago Com- 
mittee were called to the platform to 
occupy seats on the stage. Clayton C. 
Morrisson, editor of the "Christian (?) 
Century," presided and was cheered when 
he said that he was proud to stand shoulder 
to shoulder with Barbusse and that we 
would never have peace until our capital- 
istic system was abolished! Jos. Gardner 
of the Workers Ex-Service Men's League, 
Robt. Brown of the Metal Wkrs. Industrial 
Union (Communist), Jos. Freeman of com- 
munist "New Masses," and a representa- 
tive of the Young Communist League 
spoke. Prof. H. W. L. Dana of Harvard, 
who greeted the audience as "Comrades" 
and said he was traveling around with 
Barbusse to translate his French speeches, 
collected money from the Communist 
organizations for the "cause." Mrs. J. 
Louis Engdahl, a Chicago Public School 
teacher, widow of the head of the commu- 
nist I.L.D., donated $20.00. Communist 
resolutions were passed with thunderous 
unanimity and Barbusse was ushered in 
by a delegation of the Wkrs. Ex-Service 
Men's League, a Negro bearing the velvet 
banner. Barbusse is the founder of this 
organization, which teaches soldiers of all 
nations to turn their country's war into a 
bloody Red revolution. 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR 

STRUGGLE AGAINST WAR: 
(Same as Intl. Com. for World Congress 
Against War.) 

Remain Rolland, Henri Barbusse (the honored 
Communist from France), Theodore Dreiser, Albert 



176 



The Red Network 



Einstein, Maxim Gorky, Heinrich Mann, Bernard 
Shaw, Mme. Sun Yat Sen. 

American Committee jor Struggle Against 

War: 

Theo. Dreiser, hon chmn.; Malcolm Cowley, 
chmn.; Oakley Johnson, sec.; A. A. Heller, treas. ; 
Sherwood Anderson, Newton Arvin, Roger Bald- 
win, Harry Elmer Barnes, Jos. R. Brodsky, Wini- 
fred Cbappell, Jos. Cohen, Ida Dailes, H. W. L. 
Dana, John Dos Passes, W. E. B. Du Bois, Jos. 
Freeman, Michael Gold, Donald Henderson, Sid- 
ney Hook, Joshua Kunitz, Corliss Lamont, Lola 
Maverick Lloyd, Robt. Morss Lovett, Pierre Lov- 
ing, J. C. McFarland, Rev. R. Lester Mondale, 
Felix Morrow, Alia Nazimova, Scott Nearing, Wm. 
Simons, Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, Leopold 
Stokowski, Belle G. Taub, Thornton Wilder, Ella 
Winter. 

Chicago Committee for Struggle Against 
War (which sponsored the Henri Barbusse 
Communist mass meeting and which lists 
on its letterhead these International, Amer- 
ican, and Chicago Committees for Struggle 
Against War see facsimile): 

Robt. Morss Lovett, chmn.; R. Lester Mondale, 
vice chmn.; Edith M. Lloyd, sec.; Edw. M. Win- 
ston, treas.; Miron A. Morrill, publicity; Eugene 
Bechtold, Jessie Binford, Karl Borders, Alice 
Boynton, Percy H. Boynton, Sophonisba Brecken- 
ridge, Edwin R. Embree, Julia Felstenthal, John 
Fitzpatrick (Chgo. Fed. of Lab.), Dr. S. B. Free- 
hof, Rev. Chas. W. Gilkey, Mrs. Alfred Ham- 
burger, Carl Haessler, Mrs. Alfred Kohn, Blanche 
Lowenthal, Dr. Louis L. Mann, Harriet Monroe, 
Curtis W. Reese, Dr. H. M. Richter, Donald Sles- 
inger, T. V. Smith, Lorado Taft, Graham Taylor, 
Jan Wittenber, James M. Yard. 

The full memberships of the Inter- 
national and American Committees for 
Struggle Against War as listed by their 
Report and Manifesto may be found under 
"World Congress Against War." 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR 
POLITICAL PRISONERS 

Intl. Com. for Pol. Pris. 

Formed by A.C.L.U. members to aid 
and raise money for "political prisoners," 
the term used by radicals to designate 
those jailed for seditious activities; reed, 
money from Garland Fund; sent an appeal 
in 1933 to the Chinese government in 
behalf of the Communist Chen Du Hsui 
which was signed by John Haynes Holmes, 
Oswald Garrison Villard, Arthur Garfield 
Hays, Roger N. Baldwin, Upton Sinclair, 
Lewis S. Gannett, Sherwood Anderson, 
Theodore Dreiser, Floyd Dell, Waldo 
Frank, Malcolm Cowley. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR DEFENSE 

The American section of the Moscow- 
controlled communist International Red 
Aid, the Russian section being called M.O. 
P.R.; formed in Chicago, 1925; legally 



aids and propagandizes in behalf of Com- 
munist criminals arrested for revolutionary 
activities; has sections in 67 countries, 37 
existing illegally; claims 9,000,000 members 
and an additional 1,600,000 in affiliated 
organizations (Am. Labor Year Book) ; 
continually cooperates with the American 
Civil Liberties Union on cases; now agitat- 
ing race hatred with its money-making 
Scottsboro campaign (see under article 
"News"). 

INTERNATIONAL LADIES GARMENT 

WORKERS UNION 
Intl. Ladies Garm. Wkrs. Un. 

"The Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 
the International Ladies Garment Workers 
Union and the Cloth Hat, Cap and Milli- 
nery Workers Union. . . . And the Knit 
Goods Union. . . All of these organizations 
are in the control of leaders who are either 
open Socialists or open Communists. . . . 
The membership of these organizations is 
fully 90 per cent Socialist or Communist. 
Fully 75 per cent of the membership is 
foreign born, only a small proportion of 
this element having gained citizenship 
papers or even applied for such papers. 
Being firmly of the belief that through 
'general strike' they can and will bring 
about the 'revolution' they expect soon to 
control and direct the government of the 
United States just as their brothers now 
control and direct the government of Rus- 
sia. . . . They join with their communist 
brothers in the celebration of a 'red' May 
Day. . . . The Intl. Ladies Garm. Wkrs. 
recently (1927) called a strike in the city 
of New York. It was followed by rioting 
and general disorder. . . . The committee 
directing this strike was in the hands of 
open Communists" (Marvin Data Sheets, 
28-18) ; The Lusk Report says of the Intl. 
Ladies Garm. Wkrs.: "The preamble of 
the constitution indicates that it is 
founded upon the principles of the class 
struggle; that it adopts the One Big Union 
idea and seeks to bring about the over- 
throw of the present system of society. . . . 
It is affiliated with the Workers Defense 
Union of which Eliz. Gurley Flynn is the 
leader, and with which F. G. Biedenkapp 
of the Metal Workers' Union is secretary. 
. . . This Union recognizes the need of edu- 
cating its members in Economics, Sociology 
and other cultural subjects so that they 
may prepare to conduct and manage the 
industry if their program of seizure is car- 
ried out . . . began its educational work 
in 1914 in conjunction with the Rand 



Organizations, Etc. 



177 



School. About ISO members of the Union 
were sent to the school. ... It is closely 
affiliated with the Socialist Party of Amer- 
ica"; its hdqts., 3 W. 16th St., New York 
City, David Dubinsky. 

INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE 

AGAINST IMPERIALISM 
See under All-America Anti-Imperialist 
League, its American branch. 

INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE FOR 
WORKERS EDUCATION 

Moscow's Communist organization con- 
trolling subsidiary societies such as the 
Russian Educational Society, etc. in var- 
ious countries. 

INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE 

Organ of International Union of Revo- 
lutionary Writers (see). 

INTERNATIONAL OF THE GODLESS 

Communist anti-religious organization 
formed at Moscow 1931; the American 
section is the Proletarian Anti-Religious 
League (SO E. 13th St., N.Y. City). It is 
affiliated also with the World Union of 
Atheists and its American section, Union 
of Militant Atheists, which was organized 
by the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Atheism. 

INTERNATIONAL OF SEAMEN 

AND HARBOR WORKERS 
Section of the Red International of Labor 
Unions (R.I.L.U.). 

INTERNATIONAL OF 
TRANSPORTATION WORKERS 
Section of Red International of Labor 
Unions (R.I.L.U.). 

INTERNATIONAL PAMPHLETS 

Series of official Communist propaganda 
pamphlets selling at Sc and lOc each; 
especially compiled for International Pam- 
phlets (799 Broadway, New York), by 
Party authorities and published by the 
communist International Publishers; for- 
merly aided by the Garland Fund; "On 
the Chain Gang," by John L. Spivak 
(printed serially also in the Daily Worker) 
is, for example, number 32; "The Church 
and the Workers" by Bennett Stevens 
(which sets forth the militant atheistic 
standpoint of Communism) is No. IS; 
"The Injunction Menace" by Charlotte 
Todes is No. 22, etc., etc. Among other 
writers are: 

J. S. Allen, B. D. Amis, George Anstrom, Louis 



Berg, Grace Burnham, James Barnett, Donald 
Cameron, Elliot E. Cohen, Whittaker Chambers, 
Robt. L. Cruden, Robt. W. Dunn, R. Doonping, 
Bert Grant, Harry Cannes, Harold Ware, Maxim 
Gorki, Henry Hall, Grace Hutchins, Harry Hay- 
wood, Milton Howard, A. B. Magil, Felix Morrow, 
Joseph North, Vern Smith, Anna Louise Strong, 
N. Sparks, Ray Stewart, Wm. Siegel, Alexander 
Trachtenberg. 

INTERNATIONAL PRESS 
CORRESPONDENCE 

See under Inprecorr. 

INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS 

Official Soviet publishing house in the 
U.S. headed by Alexander Trachtenberg, 
long an active Communist executive; 381 
Fourth Ave., N.Y.C. 

INTERNATIONAL RED AID 

World Moscow-directed organization of 
which M.O.P.R. is the Russian section, and 
International Labor Defense, the Amer- 
ican section; gives legal aid and relief to 
Communist revolutionaries. 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S CLUBS 
Affiliated with the Intl. of Seamen and 
Harbor Workers and the communist 
Marine Workers Industrial Union. 

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF THE 
REVOLUTIONARY THEATRE 

Moscow's Communist organization, a 
Section of Agit-Prop, which controls Mid- 
European, Anglo-American, Latin-Europ- 
ean, East Asiatic theatre commissions 
headed by Soviet propaganda theatre 
leaders who study the "problems of the 
revolutionary theatre"; has 419 affiliated 
Czecho-Slovakian groups with 10,000 mem- 
bers, an English section, Holland section 
and 232 groups in Germany; American 
sections are the League of Workers 
Theatres (see), the Proletarian Dramatic 
League, and affiliated groups; formerly 
called the International Workers Dramatic 
Union of Moscow; directs activities of 
Communist propaganda theatres, dance 
leagues and production of motion pictures. 

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF 
REVOLUTIONARY WRITERS 

(of the International Bureau of 
Revolutionary Literature) . 

Moscow's international Communist or- 
ganization ; the Revolutionary Writers 
Federation is the American branch (see) ; 
its 2nd World Conference, held Nov. 15, 
1930 at Kharkov, Russia, commissioned 
the John Reed Club American delegation 



178 



The Red Network 



of writers to organize the Workers Cul- 
tural Federation (see) ; its official organ 
is "International Literature," which adver- 
tises itself as: "Literature of the World 
Revolution devoted to the proletarian and 
revolutionary literature of all countries 
the central organ of the International Union 
of Revolutionary Writers"; published 
every two months in Moscow in English, 
French, German, and Russian. Yearly 
subscription $1. "Send all subscriptions: 
Moscow, Central Post Office, Box 850." 
The Oct. 1933 issue, No. 4, gave as its 
International Advisory Board: 

M. Anderson-Nexo, Henri Barbusse, J. R. 
Becher, Michael Gold, Maxim Gorki, A. Lun- 
acharsky, A. Magil, Go Ma-jo. John Dos Passes, 
Ludwig Renn, Rornain Rolland, A. Serafimovich, 
Upton Sinclair, Tokunaga Naossi, E. Weinert; 
Permanent Contributors (many countries listed): 
United States: Emjo Basshe, Walt Carmon, Jack 



Conroy, John Dos Passos, Theodore Dreiser, Fred 
Ellis, Ed. Falkowski, Joseph Freeman, Michael 
Gold, Horace Gregory, John Herrmann, Josephine 



Herbst, Langston Hughes, Joseph Kalar, Joshua 
Kunitz, Louis Lozowick, Norman Macleod, A. B. 
Magil, Myra Page, Upton Sinclair, Agnes Smedley, 
Herman Spector, Mary Heaton Vorse; Germany: 
Oskar Bauer, J. R. Becher, O. Biha, B. Brecht, 
W. Bredel, E. Ginkel, E. Glaeser, O. M. Graf, 
K. Gruenberg, A. Hotopp, E. E. Kosch, K. 
Klaeber, A. Kurella, H. Marchwitza, K. Neukranz, 
L. Renn, G. Ring, F. Rubiner, B. Scharrer, A. 
Seghers, L. Turek, E. Weinert, F. Weisskopf, K. 
Wittvogel; France: L. Aragon 5 H. Barbusse, J. 
Duclos, J. Freville, F. Tourdam, L. Moussinac, 
Remain Rolland, P. Vaillant-Couturier; England: 
Ch. Ashleigh, Bob Ellis, Harold Heslop; (staff 
changed but slightly from 1932). 

INTERNATIONAL WORKERS AID 

Communist; changed name about 1929 
to Workers International Relief (see). 

INTERNATIONAL WORKERS ORDER 
I.W.O. 

Communist fraternal and agitational 
insurance society formed in 1930 by 7,000, 
mainly Jewish, members of the left wing 
of the Workmen's Circle. Now, after 
three years, it claims 34,000 members 
including branches of Hungarians, Slovaks, 
Ukrainians, Italians, Polish, Russians, 
Armenians, Spanish, Bulgarians, Greeks, 
Negroes and Americans; conducts Russian, 
Slovak, Ukrainian, and Jewish Communist 
language schools and about 130 elementary 
and high schools for children in order to 
counteract "capitalistic" and "nationalistic" 
public school influences. To quote: "In 
these schools the children are taught the 
various languages and are told about the 
struggle of the workers against their 
bosses. The children learn not only about 
the workers and their struggle but actually 
participate in demonstrations, mass meet- 



ings, etc. People send their children to 
these schools in order that they may learn 
the language taught there. Some parents, 
when they learn what is taught at the 
schools, are drawn into the branches of 
the "International Workers Order." (From 
2nd I.W.O. Convention Program.) "Many 
workers from basic industries have been 
introduced to the revolutionary movement 
through the I.W.O.," said the Chgo. 
Workers Voice (Feb. 15, 1933). 

I attended the I.W.O. Second Annual 
Convention held at the Chicago Coliseum, 
June 17, 1933. Fully 12,000 people were 
there. A children's chorus of 500, a mass 
pageant of 1,000, 700 delegates, and 
speakers Max Bedacht, Ben Gold, M. Olgin 
had been advertised. The usual printed 
signs about the Scottsboro boys, Mooney, 
disarmament (for America) and many Red 
flags were in evidence. Children were 
dressed in red. The Internationale was 
sung, holding right arms upraised with 
clenched fists. Loud applause greeted 
speakers when they referred to the coming 
Red revolution. Barefooted girl dancers 
dressed in red, representing the Commu- 
nists, at the left of the stage pageant, were 
backed by grim bare-armed, shirt-sleeved 
"working" men with clenched fists. In the 
center a group of girls dressed in yellow 
represented the Socialists. At the right, 
"capitalist" girls in black decorated with 
silver dollar signs and backed by a priest 
with a cross, two plug-hatted "capitalists," 
and police, danced about until the Reds 
were joined by the Yellows and finally 
surged forward, struck the cross out of 
the priest's hands, drove out all the "Cap- 
italists" and took possession of the stage 
sets representing banks, factories, hos- 
pitals, etc. This pageant was in four epi- 
sodes. Wild applause greeted the riotous 
Red triumphs. When at the opening of 
one scene the priest was seen seated alone 
on a park bench, a mighty "boo" arose 
from the audience. 

INTERNATIONAL WORKING 
MENS ASSOCIATION 

Anarcho - syndicalist association with 
affiliated groups in 24 countries; head- 
quarters in Berlin; its congress held in 
Madrid, 1931 "in greeting the overthrow 
of the Spanish monarchy, expressed great 
faith in the ability of the Confederation 
Nacional del Trabajo, which claimed a 
membership of 600,000, to do its part in 
the final emancipation of the Spanish 
proletariat" (Am. Labor Year Book) ; 



Organizations, Etc. 



179 



the Confederation National del Trobajo 
is its Spanish, and strongest, unit, with a 
membership of about a million and a 
half members claimed in 1933. 

This anarchist-communist group was 
responsible for the overthrow of the Span- 
ish government. Anarchist M. Olay of 
Chicago, in "Recovery Through Revolu- 
tion," writes of the power of anarchist- 
communism in Spain. He himself takes 
part in the anarchist, I.W.W., Socialist, 
Communist "united front" activities. Ad- 
visory Associates, Nov. 8, 1933, report that 
the Intl. Workingmens Assn. has opened 
headquarters at 94 Fifth Ave., N.Y. City, 
and are to issue a special press service 
release giving information concerning 
Anarchist activities throughout the world, 
and comments that "Organized Anarchism 
is reestablishing itself in the United States 
once more." (See Free Society Group 
also.) 

INTOURIST 

Official Soviet government travel agency, 
with offices in England, Germany, France, 
Chicago, New York City (261 Fifth Ave.), 
etc. Has sole charge of all tourist travel 
in the U.S.S.R.; provides and trains the 
guides to show and tell tourists what they 
"should" see and hear; distributes "Soviet 
Travel," a monthly magazine containing 
the usual false propaganda articles and 
"staged" photographs; affiliated with "Open 
Road." 

IRISH WORKERS CLUB 

304 W. 58th St., N.Y. City; Communist 
Party club; reed. 200 copies weekly from 
Ireland of Irish Workers Voice "until 
Duffy's blue shirted heroes burned down 
Connolly House, the hdqts. of the Commu- 
nist Party in Ireland; the group at home 
have had to forego regular publication for 
lack of funds." (Daily Worker, Nov. 8, 
1933.) 

IRON AND BRONZE WORKERS 

INDUSTRIAL UNION 
A Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

IZVESTIA 

Official organ of the Soviet government 
or "All-Russian Central Executive Com- 
mittee"; published in Moscow. 



JACK LONDON CLUBS 

A section of the communist Revolution- 
ary Writers Federation; named in honor 



of Jack London, the revolutionary who 
was the first president of the Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society (now L.I.D.) and who 
said: "Few members of the capitalist class 
see the revolution. Most of them are too 
ignorant, and many are too afraid to see 
it. It is the same old story of every per- 
ishing ruling class in the world's history. 
Fat with power and possession, drunken 
with success and made soft by surfeit and 
by cessation of struggle, they are like 
drones clustered about the honey vats 
when the worker-bees spring upon them 
to end their rotund existence." The 
Newark, N.J. branch was forming "Hands 
Off Cuba" Committees in answer to the 
call of the A.A.A.I. Lg. (Daily Worker, 
Oct. 17, 1933.) 

JAPANESE CULTURAL 
FEDERATION 

Section of communist Revolutionary 
Writers Federation. 

JEWELRY WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

JEWISH WORKERS CLUBS 
OF AMERICA 

Communist; N. I. Costrell, sec. Nat. 
Exec. Com.; I. Goldberg, sec. N.Y. City 
Com.; M. Strassburger, sec. Chicago City 
Com.; N. Korman, sec. Phila. City Com.; 
E. Kingston, sec. Detroit City Com. 

The following clubs donated a half page 
advertisement to the 10th Anniversary edi- 
tion of the Daily Worker, Jan. 6, 1934, 
expressing their wholehearted backing of 
its Communist revolutionary agitations say- 
ing "On with the struggle": 

N.Y. City Clubs: Artef Workers Club, Bath. 
Beach Workers Club, Boro Park Workers Club, 
Bridge Plaza Workers Club, Brighton Beach 
Workers Club, Bronx Workers Club, Brownsville 
Workers Club, Brownsville Youth Center, Coney 
Island Workers Club. Downtown Workers Club, 
East N.Y. Workers Club, East Side Workers Club, 
Hinsdale Workers Club, Jackson Workers Club, 
Jerome Workers Club, Mapleton Workers Club, 
Middle Bronx Workers Club, New Lots Workers 
Club, Prospect Workers Club, Vegetarian Workers 
Club, Williamsburg Workers Club, Workers Self- 
Education Club, White Plains Workers Club, Zuk- 
unft Workers Club; Chicago: Hirsch Leckert Work- 
ers Club, North West Workers Club, West Side 
Workers Club, M. Winchevsky Workers Club; Phila- 
delphia: Down Town Workers Club, Strawberry 
Mansion Workers Club; Detroit: Jewish Young 
Workers Club, Oakland Workers Club, West Side 
Workers Club; Boston: Dorchester Workers Club, 
Roxbury Workers Club; Baltimore Workers Club; 
Cleveland Workers Club; Los Angeles Workers 
Club; Minneapolis Workers Club; Newark 
Workers Club; New Brunswick Workers Club; 



180 



The Red Network 



Paterson Workers Club; Rochester Workers Club; 
Toledo Workers Club; Wash., B.C.: Five Star 
Youth Club. 

JEWISH WORKERS PARTY 

(Poale Zion Left Wing) 
Socialist, pro-communist, Zionist party; 
a supporting organization of the Nat. Com. 
to Aid Victims of German Fascism. 

JOHN REED CLUBS 

Communist Clubs named in honor of the 
so-called "first American Communist," 
John Reed. Affiliate of the Intl. Union of 
the Revolutionary Theatre. As a section 
of the communist International Union of 
Revolutionary Writers, the New York 
Club, 430 6th Ave., organized the Workers 
Cultural Federation (see) with which the 
John Reed branches are affiliated. There 
are now (1933) about 30 branches located 
in New York, Chicago, Detroit, Waukegan, 
Illinois, Madison, Wis., Chapel Hill, N.C., 
etc. 

The formation of the New Y'ork branch 
was thus described by Communist Michael 
Geld ("New Masses," Jan. 1930 issue): 
"The John Reed Club was organized about 
two months ago here in New York. It is 
a small group of writers, artists, sculptors, 
musicians and dancers of revolutionary 
tendencies. . . . Several activities have 
begun. The artists arranged an exhibition 
at the Workers Co-operative House in the 
Bronx. About 35 pictures were hung. The 
exhibit will be shown for about 4 weeks. 
Over 300 workers came to the opening. 
There was a furious discussion led by 
Lozowick, Basshe, Cropper, Klein and 
others. ... At the next meeting I shall 
propose the following: 

"That every writer in the group attach 
himself to one of the industries. That he 
spend the next few years in and out of this 
industry, studying it from every angle, 
making himself an expert in it, so that 
when he writes of it he will write like an 
insider, not like a bourgeois intellectual 
observer. He will help on the publicity in 
strikes, etc. He will have his roots in 
something real. The old Fabians used to 
get together and write essays based on the 
books they had read. We will get close 
to the realities." 

The Detroit branch publishes a monthly 
magazine, "The New Force," at 8224 
Twelfth St., Detroit, Mich.; the Chicago 
branch, 1475 S. Michigan Ave., started 
publishing (June, 1933) a magazine, "Left 
Front," which issue announced that 
Speakers during the 1932-33 season "have 



included Malcolm Cowley, Eugene Bech- 
told, Waldo Frank, Robt. Morss Lovett, 
Dr. James M. Yard, Wm. Gebert, Robt. 
Minor, Leo Fisher, Carl Haessler, and Pro- 
fessors Harold Lasswell, Frederic Schuman, 
Louis Wirth, Lawrence Martin, Francis 
Heisler, Louis Gottschalk and Melville J. 
Herskovitz. . . . Members of the club 
have taken a leading part in the organ- 
ization at the Workers' School, the Free 
Tom Mooney Conference, the Chicago 
Workers Theatre, the Committee for 
Struggle Against War, the Anti-Fascist 
United Front, the School for Workers' 
Children and the May First Demonstra- 
tion. A year ago one of the Chicago Club 
members helped to organize the Milwaukee 
John Reed Club, and during the winter he 
also assisted in the forming of a John 
Reed Club at the University of Wisconsin 
at Madison." 

Those listed as signing the John Reed 
Club protest against anti-Red propaganda 
(published in the N.Y. Times of May 
19, 1930) are: 

L. Adohmyan, Sherwood Anderson, Em jo 
Basshe, Helen Black, Prof. Franz Boas, Alter 
Brody, Samuel Brody, Fritz Brosins, Jacob Burck, 
David Burlink, Rev. R. B. Callahan, Walt Car- 
mon, Ralph Cheyney, N. Cirovsky, Lydia Cin- 
quegrana, Sarah N. Cleghorn, Ann Coles, Mal- 
colm Cowley, Franz E. Daniel, Miriam A. 
DeFord, Adolf Dehn, Floyd Dell, L. A. DeSantes, 
Babette Deutsch, Carl Van Doren, John Dos 
Passos, Robert W. Dunn, Max Eastman, Charles 
Ellis, Fred Ellis, Ernestine Evans, Kenneth Fear- 
ing, Sara Bard Field, Waldo Frank, Harry Free- 
man, Al Frueh, Hugo Gellert, Michael Gold, 
Floyd S. Gove, C. Hartley Grattan, Horace 
Gregory, Wm. Cropper, Rose Gruening, Carl 
Haessler, E. Haldeman-Julius, M. Haldeman- 
Julius, Ruth Hale, Jack Hardy, Mina Harkavy, 
Prof. S. R. Harlow, Chas. Y. Harrison, Aline D. 
Hays, Arthur G. Hays, Lowell B. Hazzard, 
Josephine Herbst, John Hermann, Harold Hicker- 
son, Grace Hutchins, Eitaro Ishigaki, Joseph Kap- 
han, Ellen A. Kennan, Rev. C. D. Ketcham, Rev. 
Frank Kingdon, I. Kittine, I. Klein, Alfred Kreym- 
borg, Joshua Kunitz, Melvin P. Levy, Louis Lozo- 
wick, Grace Lumpkin, Norman Macleod, A. B. 
Magil, Jan Matulka, H. L. Mencken, Norma 
Millay, Harriet Monroe, Prof. Frank McLean, 
Scott Nearing, Alfred H. Neumann, Eugene Nigob, 
Joseph North, Harvey O'Connor, M. J. Olgin, 
Joseph Pass, Morris Pass, Nemo Piccoli, Harry A. 
Potamkin, John Cowper Powys, Juanita Preval, 
Walter Quirt, Burton Rascoe, Anton Refregier, 
Philip Reisman, Louis Ribak, Boardman Robin- 
son, Anna Rochester. Anna Rosenberg, Julius 
Rosenthal, Martin Russak, Samuel Russak, David 
Saposs, E. A. Schachner, Theodore Scheel, Isidor 
Schneider, Evelyn Scott, Edwin Seaver, Edith 
Segal, Esther Shemitz, Wm. Siegel, Upton Sinclair, 
John Sloan, Otto Soglow, A. Solataroff, Waiter 
Snow, Raphael Soyer, Herman Spector, Prof. J. M. 
Stalnaker, Genevieve Taggard, Eunice Tietjens, 
Carlo Tresca, Jim Tully, Louis Untermyer, 
Toseph Vogel, Keene Wallis, Frank Walts, Prof. 
R. E. Waxwell, Rev. C. C. Webber, G. F. Willi- 
son, Edmund Wilson, Jr., Adolf Wolff, Chas. 
E. S. Wood, Art Young, Stark Young, Avrahm 
Yarmolinsky, Wm. Zarach. 



Organizations, Etc. 



181 



JOINT COMMITTEE ON 
UNEMPLOYMENT 

A union of radical organizations headed 
by John Dewey. A letter was sent out by 
him Nov. 1931, urging individuals and 
representatives of organizations to come 
to a "Conference on The Unemployment 
Program for Congress" to be held Nov. 30, 
in Washington. The letterhead read as 
follows: The Joint Committee on Unem- 
ployment: 22 East 17th St., New York 
City. Washington Office: Room 39, Bliss 
Bldg., Washington, B.C. Council: Church 
League for Industrial Democracy, Wm. 
Spofford Director; Conference for Pro- 
gressive Political Action, A. J. Muste, 
Director; Fellowship of Reconciliation, J. 
B. Matthews, Secretary; Labor Bureau, 
Inc., Alfred Bernheim, Director; League 
for Independent Political Action, Howard 
Y. Williams, Secretary; League for Indus- 
trial Democracy, Norman Thomas, Direc- 
tor; National Unemployment League, Dar- 
win J. Meserole, President; Peoples Lobby, 
Benj. Marsh, Executive Sec.; Social Service 
Commission of the Central Conference of 
Rabbis, Rabbi Edward I. Israel; Social 
Service Commission of the Methodist 
Church, Winifred Chappell, Secretary; 
Workmen's Sick and Death Benefit Asso- 
ciation, Wm. Spuhr, Secretary; Abraham 
Epstein, Executive Sec. American Assn. for 
Old Age Security; Hubert C. Herring, 
Exec. Sec. of the Dept. of Social Relations 
Congregational Education Society; Sidney 
Hillman, President of the Amalgamated 
Cloth. Workers of America; A. J. Kennedy, 
President of the Amalgamated Lithog- 
raphers of America; Abraham Lefkowitz 
of the Teachers' Union; Emil Rieve, 
President of the American Federation of 
Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers (social- 
istic). The National Religion and Labor 
Foundation became a member 1933. The 
Jt. Com. on Unemp. Conference held 
March 18, 1933 was addressed by Father 
John A. Ryan, Jerome Davis, Rabbi Edw. 
Israel, all of the Foundation, and these 
addresses were broadcast by radio. 

Officers: chmn., John Dewey; vice chmn.: 
Harriet Stanton Blatch, Mrs. Ethel Hyde, John 
Haynes Holmes, Bishop Francis J. McConnell, 
Father John A. Ryan, Norman Thomas, Stephen 
S. Wise; sec.-treas., Mary Fox; exec, com.: 
Alfred Bernheim, Abraham Epstein, Mary Fox, 
Sidney Goldstein, Benj. Mandel, Benj. Marsh, 
Darwin J. Meserole, Howard Y. Williams. 

K 
KENTUCKY MINERS DEFENSE 

AND RELIEF COMMITTEE 
An I.W.W. Committee formed to defend 
43 Harlan, Ky. miners arrested for Red 



agitation and terrorism; its letterhead 
gives its address as 1618 W. Madison St., 
Chgo. (I.W.W. hdqts.), and lists Hoch- 
rein, Carl Keller and Chas. C. Velsek, as 
chmn., sec. and treas. ; Advisory Com- 
mittee: Ralph Chaplin (I.W.W.), Robt. 
Morss Lovett, Norman B. Barr; and states 
that it is "Endorsed By": General Defense 
Committee (of I.W.W.) ; Proletarian 
Party (Communist); Socialist Party; 
Free Society Group (Anarchist) ; Socialist 
Youth League; Industrial Workers of the 
World; Arbeiter Kultur und Sport Kartell; 
Connolly Club. 

L 

LABOR AGE 

Monthly official organ of the Conference 
for Progressive Labor Action, militant left 
wing Socialist labor organization; pres., 
A. J. Muste; editor, Louis Budenz; 128 E. 
16th St., N.Y.C. Changed 1933 to weekly 
paper "Labor Action." 

LABOR AND SOCIALIST 
INTERNATIONAL 

The Socialist, or Second, International 
(see) ; its 1931 Congress met in Vienna 
with 742 delegates representing 37 parties 
in 29 countries. Emile Vandervelde was 
chairman. 

LABOR BUREAU, INC. 
Socialist statistical bureau analysing 
economic, labor developments from a 
Socialist viewpoint; located in New York 
with branches in Chicago and San Fran- 
cisco; issues monthly bulletin "Facts for 
Workers"; is composed of Alfred and 
Sarah Bernheim, Stuart Chase, Kathryn 
Fenn, S. B. Lewin, Estelle Shrifte, George 
Soule and Norman Ware. 

LABOR DEFENDER 
Monthly organ of the communist Inter- 
national Labor Defense; editors: Wm. L. 
Patterson, Joseph North; assoc. eds.: 
Louis Coleman, Sasha Small; contrib. eds: 
Henri Barbusse, Jacob Burck, Whittaker 
Chambers, Robt. W. Dunn, John Dos 
Passes, Maxim Gorki, Eugene Gordon, 
Hugo Gellert, Josephine Herbst, Grace 
Hutchins, Melvin P. Levy, Esther Lowell, 
Joseph Pass, Paul Peters, Ludwig Renn, 
Lincoln Steffens, Chas. Rumford Walker, 
Walter Wilson; 80 E llth St., Room 430, 
New York. 

LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL 

Organized by the Communist Party Cen- 
tral Executive Committee in 1922, to raise 



182 



The Red Network 



XttlONAl COUHITTU 



S'dCER N. BALDWIN. New York City 
NORMAN B. BARR. Chic.o 

Director Oliver IratUuu 
DENNIS E. BATT. Deftoit 

Ji(o/ Detrofc Lfoor fftwt. 0. O. 

Dtt. Ftd. Labor 
EUCENC I. BROCK. 

Chairman Profrntifc Vttaf 



I. C. BROWN. Chlo 

National Stc'f farmtr. Labor forty 
ROBERT M. BUCK. Chictfo 

Editor Ntw Uojorit}. 0. 0. Cki- 

COfo Ftd. of Labor 
10HN C. CLAY. Cbie*f 

S> T,om,t*n Loco! Vniou lit 
LENETTA M. COOPER. CbicMO 
K. D. CRAMER. MioBeapolu 

Ed.ui ft Mot. Lobot * 
EUGENE V. DEBS. Tcrre Huu 
ELIZABETH CURLEY FLYNN. New Ywk 
JOHN C FLORA. Cbictf* 
JOHN HAYNES HOLMES. New YoA 
MAX S. HAYES. CkeUnd 
FRANCIS USHER KANE. PhlUd.lphU 
DK. JOHN A. LAPP. Chicago 

Director Notion* CoAotic retfr 

CoMffl 

MORITZ J. LOEB. Chlw.o 
FKANCES C. LUJLIE. Chk 
FATHER JOHN A. RYAN. W 



COM** 

JOHN T, TAYLOR. Deftoil 
HULET M. WELLS. SutiU 
CLOHCE P. WEST. S FtwciMO 
LOCAL COMUITTU 

H. BERLIN. 

loini toord Drti onj Wminm,k,r, 

Union. I. L. C. V. V. 
ELIZABKTH CURLEY FLYNN. 
HENRY X. LINVILLE. 
UCRMA BEHMAfl. 

National Ur/tnu Cummillc. 
BROWNSTEIN. 



JULIUS LAZAAD. 

Mtkin l/nioi 

LENA GOODMAN. 

Loditi foitu 

S. E. BEARDSLEY. 




, . 

M. OBCUUEIEK. 

,,,1,1 or 

toot Woiktrt l Amttic* 
LEO HALTFBAUER. 

Architect Ointmtnul lion ** 

Brtrut Voktr, Union 
MORRIS EDELS1X1N. 

Fane, Ltatktr Good, forktr, Unun 



. 

foiktit ol *.. Local 49 

CO Of CHAT INC fITH COMMITTEE 

OF THE DEFENDANTS 
EARL R. BROWDER. Chic.fo 
WILLIAM F. DUNNE. New York City 
WILLIAM FOSTER. Chi f o 
C E. RUTHENBERC. Cknlu4 

NATIONAL ornccits 

ROBERT M. BUCK, duirmut 
EUGENE V. DEBS. >V< CA.uww 
REV. JOHN A. RYAN. D.D.. 



MORITZ J. LOEB. Sicr.ur, 
FRANCES C LILLIE. Tretuu 
WILLIAM Z. FOSTER. 

Stt'f Dtltn4u>ft Cum. 



LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL 

FRANK P. WALSH. Chief Coun.ol for th* Dof.nd.nU 

For th. d.f.n.. of tho Michigan crlmln.l yndUU<t 

^f^i^KTOttJ?*^rv^^2^ 

To carry OB la connection with the lof al defense a carapalrn aalet 
.11 Infrinr.m.nt upon the richt of in* spoock, froo pr... and frao4a 
W MMmblaco and all nMuurot rtstrictine tho right. o( tho vorkorc. 

ROOM 434 

80 EAST ELEVENTH STREET 
New York City 



Motional Secretary 
WILLIAM Z. FOSTER 



Telephone STUYVESANT 6616 



April 6. 1923 

Dear Friend: 

The press has brought you information of the progress 
of the trial of the first of the so-called Michigan cases 
at St. Joseph. Every day it is becoming clearer that 
the issue in this trial is the right of free speech and free 
assemblage in America, as well as such due processes of 
law, as constitute the just basis of any democratic society* 
Mr. Frank P. Walsh, attorney for the defense, has stated 
clearly that the provisions of the Criminal Syndicalist 
Acts, under which Foster and his associates have been 
brought to trial, violate the Constitution of the state 
of Michigan and the Constitution of the United States. 
Evidence for this contention is fast becoming abundant. 

A group of men and women met together peacefully to 
consider the business of their party organization, con- 
templating no acts of violence and cherishing no intent 
to promote or induce acts of violence, was itself treated 
with utmost violence by the officers of the law. If ever 
there was a trial involving persecution and tyranny, it 
is this one. It cozes as the last echo of the disgrace- 
ful mania of governmental terrorism, which was one of the 
plagues of the war. 

The defense of these men and women, now on trial, 
is an expensive one. Large sums of money must be raised 
to guarantee them Justice. This money can come only 
from those who believe in the vindication of basic 
democratic rights in this country. We appeal to you to 
help us in this cause. Read the inclosed pamphlet giving 
the story of the case and then send your contribution 
in the inclosed envelope. 

Sincerely yours. 




0. 



&s< 



BSfcAU 12646 



MAKE CHECKS PAYABLE TO THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL 
Account* audited by Stuart Cheat. C.P A. 

Facsimile of circular letter sent out by the Labor Defense Council soliciting funds for the defense of 
Communists arrested at Bridgman, Mich. Signed by Freda Kirchwey, Norman Thomas, John Nevin 
Sayre, Mary Heaton Vorse, Roger Baldwin, Rev. Percy Stickney Grant, Paxton Hibben, Rev. John Haynes 
Holmes (see this "Who's Who" for their affiliations). The name of Father John A. Ryan of Washington 
appears conspicuously along with that of Wm. Z. Foster, the Communist leader, as fellow National Officers. 



Organizations, Etc. 



183 



funds for the defense of Communists 
arrested in the Bridgman Raid (see) ; 
received huge sums from Garland Fund; 
became in 1925 the official Communist 
legal defense society, changing its name to 
International Labor Defense (see) ; a cir- 
cular letter sent out April 6, 1923 (see 
facsimile) bore the following heading: 
"Labor Defense Council" "For the 
defense of the Michigan criminal syn- 
dicalist defendants prosecuted at the 
instance of the Federal Secret Service in 
its drive against organized labor. To carry 
on in connection with the legal defense a 
campaign against all infringements upon 
the right of free speech, free press, and 
freedom of assemblage and all measures 
restricting the rights of workers Room 
434, 80 East llth St., New York City- 
Frank P. Walsh, Chief Counsel for the 
Defendants National Secretary, Wm. Z. 
Foster" (one of the Communist leaders 
arrested) "Telephone Stuyvesant 6616." 
The letter read in part: 

"Dear Friend: The press has brought 
you information of the progress of the 
trial of the so-called Michigan cases at St. 
Joseph. Every day it becomes clearer that 
the issue in this trial is the right of free 
speech and free assemblage in America. 
... A group of men and women met 
together peacefully to consider the business 
of their party organization contemplating 
no acts of violence and cherishing no 
intent to promote or induce acts of violence, 
was itself treated with utmost violence by 
the officers of the law." (Author's note: 
This typical Red falsehood is daily refuted 
by the Communists' own spoken and writ- 
ten affirmations, for instance the following 
in the Marx "Communist Manifesto": 
"Communists disdain to conceal their 
views and aims. They openly declare that 
their ends can be attained only by the 
forcible overthrow of all existing con- 
ditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at 
a Communist revolution" (p. 44).) This 
letter, after soliciting funds, was signed 
"Sincerely yours, Freda Kirchwey, Norman 
Thomas, John Nevin Sayre, Mary Heaton 
Vorse, Roger Baldwin, Percy Stickney 
Grant, Paxton Hibben, John Haynes 
Holmes." (Their own signatures.) Printed 
on the side of the letterhead was: 

"National Officers: Robert M. Buck, chairman; 
Eugene V. Debs, vice chairman; Rev. John A. 
Ryan, D.D., vice-chairman; Moritz J. Lieb, 
secretary; Frances C. Lillie, treasurer; Wm. Z. 
Foster, Sec. Defendants' Com.; Cooperating with 
Committe of the Defendants: Earl R. Browder, 
Chicago, Wm. F. Dunne, New York City, Wm. 
Foster, Chicago, C. E. Ruthenberg, Cleveland." 



National Committee: Roger N. Baldwin (A.C. 
L.U.); Norman B. Barr (Chicago, Director 
Olivet Institute); Dennis E. Batt (Proletarian 
Party, Detroit); Robt. M. Buck (editor "New 
Majority," Farmer-Labor Party) ; Eugene V. 
Debs (revolutionary Socialist Party leader); Eliz. 
Gurley Flynn (Workers Defense Union of N.Y.) ; 
Moritz J. Loeb (Civil Liberties Union and Com- 
munist Party); Eugene J. Brock (chmn. Pro- 
gressive Voters' League of Michigan) ; John C. 
Clay (Sec. Teamsters' Local Union 712, Chgo.); 
Lenetta M. Cooper, Chgo.; John C. Flora, Chgo.; 
John Haynes Holmes, N.Y.; Max S. Hayes, 
Cleveland; Francis Fisher Kane, Phila.; Dr. John 
A. Lapp, Director National Catholic Welfare 
Council; John J. Taylor, Detroit; Hulet M. 
Wells, Seattle; Geo. P. West, San Francisco. N.Y. 
Local Committee: H. Berlin (Intl. Ladies Garm. 
Wkrs. U.), Eliz. Gurley Flynn, Henry R. Lin- 
ville, Nerma Berman (Nat. Defense Com.); 
Brounstein ( Jt. Bd. Furriers' Union) ; Benj. Man- 
del (Teachers Union), etc. Headquarters were 
also at 166 W. Washington St., Chicago. 

"One of the first things done by the 
organization was the appointment of a 
publicity department to flood the daily 
newspapers of the country with propaganda 
for the movement. 'Press Releases' were 
issued and spread broadcast. Much of the 
material thus furnished was printed in 
reputable newspapers ignorant of the fact 
that they were printing appeals for a move- 
ment aimed at the overthrow of the 
country." (Whitney's "Reds in America," 
p. 174.) The Reds completely won this 
fight and the right apparently in Michigan 
to openly advocate violent overthrow of 
the U.S. Government when these cases 
were dismissed and about $100,000 bond 
money was returned in 1933 through the 
aid of Patrick H. O'Brien, A.C.L.U. at- 
torney, elected Atty. General of Michigan in 
1932. 

LABOUR PARTY OF GREAT BRITAIN 

A Marxian-Socialist Party ("Socialist 
Network" by Nesta Webster). "The con- 
version of the old pre-war Labour Party 
devoted to the interests of Labour into 
the politically-run Socialist Party was 
effected by the unceasing propaganda and 
wire pulling of the Independent "Labour 
Party, an organized group directed for 
years by Messrs. MacDonald and Snow- 
den." . . . "In the (Labour) Party's printed 
campaign programme for the 1929 election 
which was called 'Labour and the 
Nation' and put the Socialists in power 
there was a foreword by Mr. Ramsay 
MacDonald saying 'The Labour Party, 
unlike other parties, is not concerned with 
patching the rents in a bad system, but 
with transforming Capitalism into Social- 
ism'. . . . Many of those Labour Party 
members were Communists; but it has 
always been the policy of the Party at 



184 



The Red Network 



annual conferences to repudiate Commu- 
nism in order to retain their black coat 
followers, while working hand in glove 
with individual Communists." ("The 
Patriot" of London, Oct. 5, 1933.) 

LABOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 

A Communist subsidiary ; received money 
from Garland Fund; organized by Com- 
munist Robt. W. Dunn for linking organ- 
ized labor to the Communist movement; 
prepares pamphlets for Intl. Pamphlets; 
collects material for use of Communist 
speakers, organizers, etc.; Chicago Labor 
Research is a branch; N.Y. hdqts. 80 E. 
llth St., N.Y. City; issues five bulletins: 
Steel and Metal Notes; Mining Notes; 
Textile Notes; Economic Notes; NRA 
Notes; is organizing (1933-34) groups in 
principal cities and industrial centers. 

LABOR SPORTS UNION 
The official federation of hundreds of 
Communist labor sports organizations 
functioning all over the U.S.; American 
section of the Red Sports International; 
organ "The New Sport and Play," pub- 
lished at 813 Broadway, New York City; 
sponsored the Counter-Olympics Games 
held at University of Chicago Stagg Field, 
1932, in opposition to the "capitalistic" 
Olympics held in Los Angeles. 

LABOR TEMPLE (AND SCHOOL) 

A settlement maintained by the Presby- 
terian Church; a center and meeting place 
for Communist unions and radical organ- 
izations; features radical lectures, such as 
the 1929 "New series of lectures by V. F. 
Calverton" (the Communist) on Freud 
and "The Sexual Motif as an Economic 
Corollary in Contemporary Literature," 
etc., announced with an appended com- 
mendation by Harry Elmer Barnes (vice 
pres., Freethinkers (atheist) Society) ; the 
1932 lectures for industrial workers and 
"consultation and guidance in mental 
hygiene with 5 lectures in this connection: 
'Substitute for Religion,' 'Biology of Sex' ", 
etc. The director is Edmund B. Chaff ee, 
whose sympathies for Communism are 
clearly shown by the following example: 
Communist organizations commonly buy 
space in each other's periodicals to send 
"Greetings" as a "comradely" gesture and 
a financial contribution. The March 18, 
1932 issue of the viciously revolutionary 
race-hate-inciting "Liberator," organ of 
the communist Lg. of Struggle for Negro 
Rights (see), carried nearly two pages of 



such advertisements headed "Greetings to 
the Liberator." Such communist organ- 
izations as the Daily Worker, Icor, I.L.D., 
T.U.U.L., W.I.R., Workers' School, Coun- 
cil of Working Class Women, and various 
Communist Unions and Party Sections 
contributed "Greetings," and among these 
appeared the "Greeting" of "Labor 
Temple, Edmund B. Chaff ee, Director, 242 
East 14th St., New York City." Dr. G. F. 
Beck is director of the School and radicals 
Harry A. Overstreet, Will Durant, E. C. 
Lindeman are its educational advisors. The 
communist Labor Sports Union held its 
6th annual convention at the Labor 
Temple, Dec. 23, 24, 25, 1933. 

LABOR UNITY 

Official monthly organ of the commu- 
nist Trade Union Unity League (T.U. 
U.L.), American section of the Red Inter- 
national of Trade Unions, Wm. Z. Foster, 
nat. sec.; editor, N. Honig; mgr., S. H. 
Krieger; 2 W. 15th St., New York City. 

LANE PAMPHLET 

A pamphlet by Socialist Winthrop D. 
Lane entitled "Military Training in 
Schools and Colleges of the United States"; 
$5,400 was paid to the Committee on 
Militarism in Education for its "prepar- 
ation and distribution" by the red Garland 
Fund in 1926; it opposes military training 
for the defense of the U.S. government as 
does all Red pacifist literature; heading the 
list of signers endorsing it was Jane 
Addams; other endorsers were: 

Will W. Alexander, Leslie Blanchard, Wm. E. 
Borah, Benjamin Brewster, John Brophy, Carrie 
Chapman Catt, Samuel Cavert, Francis E. Clarke, 
George A. Coe, Henry Sloane Coffin, Albert F. 
Coyle, John Dewey, Paul H. Douglas, W. E. B. 
Du Bois, Sherwood Eddy, Charles A. Ellwood, 
Zona Gale, Charles W. Gilkey, Thomas Q. 
Harrison, Harold A. Hatch, Stanley High, George 
Huddleston, Hannah Clothier Hull, James Weldon 
Johnson, Rufus M. Jones, Paul U. Kellogg, Wm. 
H. Kilpatrick, Robert M. LaFollette, Jr., Hal- 
ford E. Luccock, Frederick Lynch, Henry N. 
MacCracken, Irving Maurer, James H. Maurer, 
Francis J. McConnell, Orie O. Miller, Charles 
Clayton Morrison, Samuel K. Mosiman, John M. 
Nelson, George W. Norris, Edward L. Parsons, 
Kirby Page, George Foster Peabody, David R. 
Porter, Francis B. Sayre, John Nevin Sayre, J. 
Henry Scattergood, Joseph Schlossberg, Charles M. 
Sheldon, Henrik Shipstead, Abba Hillel Silver, 
John F. Sinclair, William E. Sweet, Wilbur K. 
Thomas, Henry P. Van Dusen, Oswald G. Villard, 
Stephen S. Wise, Mary E Woolley. 

LAUNDRY WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

Communist T.U.U.L. Union; Max Bur- 
land, sec. 



Organizations, Etc. 



185 



LEAGUE AGAINST FASCISM 
American section of the "Matteotti 
Fund," an international anti-Fascist group; 
formed 1933 by the National Executive 
Committee of the Socialist Party on direct 
request from German Socialist Party and 
Labor and Socialist International; purpose 
is "raising a large fund to help finance 
German Socialist activities against Hitler- 
ism, and secondly, to carry on vigorous 
anti-Fascist propaganda in the United 
States." 

The nat. chmn. is Daniel W. Hoan, Mayor of 
Milwaukee; treas., Morris Hillquit; exec, sec., 
Edw. Levinson; National Committee members: 
Devere Allen, Jos. Baskin, Fannia Cohn, Jerome 
Davis, Julius Gerber, Daniel W. Hoan, Leo Krzy- 
cki, Root. Morss Lovett, Kirby Page, Jos. Schloss- 
berg, John Sloan, Oswald Garrison Villard, Prof. 
Franz Boas, Harriet Stanton Blatch, Abraham 
Cahan, John Dewey. Morris Hillquit, Darlington 
Hoopes, E. C. Lindeman, Jasper McLevy, John 
C. Packard, Cong. F. H. Shoemaker, Norman 
Thomas, Lilith M. Wilson, Max Zaritsky, Edw. 
L. Israel, Albert S. Coolidge, David Dubinsky, 
Dorothy Detzer, Powers Hapgood, Paul Blans- 
hard, Algernon Lee, James H. Maurer, Emil Rieve, 
Clarence Senior, B. C. Vladeck. Louis Waldman. 
Hdqts. 112 E. 19th St., N.Y. 6ty. 

LEAGUE FOR AMNESTY OF 
POLITICAL PRISONERS 

See also Anarchist- Communism; "New 
York anarchist organization" (Lusk Re- 
port) ; formed in 1917, after anarchists 
Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman 
were arrested, "To obtain the release of 
all political offenders"; this organization 
first popularized the title "political prison- 
ers" now generally given by Reds to revo- 
lutionaries who are jailed for seditious 
activities; M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, said to 
have been one of Berkman's "loves," was 
sec. at that time. 

The legal advisory board consisted of Isaac A. 
Hourwich (head of the statistical dept. of the 
Russian Soviet Bureau), Jessie Ashley, Theo. 
Schroeder.Harry Weinberger (counsel for Emma 
Goldman and Berkman) and Bolton Hall; gen. 
com.: Leonard D. Abbott, Lillian Brown-Olf, Dr. 
Frederick A. Blossom, Lucy Robins, Helen Keller. 
Eliz. Freeman. Prince Hopkins, Margaret Sanger, 
Rose Baron, Robt. Minor, Anna M. Sloan, Stella 
Comyn, Lincoln Steffens, Alexander Cohen, Roger 
N. Baldwin and Rose Strunsky. Offices were at 
857 Broadway, N.Y. City. 

LEAGUE FOR INDEPENDENT 

POLITICAL ACTION 
L.IP.A. 

Socialist in officership and platform. 
Advocates: socialistic public ownership; 
"free speech for minority groups" (radicals 
call revolutionaries "minority groups") ; 
repeal of the syndicalist and espionage 
laws (against sedition) ; Negro social 
equality; revision of the Constitution (!); 



complete disarmament for America and 
abolition of military training; that we 
"safeguard conscientious objectors" and 
admit aliens without any pledge of alle- 
giance to serve the U.S. Govt. in time of 
war; urged recognition of the bloody, 
militaristic Soviet Government, which is 
frankly bent on attaining Socialist world 
power through causing world revolution. 
It opposes deportation or exclusion of 
alien "Reds" (American Labor Year 
Book). Howard Y. Williams, exec, sec.; 
John Dewey, chmn.; Paul H. Douglas and 
Anna Clothier Hull, vice chairmen; Oswald 
Garrison Villard, treas.; The Federated 
Press (Communists'), Sept. 7, 1929, release 
on the formation of the League named 
John Dewey as chmn., James Maurer, 
Zona Gale, Paul Douglas and W. E. B. 
DuBois as vice chmn. and Devere Allen, 
editor of "World Tomorrow," as chmn. of 
the exec. com. Kirby Page is supposed to 
have "inspired" its organization. Hdqts. 
52 Vanderbilt Ave., N.Y. City. See Conf. 
for Prog. Pol. Action, its new line up. 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL 
DEMOCRACY 

Militant Socialist; headed by Robt. 
Morss Lovett, active in Communist organ- 
izations; founded by the revolutionary 
Jack London in 1905 as the Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society; changed its name in 1921, 
after Socialism acquired a bad odor owing 
to the jailing of many Socialists during the 
war for seditious activities; heavily sub- 
sidized by Garland Fund; spreads Social- 
ist-Communist propaganda and literature 
in colleges; operates chapters of its Inter- 
collegiate Student Council in about 140 
colleges, many under the guise of "Student 
Councils," "Social Problems," "Radical" or 
"Socialist" Clubs, etc.; in 1933 it claimed: 
"Last year the speakers corps of the L.I.D. 
reached almost every state in the union and 
spoke to some 175,000 people. Norman 
Thomas, Harry Laidler, Paul Blanshard, 
Paul Porter and Karl Borders reached 
about 60,000 students in 160 colleges and 
universities in 40 states. Likewise they 
spoke to about 100,000 people in non- 
college meetings. In addition to these 
speeches there were innumerable general 
meetings, political meetings, and radio 
broadcastings at which L. I. D. speakers 
appeared"; very closely interlocked by 
officership with the A.C.L.U.; prepares and 
widely distributes thousands of Commu- 
nist and Socialist leaflets, and pamphlets; 
publishes four publications: "Disarm," 
"Unemployed," "Revolt" (now "Student 



186 



The Red Network 



Outlook"), and "L.I.D."; issues a news 
service and fortnightly Norman Thomas 
editorial service to some 250 leading 
papers throughout the United States; has 
a national board of directors from twenty- 
three States composed mostly of leaders 
of over 300 other interlocked organizations ; 
conducts student conferences on red revo- 
lutionary subjects; drills students in rad- 
icalism each summer at Camp Tamiment, 
Pa.; formed the Federation of Unemployed 
Workers Leagues of America all over the 
U.S., under joint Communist, Socialist, 
I.W.W., and Proletarian Party (Commu- 
nist) control; sponsors the Emergency 
Committee for Strikers' Relief (see), which 
aids Communist-Socialist strikes; agitates: 
for government ownership (and against 
individual ownership) of all banking, 
transportation, insurance, communication, 
mining, agricultural and manufacturing 
enterprises, forests, and oil reserves; for 
socialization of land and other property, 
and for social, unemployment, sickness, 
old-age, and other State doles to the public ; 
its slogan is "education towards a new 
social order based on production for use 
and not for profit" (of the individual), 
which is of course the Socialist-Communist 
tenet; joins the Communists in advocating 
disarmament of the so-called "capitalist 
state" and the arming of the proletarian 
state and endeavors to convince students 
and workers that this will bring about 
"prevention of war," claiming the "capital- 
ists" use the armed forces to fight for 
markets, etc. not mentioning how the 
Socialists use armed forces to rule the 
workers after the system they advocate 
has made them paupers and slaves (as in 
Russia) ; it calls on youth to "help put 
the War Department out of colleges by 
stamping out the R.O.T.C." and claims it 
enlisted 10,000 students in 1931, in 150 
colleges, who signed petitions against mili- 
tary training (however, J. B. Matthews, 
prominent in Communist meetings and an 
editor of its "Student Outlook," says he "is 
not opposed to a war that will end cap- 
italism") ; it boasts that "student mem- 
bers of the L.I.D. have been in the thick 
of the miners' struggles in Harlan County, 
Ky., and in West Virginia" and in picketing 
and making "investigations of labor con- 
ditions," helping organization work of 
unions, and other radical agitation; it 
states of its literature: "These publications 
are widely used by college classes and 
labor, church and Y.M.CA. and Y.W.CA. 
groups." 
Many of these pamphlets were paid for 



by the red Garland Fund. Pamphlets issued 
in 1929 dealing with such subjects as Pub- 
lic Ownership, Challenge of War, Dollars 
and World Peace, Dollar Diplomacy, Im- 
perialism, Socialism, Communism, Chris- 
tianity and the Social Crisis, Roads to 
Freedom, The State of Revolution, Soviet 
Russia, The Profit Motive, Economic 
Revolution, and Capitalist Control of the 
Press, were prepared by such radicals as 
Norman Thomas, Kirby Page, Scott Near- 
ing (Communist) Bertrand Russell, Nor- 
man Angell, Harry Elmer Barnes, Morris 
Hillquit, Lewisohn, Stuart Chase, Harry 

F. Ward, Harry W. Laidler, Lenin (Com- 
munist), Robt. Dunn (Communist), Rex. 

G. Tugwell, Upton Sinclair, Prof. John 
Dewey, Jett Lauck (employed by Garland 
Fund), John Fitch, Prof. J. E. Kirkpatrick, 
Paul Blanshard, etc. (nearly all of whom 
are listed in this "Who's Who"). 

Of these pamphlets, "Roads to Freedom" 
by Harry Laidler (a "Syllabus for Dis- 
cussion Groups") is possibly the most 
revolutionary of all. It urges these groups 
to use: The "Communist Manifesto" by 
Marx, "Socialism Utopian and Scientific" 
by Engels (Marx' collaborator), "State and 
Revolution" and "Soviets at Work" by 
Communist Lenin, "Dictatorship vs. Democ- 
racy," "State Capitalism in Russia," "Rus- 
sia After Ten Years," and "New Worlds 
for Old" by Communist Trotsky. In 
"Roads to Freedom," Laidler takes up the 
study beginning with a section on "The 
Need for Change," then "The Socialist 
Society," "Utopian and Scientific Social- 
ism," "Guild Socialism," "Cooperative 
Democracy," and "Single Tax." 

The subject of the 1931 student con- 
ference (for the West) held at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago was: "The Students in 
World Revolution." The Dec. 1931 
national conference held at Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York City, was 
entitled "Guiding the Revolution" and 
topics discussed were: "America in a State 
of Revolution," by Norman Thomas and 
Harry Laidler; "College Students in a 
Changing World," by Arnold Johnson (of 
the Union Theological Seminary, an A.C. 
L.U. representative jailed in Harlan, Ky. 
for criminal syndicalism), and a representa- 
tive of the communist John Reed Club ; 
"What Tactics Should Students Use" by 
Norman Thomas (who in 1933 was one of 
the "militant" Socialist Party executive 
committee members voting for immediate 
cooperation with the Communist Party 
see Socialist Party). A "Forum of the 
Revolution" was held at Barnard College 



Organizations, Etc. 



187 



with Norman Thomas and others discus- 
sing plans for the supposedly inevitable 
revolution, and such topics as Birth Con- 
trol. The students were asked to live like 
Communists in preparation for the general 
upheaval to come. 

The first page of the L.I.D. "Student 
Outlook" for Feb. 1933 is headed "Wanted: 
Students With Guts" and says in part: "it 
is questionable whether the student who 
hasn't guts enough to get out on his col- 
lege campus and hawk the Student Out- 
look will overcome his delicate scruples if 
the time comes to face tear gas and machine 
guns. The same sort of well-bred doubts 
and inertia that afflict one when saddled 
with the responsibility of escorting a 
petition or putting up posters will arise 
more urgently and subtly if the time should 
come to refuse to go to war or to picket 
the Chicago Tribune. . . . // you have 
enlisted under the banners of Socialism 
you've got to carry the job through" 
A special announcement on this page states: 
"With this issue 'Revolt' becomes the 
'Student Outlook.' Students felt it was 
more important to sell our magazine and 
convince by its contents than to shout 
'revolution' and have no one listen. Per- 
sons ivho give us more than a glance will 
not mistake our colors." 

In a letter published in the Nation, Feb. 
3, 1932, Paul Porter, L.I.D. organizer, 
valiantly defended the L.I.D. from the 
charge by a Nation correspondent (Mr. 
Allen) that the L.I.D. conference "Guid- 
ing the Revolution" was an "example of 
liberal futility" and retorts: "Had Mr. 
Allen attended the conference or secured 
a published report of the proceedings . . . 
he wculd have discovered (1) that the con- 
ference was not a talk-fest of liberals and 
(2) that the student participants were not 
wholly innocent of experience in the class 
struggle," and, after bragging about Arnold 
Johnson's "five weeks' jail residence" and 
other student activities "in the course of 
which more than one has been beaten by 
thugs" he says: "Unless Mr. Allen expects 
a revolution to be suddenly produced as a 
magician might whisk a rabbit from a silk 
topper, he will recognize the necessity for 
these humble beginnings. They are tasks 
in which even college students and college 
graduates and readers of the Nation may 
share. Paul Porter." 

National Office: 112 East 19th St., New 
York City; Chicago Office: 20 West Jack- 
son Blvd. 1932 Officers: 

Pres. Robert Morss Lovett; vice-presidents: 
John Dewey, John Haynes Holmes, Vladimir Kara- 



petoff, Florence Kelley, James H. Maurer, Alex- 
ander Meiklejohn, Mary R. Sanford, Vida D. 
Scudder, Helen Phelps Stokes; treas., Stuart 
Chase; exec, directors: Harry W. Laidler, Nor- 
man Thomas; field sec., Paul Porter; special lec- 
turer, Paul Blanshard; exec, sec., Mary Fox; 
Sec. Chgo. Office, Karl Borders; B9ard of Direc- 
tors: Forrest Bailey, Andrew Biemiller, Paul 
Blanshard, Leroy E. Bowman, McAllister Cole- 
man, H. W. L. Dana, Elizabeth Dublin, Abraham 
Epstein, Frederick V. Field, Elizabeth Oilman, 
Hubert C. Herring, Jesse H. Holmes, Jessie Wal- 
lace Hughan, Nicholas Kelley, Broadus Mitchell, 
Reinhold Niebuhr, William Pickens, David Saposs, 
B. C. Vladeck, Bertha Poole Weyl, Howard Y. 
Williams. National Council: California Ethelwyn 
Mills, Upton Sinclair; Coloradoy-Powers Hapgood; 
Connecticut Jerome Davis; Dist. of Columbia 
Mercer G. Johnston; Georgia Mary Raoul 
Millis; Illinois Catherine L. Bacon, Gilbert S. 
Cox, Paul H. Douglas, Paul Hutchinson, Harold 
Lasswell, Clarence Senior, James M. Yard; 
Indiana William P. Hapgood; Iowa Minnie E. 
Allen, Laetitia Moon Conrad; Kansas John Ise; 
Maryland Edward L. Israel; Massachusetts? 
Emma S. Dakin, Elizabeth G. Evans, Alfred Bakei 
Lewis, George E. Roewer; Michigan A. M. 
Todd; Minnesota Sarah T. Colvin; Missouri 
Joseph Myers; New Hampshire James Mackaye; 
New Jersey James W. Alexander; New York 
Harriot Stanton Blatch, William E. Bohn, Louis 
B. Boudin, Paul F. Brissenden, Morris Ernst, 
Louise A. Floyd, Morris Hillquit, Frederic C. 
Howe, Darwin J. Meserole, William P. Montague, 
A. J. Muste, J. S. Potofsky, George D. Pratt, Jr., 
Evelyn Preston, H. S. Raushenbush, Nellie M. 
Seeds, George Soule, N. I. Stone, Caro Lloyd Stro- 
bell, David Rhys Williams, Helen Sumner Wood- 
bury; North Carolina Mary O. Cowper; Ohio 
Isaac E. Ash, Alice P. Gannett, Paul Jones, Phil 
Ziegler; Pennsylvania Emily F. Dawson, May- 
nard C. Krueger, Simon Libros, Agnes L. Tierney; 
South Carolina Josiah Morse; South Dakota- 
Daniel J. Gage; Utah James H. Wolfe; Wisconsin 
Percy M. Dawson. 

CHICAGO CHAPTER L.I.D. 

Sponsors Chicago Emergency Committee 
for Strikers Relief, Chicago Workers Com- 
mittee on Unemployment, etc. Chapter 
Officers: 

President, Paul Hutchinson; vice-presidents: 
Lillian Herstein, Curtis Reese; rec. sec., Ethel Wat- 
son; treas., Frank McCulloch; exec, sec., Karl Bor- 
ders; Executive Committee: Chapter Officers and 
Catherine Lillie Bacon, Aaron Director, Paul 
Douglas, Charles W. Gilkey, Meyer Halushka, 
Florence Jennison, John Lapp, Harold D. Lass- 
well, Hilda Lawrence, Sam Levin, U. M. McGuire. 
Fred Moore, Clarence Senior, Sarah B. Schaar, 
Ernest Fremont Tittle, Edward Winston, James 
Yard. 

LEAGUE FOR MUTUAL AID 

Designated by the Garland Fund, which 
aided it financially, as a "social service for 
radicals"; hdqts. N.Y. City. 

LEAGUE FOR THE ORGANIZATION 

OF PROGRESS 

A radical internationalist organization 
with hdqts. at Yellow Springs, Ohio, which 
is the seat of Antioch College. To quote 
the communistic Federated Press Labor's 
News of Jan. 17, 1931: "Pointing out that 



188 



The Red Network 



our national income is being cut at least 
$300,000,000 a month in wages alone as 
the result of unemployment, Max Senior 
in a political letter of the League for the 
Organization of Progress suggests the use 
of this sum in a revolving credit fund to 
Soviet Russia, to be used in purchasing 
American goods. . . . Senior believes that 
the establishment of the loan fund would 
relieve the tension now prevailing in Russia 
due to the constant necessity of meeting 
credit obligations and thus enable her 'to 
market her surplus in a more orderly 
fashion' "... etc. In a pamphlet entitled 
Notes of the League for the Organization 
of Progress, it states: "The following men 
of high distinction have agreed to serve 
on the Board: 

"Devere Allen, editor, 'The World Tomorrow'; 
Seba Eldrige, University of Kansas; Irving Fisher, 
Yale University; William Floyd, editor, 'The 
Arbitrator'; Arthur N. Holcombe, head of the 
department of government, Harvard University; 
John Haynes Holmes, minister, Community 
Church, New York; Paul U. Kellogg, editor, 'The 
Survey'; Harry Laidler, executive director, League 
for Industrial Democracy; Daniel L. Marsh, 
president, Boston University; Arthur E. Morgan, 
president, Antioch College; Robert Morss Lovett, 
University of Chicago, editor, 'The New 
Republic'; Philip C. Nash, director, League of 



G. Bromley Oxnam, president, De Pauw Uni- 
versity; P. B. Potter, University of Wisconsin; 
John H. Randall, president, World Unity Foun- 
dation; N. B. Reuter, University of Iowa; James 
Shotwell, Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace; Edwin R. A. Seligman, Columbia Uni- 
versity; E. A. Ross, University of Wisconsin; 
Charles F. Thwing, President Emeritus, Western 
Reserve University; Joseph P. Chamberlain, 
Columbia University; Quincy Wright, University 
of Chicago." 

"Virtually every member listed as serving 
on the Board of the League has a con- 
siderable record of close affiliation and sup- 
port of socialistic, communistic, inter- 
national pacifist, pro-soviet activities." 
(Am. Vigilant Intelligence Fed. Report.) 

LEAGUE OF NEIGHBORS 
See Fellowship of Faiths. 

LEAGUE OF STRUGGLE 

FOR NEGRO RIGHTS 
Official Communist Negro subsidiary 
organization; organized originally in Chi- 
cago, Oct. 1925, as the American Negro 
Congress; changed name to its present one 
at St. Louis Congress, Nov. 16, 1930; offi- 
cial organ is the Weekly "Liberator," 
recently re-named "Harlem Liberator," 
which agitates race hatred and tries to 
make Negroes believe that the Communists 
are their only friends and that they must 



unite with tthe Communists "against the 
common enemy." For example, the Mar. 
18, 1932, issue printed a huge caption "I 
Ain't Sayin' Sir to Any More White Men" 
over "A Story of Camp Hill," also much 
revolutionary agitation and lurid horror 
pictures of "abused" Negroes, and a poem 
entitled "Stop Foolin' Wit' Pray," which 
says in part: 

"Your head 'tain no apple 

For danglin' f'om a tree; 

Your body no carcass 

For barbecuin' on a spree. 
"Stand on your feet, 

Club gripped 'tween your hands; 

Spill their blood too, 

Show 'em yours is a man's." 

Officers and Nat. Coun. elected at 
national convention held in Harlem, New 
York, Oct. 29, 1933 are: 

Pres., Langston Hughes; Vice Presidents: 
James W. Ford, Mrs. Jessica Henderson, Wm. L. 
Patterson, Robert Minor, Benjamin Davis, Jr 
Hose Hart; Gen. Sec., Richard B. Moore; Asst. 
Sec., Herman MacKawain; Finan. Sec., Esther 
Anderson; Record. Sec., Bernice Da Costa; Treas., 
Dr. Reuben S. Young; Dir. of Education and 
Culture, Louise Thompson; Dir. Defense Activities, 
Harold Williams; Dir. Bureau Intl. Relations, 
Chas. Alexander; Dir. Young People's Activities, 
Leonard Patterson; Dir. Activities Among Women, 
Williana Burroughs; Liberator Staff: Eugene 
Gordon, Maude White; Dir. Research, Tom Trues- 
dale; Steve Kingston, Henry Shepard, Harry Hay- 
wood, Dr. Arnold Donawa, Rabbi Ben Goldstein, 
James Moore, Mrs. Mary Craik Speed, Bonita 
Williams, Hanou Chan, James Allen, Cyril Briggs, 
Wm. Fitzgerald, George Maddox. 

National Council, New York: Eleanor Hender- 
son, Agricult. Wkrs. Union; Jos. Brodsky, I.W.O.; 
Clarence Hathaway, Daily Worker; Myra Page, 
Writer; Wm. Z. Foster, T.U.U.L.; Robt. W. 
Dunn, Labor Research Assn.; Irving Potash, 
Needle Trades Wkrs. Indust. Un.; Henry Shepard, 
T.U.U.L. Coun., N.Y.; Louis Weinstock, A.F. of 
L.; Jos. Moore, Mechanic's Assn. of Harlem; B. D. 
Amis, Communist Party; Israel Amter, nat. com. 
Unemployed Councils; Peter Uffre, Tobacco 
Wkrs. of Harlem; Wm. F. Dunne, T.U.U.L.; 
Gladys Stoner, N.S.L. Com. on Negro Student 
Problems; Ben Goldstein, Nat. Com. Def. Pol. 
Pris.; Earl Browder, Communist Party; Ruth 
Ruben, N.S.L. ; Samuel Patterson, Caribbean 
Union; Steve Kingston, Lg. Struggle Negro 
Rights; Harry Haywood, Communist Party; Bill 
Lawrence, I.L.D.; Leonard Patterson, Young 
Communist Lg.; Louis Coleman, I.L.D.; J. Adler, 
I.W.O.; James Toney, Lg. Struggle Negro Rights; 
Gil Green, Young Communist Lg.; Wm. Burdell, 
Lg. Struggle Negro Rights. 

Southern Sectton: Al. Murphy, Alabama Share- 
croppers Un.; Mrs. Mary Craik Speed, Mont- 
gomery, Ala.; Rev. J. A. Morten, Angelo Herndon 
Defense, Ala.; Jane Speed, I.L.D., Birmingham, 
Ala.; Mrs. Ada Wright and Mrs. Jamie Patter- 
son, Scottsboro Mothers of Chattanooga, Tenn.; 
Atty. Peirson, Durham, N.C.; Anna Williams, 
Communist Party, Charlotte, N.C.; Bernard Ades, 
I.L.D., Baltimore, Md.; Gough McDaniels, High 
School Teacher, Baltimore, Md.; Robt. Hall, Nat. 
Farmers Com. Action, Wash., D.C.; Macey, New 
Orleans R.R. Worker- Manny Jackson, Long- 
shoreman, Savannah, Ga. 



Organizations, Etc. 



189 



Chicago: Herbert Newton, Communist Party; 
Claude Lightfoot, Lg. Struggle Negro Rights. 

Pennsylvania: Dr. Patterson, Pitts, physician; 
Tom Myerscough, Nat. Miners Un., Pitts.; Henry 
Wickman, Marine Wkrs. Indust. Un., Phila.; Ben 
Carruthers, Communist Party, Pitts. 

Detroit: Joe Billups, Lg. Struggle Negro 

Minnesota: Alfred Tiala, nat. sec. United 
Farmers Lg., Mpls. 

New England: Mrs. Cravath Simpson, Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, Boston; Ann Burlak 
(Communist organizer). 

California: Tom Mooney, San Quentin Peniten- 
tiary Cal.; Lauren Miller, Journalist, Los Angeles, 
Cal.; Matt Crawford, San Francisco Nat. Scotts- 
boro Com. Action. 

Buffalo, N.Y.: Manning Johnson, Communist 
Party. 

Missouri: A. W. Berry, Communist Party, 
Kansas City, Mo.; Carrie Smith, Nut Pickers 
Union, St. Louis, Mo. 

Cleveland, 0.: Arthur Murphy, Steel and Metal 
Wkrs. Indust. Un. 

Hdqts. SO E. 13th St., New York City. 

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS 
An organization formed by Carrie Chap- 
man Catt, a co-worker with Jane Addams, 
to educate women to take part in political 
life. It serves a good purpose and is fair 
enough in presenting various sides of pub- 
lic questions to render the great majority 
of its innocent and non-radical members 
unaware that they are also fed radical 
propaganda in regular doses. It campaigned 
for the League of Nations, circulated the 
W.I.L.P.F. (Jane Addams') petition for 
total disarmament of the U.S. 1931, etc.; 
features many radical speakers. (See under 
W.I.LP.F.) 

LEAGUE OF WORKERS THEATRES 
A league of Communist theatre groups; 
an American section of Moscow's Inter- 
national Union of the Revolutionary 
Theatre; formed April 16, 1932 (at Man- 
hattan Lyceum, N.Y. City) ; official organ 
is "Workers Theatre," now called "New 
Theatre" ; includes groups such as the Chi- 
cago Workers Theatre (see), Workers 
Laboratory Theatre, John Reed Club dra- 
matic groups, German Prolet Buehne of 
Milwaukee, Nature Friends Dram. Group 
of Syracuse, Workers Experimental Theatre 
of St. Louis, Dramatic Council of Detroit, 
Harlem Progressive Youth Club Dram. 
Section, N.Y., and innumerable others. 

It was formed, according to the report 
of its conference in the May, 1932 "Work- 
ers Theatre": "to spread the idea of the 
class struggle by raising funds for cam- 
paigns and for the revolutionary press and 
by recruiting workers into the revolution- 
ary unions and mass organizations and 
especially to arouse workers for the defense 
of the Soviet Union against the coming 



imperialist attack. . . . Every worker's 
theatre group must realize that its existence 
is closely tied up with that of the entire 
revolutionary movement that its aims 
are the same that its slogans are the 
same. ... It must win workers and farmers 
including those in the armed forces for the 
tactic of turning the coming imperialist 
war against the Soviet Union into a civil 
war against the imperialists." Greetings 
from the following groups were received 
at this conference: 

International Bureau Theatrical Club, Moscow; 
Moscow Blue Blouse Theatre; Secretariat Inter- 
national Workers Dramatic Union; Workers Cul- 
tural Council of W.I.R. of Seattle, Wash.; Rebel 
Players, Los Angeles, Cal.; Writers Group of John 
Reed Club, N.Y. City; Workers International 
Relief ( W.I.R.) . 

Its Eastern Regional conference was held 
Aug. 5-6, 1933 at the Nature Friends Camp 
at Midvale, N.J. Hdqts. 42 E. 12th St., 
N.Y. City. 

(THE) LETTERS OF SACCO 
AND VANZETTI 

A book published to help along the Com- 
munist agitation in favor tof the two 
Anarchist-Communist murderers, who died 
yelling "Long Live Anarchy 1" The book 
cover states: "This volume sponsored by 
the following International Committee: 

"Benedetto Groce, John Dewey, Theodore Dreis- 
er, Maxim Gorki, Horace M. Kallen, Sinclair Lewis, 
Romain Rolland, Bertrand Russell, H. G. Wells, 
Stefan Zweig." 

LIBERATOR 

A revolutionary paper formerly pub- 
lished at 34 Union Square, N.Y. City; 
founded before the Communist Party was 
formed in the U.S. (1919) ; second class 
mailing privileges were withheld by U.S. 
Postoffice Dept.; some of its Red edi- 
torials are reprinted in Lusk Report. 

Editors were Max Eastman, Crystal Eastman 
and Floyd Dell; bus. mgr., Margaret Lane; con- 
trib. eds. : Cornelia Barns, Howard Brubaker, 
Eugene V. Debs, Hugo Gellert, Arturo Giovan- 
nitti (of II Nuovo Mondo Com.), Chas. T. Halli- 
nan, Helen Keller, Robt. Minor, Boardman Robin- 
son, Maurice Stern, Alexander Trachtenberg, Louis 
Untermyer, Clyde Weed and Art Young. 

(Note the present day active Commu- 
nists.) In 1920 it had a circulation of 
50,000 and was supported by stockholders 
(who are listed in Lusk Report) ; reed. 
$500 from Garland Fund in 1923 (Com- 
munist Party-owned at that time.) 

More recently the "Liberator" has been 
the name of the Negro Communist paper, 
official organ of the League of Struggle for 
Negro Rights (see). 



190 



The Red Network 



LUMBER WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
A Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

M 

MANUMIT SCHOOL 
A Socialist School for "children of trade 
union workers" at Pawling, N.Y. con- 
ducted by Nellie Seeds Nearing, wife of 
Scott Nearing, the Communist leader; reed, 
about $15,000 from Garland Fund. 

MARINE TRANSPORT WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

I.W.W. union. 

MARINE WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
A communist T.U.U.L. union ; the Amer- 
ican section of the communist Intl. of Sea- 
men and Harbor Workers; has been creat- 
ing considerable trouble among the crews 
of American ships; official organ "Marine 
Workers Voice"; maintains Union hdqts. 
at: 140 Broad St., N.Y. City; 312 S. 
Second St., Phila.; 1629 Thames St., 
Baltimore; 7211 "L" Avenue, Houston; 
239 Decatur St., New Orleans; 614 First 
St., Seattle; 191^ 3rd St., Portland, Ore.; 
3064 E. 92nd St., South Chicago, 111. Head 
is Roy Hudson, 61 Whitehall St., N.Y. 
City ; formerly called Marine Wkrs. League. 

MARY WARE DENNETT 
DEFENSE COMMITTTEE 
M.W.D. Def. Com. 

Mary Ware Dennett, a radical whose 
activities were exposed in the Lusk Report, 
wrote a sex pamphlet, "The Sex Side of 
Life," of such a nature that she was con- 
victed of, and fined $300 for publishing 
obscene matter. A group of radicals 
leaped to her defense and, in 1930, formed 
this committee, carried her case to the 
Appellate Court, and a reversal was finally 
won. After this the pamphlet, "The Sex 
Side of Life," was flaunted more than ever. 
The Federal Council of Churches' Sex 
Pamphlet (see) lists it as "indispensable." 
The 4A recommends it in its 1930 Report 
among "Anti-Religious Books" sold by 
the 4A. 

Committee chmn., John Dewey; vice chmn.: 
Henry Sloane Coffin, Kath. Bement Davis, Abel J. 
Gregg; treas., Corliss Lamont; sec., Forrest Bailey. 
Among committee members: Alice Stone Black- 
well, Edwin M. Borchardt, Sophonisba P. Brecken- 
ridge, Paul H. Douglas, Sherwood Eddy, Fannie 
Hurst, Lewis Mumford, James Rorty, Jessie Taft, 
Miriam Van Waters, Goodwin Watson, Stephen 
S. Wise. 



MASSES 

Communist magazine; changed name in 
1926 to New Masses (see). 

MECHANICAL DENTISTS 

INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

MEDICAL WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

MESSENGER 
(Organ of Brotherhood of Sleeping 

Car Porters) 

A radical publication for Negroes "look- 
ing toward their conversion to revolution- 
ary radicalism. ... It is committed to the 
principles of the Soviet government of 
Russia and to the proposition of organiz- 
ing negroes for the class struggle. ... A 
Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen," 
editors, have been "instructors in the Rand 
School" (Lusk Report). It received money 
from the Garland Fund; is now the official 
organ of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car 
Porters, which was Communist-penetrated 
and also received $11,200, $4,000, $2,724.56, 
etc., from Garland Fund, and is now under 
Socialist control. 

METAL WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union; John Mel- 
don, 611 Penn. Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.; 35 
East 19th St., N.Y. City., etc. 

METHODIST FEDERATION 

FOR SOCIAL SERVICE 
A radical social service organization co- 
operating with Socialist and Communist 
organizations; operates in the Methodist 
Church and disseminates its influence 
through the Federal Council, Y.M.C.A. and 
other church groups; has solicited funds 
for the Moscow-directed communist Inter- 
national Labor Defense in its Social Service 
Bulletins, and stated in the 1932 Bulletin 
No. 8: "The Federation has continued to 
cooperate with boards and agencies within 
our own church and with many groups 
outside the church working definitely for 
a new social order. Among these may be 
mentioned several departments of the Fed- 
eral Council of Churches, the American 
Civil Liberties Union, the League for 
Industrial Democracy, Labor Research 
Assn., International Labor Defense, Com- 
mittee on Militarism in Education, . . , 
We simply cannot be respectable." This 



Organizations, Etc. 



191 



was signed by Bishop Francis J. McCon- 
nell, pres., and Harry F. Ward, sec. (The 
Labor Research Assn. and I.L.D. are Com- 
munist organizations and the others, except 
the Federal Council of Churches, are red 
Garland Fund proteges). Winifred Chap- 
pell, co-editor and co-secretary with Ward, 
served on a Communist Party campaign 
committee and signed the manifesto endors- 
ing the Communist platform, principles 
and revolutionary program in 1932 (see 
Communist P. G. for F. & F.). Harry 
Ward, who returned in 1932 from a year 
spent in Soviet Russia is the A.C.L.U. nat. 
chmn. and a former Garland Fund director. 
Bishop McConnell aided the Socialist 1932 
campaign. G. Bromley Oxnam and E. F. 
Tittle (exec. sec. and chmn. of the nat. 
com. respectively) also have lively records 
for radicalism. 

To quote from Bulletin No. 8, April 
IS, 1928: "Through the courtesy of the 
Federated Press" (Communists') "our mem- 
bers may receive the 'Labor Letter,' a 
weekly summary of labor news for $1.00, 
half of the regular price. An increasing 
number are availing themselves of this 
offer, thereby increasing their equipment 
for the basic task . . . the basic task the 
securing of a Christian Social Order. . . . 
To this end every whit of our work is 
consciously and deliberately directed. . . . 
The Bulletin is used in many classrooms 
and as a source material for sermons, 
forum discussions, theses, etc. A few of 
the topics discussed during the quadren- 
nium have been 'The Spy in Government 
and Industry'; 'Missions and Our Chinese 
Diplomacy' (data for several issues . . . 
were sent by the senior secretary while 
he was lecturing in the Orient; first hand 
material on China was also available to 
him in his capacity of chairman of the 
American Committee for Justice to 
China)." (Note: See Harry F. Ward and 
Hands Off Committees) ; " 'Is Justice 
Breaking Down in the United States' (deal- 
ing with the Sacco-Vanzetti and Mooney 
and Billings cases. This issue was speed- 
ily exhausted) ; 'The New Red Hunt' (our 
close cooperation with the American Civil 
Liberties Union brings much first hand 
material in this field not otherwise easily 
available to our readers) ; 'The Present 
Coal Strike' (a second edition of this was 
ordered by the Emergency Committee for 
Miners' Relief). ... As often as our treas- 
ury permits, we send some big pamphlet 
on a vital theme to our members. Laid- 
ler's 'Public Ownership' and Ward's 'Profit 
Motive' and a reprint of his address on 



'Repression of Civil Liberties in the United 
States' . . . have been sent during this 
quadrennium as well as some leaflets and 
reprints. All members have received also 
the book 'An American Pilgrimage,' por- 
tions of the letters of Grace Scribner, sel- 
ected and arranged by Winifred L. Chap- 
pell, foreword by Harry F. Ward. . . . 
Incidentally the Vanguard Press which, 
published this book in its 50c series has 
sold over 600 copies. . . . W. L. Chappell 
spends a month at Epworth League and 
Y.W. teaching in summer and does occa- 
sional teaching and speaking during the 
winter, especially at Epworth League win- 
ter institutes and young people's groups. 
. . . Part of our regular work is the recom- 
mendation of speakers for church and 
other meetings. . . . We have frequent 
inquiries for book lists; we constantly 
recommend books. . . . Earlier efforts in- 
cluded not only much counselling with 
leaders in other denominations and groups 
like the Y.M. and Y.W.C.A. and speaking 
for many church and labor groups, but 
also the preparation of several curricular 
studies. These were widely used by the 
Epworth League, the Board of Sunday 
Schools, the Student Movement and others. 
We have reason to believe that these 
studies, supplemented by the social inter- 
pretation of the Sunday School Lesson 
for two years and the contribution of a 
page each month to the 'Adult Bible Class 
Monthly' have promoted social thinking in 
our own denomination and others. This 
policy of cooperation has been continued 
through this quadrennium. For instance: 
The secretaries are regular members of 
the Department of Social Service and Re- 
search and Education of the Federal Coun- 
cil of Churches, with a voice in those pro- 
grams; we constantly use the resources of 
the Council. The office prepared eight 
articles for a handbook on social service 
for the Research Dept. Both secretaries 
contribute to Sunday School publications. 
Miss Chappell is on the Topics Committee 
of the Epworth League, helped to prepare 
the Social Service Manual, has written a 
chapter for the forthcoming social service 
text book and in other words counsels with 
that organization. . . . The special material 
on the Passaic Strike" (the Communist- 
led so-called "first lesson in revolution") 
"which was used in the Passaic number 
of the 'Christian Century' was collected by 
the office. The task was undertaken 
because of the bearing of that industrial 
struggle on a Christian social order. As 
this report goes to press, the Federation 



192 



The Red Network 



is joining with the Department of Social 
Relations of the Congregational Education 
Society in a conference of preachers to be 
held at Pittsburg, April 24 to 26th, to face 
up the coal crisis. ..." "Soon after the 
organization of the Federation there sprang 
into existence in several annual conferences 
small voluntary groups of preachers who 
set themselves to support our program. . . . 
Most o-f the commissions function most 
actively at annual conference time. The 
presentation of statements on social issues 
on the conference floor, obtaining a place 
on the conference program for the social 
message ... are typical activities. Several 
commissioners see that the message is pre- 
sented at the district conferences. The Rock 
River commission cooperates closely with 
the Chicago Church Federation and has 
been interested in free speech, preachers' 
salaries, the Book Concern and organized 
labor. . . . The Colorado and Pittsburgh 
groups have concerned themselves with the 
coal strikes. . . . The Methodist Federation 
for Social Service is celebrating its twen- 
tieth anniversary. A national committee 
of 63, with Ernest F. Tittle as chairman 
and G. Bromley Oxnam as executive secre- 
tary, is sponsoring the celebration. The 
occasion is being used to promote church- 
wide discussion of such issues as war, 
property, labor, civil liberties." (Signed) 
"By Francis J. McConnell, president; Harry 
F. Ward, secretary." (Note the Vanguard 
Press above.) The 1933 Bulletins, as one 
ex-Communist Party executive remarked, 
"read like the Daily Worker, only 
more so." 

Exec. Com.: F. J. McConnell, H. F. Rail, 
George Elliott, Herbert N. Shenton, Ralph B. 
Urmy; treas., Gilbert Q. LeSourd; secretaries: 
Harry F. Ward, Winifred L. Chappell; National 
Com.: E. F. Tittle, chmn., G. Bromley Oxnam, 
exec, sec., F. W. Adams, Springfield, Mass.; O. 
W. Auman, Chgo.; Ray Allen, Hornell, N.Y.; 
M. P. Burns, Phila.; L. H. Bugbee, Minneapolis; 
King D. Beach, Chgo.; Dan B. Brummitt, Chgo.; 
Stella W. Brummitt, Chgo.; Esther Bjornberg, 
Chgo.; F. O. Beck, Evanston; E. W. Blakeman, 
Berkeley, Cal.; W. C. Barclay, Chgo.; James C. 
Baker, Urbana, 111.; Geo. A. Coe. Glendora, Cal.; 
R. E. Diffendorfer, N.Y.; Edw. T. Devine, Wash- 
ington; D. F. Diefendorf, E. Orange, N.J.; E. T. 
Dennett, San Fran.; A. E. Day, Pitts.; F. C. 
Ebinger, Oak Park, 111.; F. B. Fisher, India; 
R. W. Graham, Creston, la.; W. E. J. Gratz, 
Chgo.; W. M. Gilbert, Madison, N.J.; A. A. 
Heist, Denver; Paul Hutchinson, Chgo.; L. O. 
Harlman, Boston; H. S. Hamilton, Boise, Idaho; 
E. S. Hammond, Salem, Ore.; Isabelle Horton, 
Lake Bluff, 111.; A. W. Harris, N.Y.; C. P. Har- 
graves, Chgo.; Frank Kingdon, Lansing, Mich.; 
Louisa Litzel, Vickery, O.; J. C. Lazenby, Mil- 
waukee; J. W. Langdale, Brooklyn; H. E. Luc- 
cock, N.Y.; Jesse Lacklen, Billings, Mont.; G. S. 
Lackland, Meadville, Pa.; Amy Lewis, N.Y.; 
W. H. McMaster, Alliance, O.; Mary McDowell, 
Chgo,; H. H. Meyer, N.Y.; A. E. Monger, South 



Bend, Ind.; Edw. Laird Mills, Portland, Ore.; 
J. R. Magee, Seattle; O. H. McGill, Seattle; 
F. M. North, N.Y.; O. T. Olson, Baltimore; Earl 
Roadman, Mitchell, S.D.; W. J. Sherman, San 
Fran.; W. B. Spaulding, Billings, Mont.; C. D. 
Skinner, Tulsa, Okla.; W. L. Stidger, Kansas 
City; Robt. L. Tucker, Columbus; W. P. Thir- 
kield, Chattanooga; Worth M. Tippy, N.Y.; L. K. 
Willman, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Herbert Welch, 
Korea; V. O. Ward, Minneapolis; James M. Yard, 
N.Y. (now Chgo.). 

Executive Com. 1933: 

Francis J. McConnell, Herbert N. Shenton, 
Ralph B. Urmy, Halford E. Luccock, Charles C. 
Webber, Robt. Leonard Tucker, Gilbert S. C9x. 
Officers: Pres., Bishop Francis J. McConnell; vice 
pres., Harris Franklin Rail; sec.-treas., Gilbert Q. 
LeSourd; secretaries, Harry F. Ward, Winifred L. 
Chappell. 

Hdqts. ISO Fifth Ave., New York. 

MEXICAN PROPAGANDA 

In 1927 Elias Calles was the Communist- 
supported President of Mexico and Amer- 
ican property in Mexico was to be seized. 
Soviet forces, aided by Communist agents 
from the U.S., were very active, and, lest 
the U.S. should intervene and spoil the 
Soviet plot to gain control of the Mexican 
government, the U.S. was flooded with 
"non-intervention" propaganda through 
the communist Ail-American Anti-Imper- 
ialist League echoed by such committees 
as the National Citizens Committee on 
Relations with Latin America, Non-inter- 
vention Citizens Committee, Committee on 
Relations with Latin America, and about 
250 Hands Off Mexico (Nicaragua and 
China) Committees. The Garland Fund 
at the same time spent thousands of dol- 
lars on "Anti-imperialism" work. The com- 
munist Daily Worker, Oct. 8, 1927, said: 
"The following telegram from the Com- 
munist Party of Mexico was received yes- 
terday by the Daily Worker: 'Mexico 
City, Oct. 6, 1927: Reaction has launched 
revolt. We request agitation on behalf of 
the Mexican proletariat in its struggle 
jointly with the government. (Signed) 
Mexican Communist Party.' " The Daily 
Worker then went on to comment: "The 
foregoing telegram, in harmony with all 
reports from Mexico, is taken as indicating 
the policy of the Mexican Communist 
Party in the present crisis. ... As against 
the present counter-revolutionary attempts 
of agents of U.S. oil speculators allied with 
the whole landlord and clerical group of 
reaction, ... the Communist Party of 
Mexico calls upon the working class and 
peasantry to resort to arms in defense of 
the Calles government and urges the 
workers and farmers of the United States 
to support the Calles government against 



Organizations, Etc. 



193 



the counter-revolutionary reaction." Said 
Marvin (Data Sheet 25-6, Feb. 1, 1927): 
"It is probably true that the President of 
Mexico is ... not a member of any Com- 
munist organization. . . . The fact remains 
however that the alleged constitution of 
Mexico is aimed to destroy both religion 
and the private property rights. The initial 
steps have been taken in both cases. The 
attack on the Catholic Church is more or 
less of a 'smoke screen' to hide the real 
issue. It was the belief of the advisors of 
those who put over the alleged present 
constitution that such an attack would 
bring to the support of Mexico all anti- 
Catholics in the United States. It has con- 
fused a great many. The pronounced anti- 
Catholic organizations have been swept 
almost bodily to the support of Mexico. 
When the final step was taken to deprive 
the Catholiqs of the liberties accorded 
them in the past the forces in Mexico 
directing this knew what was going on in 
Nicaragua. In fact they were directing 
them in Nicaragua as they were directing 
them in Mexico." 

Sept. 1933 press reports stated that 300 
churches were being closed in Mexico 
which would indicate that Red influences 
are still active there. Travel literature, 
1934, states that any minister of the Gos- 
pel must secure special permission to enter 
Mexico. 

MIDWEST WORKERS 
CULTURAL FEDERATION 
Midwest section of the communist 
Workers Cultural Federation (see). 

MILITANT LEFT WING 
MINERS OF AMERICA 

New Red miners union founded Sept. 
1933; bd. of admin.: 

Walter Seacrist, Powers Hapgood, Tom Tippett, 
Dennis Shaw, Gerry Allard, Loren Norman, Wm. 
Truax, James White, Jo Angelo, Ricco Florini; 
Or^an is "The Fighting Miner," first issue, Oct., 
1933; editors, Loren Norman and Gerry Allard; 
bus. mgr., Irene Allard, wife of Gerry. 

Box 202, Springfield, Illinois. 

MILWAUKEE LEADER 
Socialist Party newspaper; Victor Berger 
formerly editor. 

MINE, OIL AND SMELTER WORKERS 

INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. Union. 

MOSCOW DAILY NEWS 

Communist propaganda paper published 
in English in Moscow; M. M. Borodin, 



ed.; Anna Louise Strong (associate of Jane 
Addams), assoc. ed. 

N 
NATION, THE 

"Advocate of revolutionary socialism" 
(Lusk Report); a weekly; founded by 
Oswald Garrison Villard. 

Board of Editors: Ernest Gruening, Freda Kirch- 
wey, Joseph Wood Krutch; Associate Editors: 
Mauritz A. Hallgren, Margaret Marshall. Dorothy 
Van Doren; Contributing Editor, Oswald Garrison 
Villard. 

In 1933 Villard relinquished editorship 
of "The Nation," turning it over to Board 
of Editors, and became a contributing 
editor. 

NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL 
ON RADIO IN EDUCATION 

Broadcasts over nation-wide network in 
cooperation with the left wing socialist 
League for Industrial Democracy, featur- 
ing radical speakers; recommends radical 
books. 

Officers: Robert A. Millikan, pres.; Livingston 
Farrand, Meta Glass, Robert M. Hutchins (pres. 
of the Univ. of Chgo.), Walter Dill Scott, (pres. 
Northwestern U.), Michael I. Pupin, vice presi- 
dents; Ralph Hayes, treas. and chmn. bd.; Wm. 
J. Donovan, vice chmn. bd.; Levering Tyson, 
sec.-treas.; Com. on Economics: Harry W Laid- 
ler, chmn.; Felix Morley, sec.; Wesley C. Mit- 
chell, H. G. Moulton, E. G. Nourse, Rexford G. 
Tugwell; League for Industrial Democracy Com- 
mittee: Harry W. Laidler, Wesley C. Mitchell, 
George Soule, Norman Thomas, Levering Tyson. 

Hdqts.: 60 E. 42nd St., N.Y. City or 
L.I.D., 112 E. 19th St., N.Y. City. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR 
ADVANCEMENT OF 
COLORED PEOPLE 
N.A.A.C.P. 

Communists Wm. Z. Foster, Benj. Git- 
low, Scott Nearing, Eliz. Gurley Flynn, 
Robt. W. Dunn, and their fellow Garland 
Fund directors, Norman Thomas, etc., were 
generous with appropriations of $31,552 
(1925-28), $7,365 (1923-24), and $5,000 
(1929-30) to the N.A.A.C.P. 

The official Report of the Communist 
Party's 4th national convention stated that 
the Party had penetrated the N.A.A.C.P. 
Socialist Florence Kelley (formerly of Hull 
House), the personal friend of Engels and 
Lenin, with Jane Addams, a founder and 
"for twenty years a member of the board 
of directors," was very active in the N.A. 
A.C.P. The field secretary, Wm. Pickens, 
is a Socialist Party member, active as well 
in Communist affairs and organizations 
(see "Who's Who"). James Weldon John- 



194 



The Red Network 



son, now and for years, an executive of 
the N.AA.C.P. and also a Garland Fund 
director, has served at the same time in 
company with most of the Garland Fund 
directors on the national committee of the 
"Reds' aid society," the A.C.L.U. W. E. B. 
DuBois, another N.AA.P.C. executive, is a 
Socialist and also member of Communist 
subsidiaries (A.S.C.R.R., A.A.A.I. Lg., etc.) 
and received money directly from the Gar- 
land Fund in 1928 for services. Clarence 
Darrow, John Haynes Holmes, Oswald G. 
Villard, and other executives, have similar 
affiliations. 

The N.A.A.C.P. emulates the A.C.L.U. 
among Negroes. In fighting for "Negro 
rights" naturally it has won the friendship 
of many Negroes, themselves opposed to 
the Red movement, who believe it to be 
a purely altruistic agency without radical 
or political motivation. 

An article, sarcastically entitled "Ever 
Sincerely, Walter White," in the commu- 
nist I.L.D. magazine "Labor Defender," for 
Aug. 1933, is a typical exhibit of the quar- 
relsomeness and professional jealousy shown 
between the "family" of cooperating rad- 
icals and their organizations. To quote: 

"Three months ago, pressed by its member- 
ship, the N.A.A.C.P., of which Walter White is 
Secretary, asked the I.L.D. for authorization to 
collect funds for the Scottsboro defense. This was 
granted but, finding that the agreement had been 
broken by the N.A.A.C.P., Wm. L. Patterson, Nat. 
Sec. of the I.L.D. wrote a letter on June 1, 
demanding that the funds be unconditionally 
turned over to the I.L.D." 

Then follows a very sneering analysis of 
White's letter ending "Ever sincerely, 
Walter White"; then the article resumes: 

"Wm. Patterson's reply shows how the N.A.A. 
C.P. in 1931 and 1932 collected $7,178.63 for the 
defense. The letter states: 'This is the most un- 
principled case of robbery, known in the history 
of the struggle of the Negro masses.' . . . The 
difference between the legal 'defense' of the N.A.A. 
C.P. and the I.L.D. policy of the 'unity of mass 
action with legal defense' is then gone into after 
which Comrade Patterson mentions the 'distin- 
guished white and Negro citizens' serving on the 
Executive Board of the N.A.A.C.P., such gentle- 
men as Lt. Col. J. E. Spingarn . . . Senator Capper 
of Kansas . . . Governor Herbert Lehmann of New 
York and Frank Murphy now governor of the 
Philippines, and Mayor of Detroit at the time of 
the Ford Massacre of March, 1932." 

This is a sarcastic inference that Mur- 
phy is opposed to radicals, whereas one 
might point to his appointment by Pres. 
Roosevelt as Gov. of the Philippines, his 
praise by the A.C.L.U. (see), and the hold- 
ing of Communist meetings in Detroit 
public schools while he was Mayor, as 
evidence to the contrary. At one meeting 
in a Public School, Detroit, the Commu- 
nists held a mock trial and condemned 



Henry Ford to death, according to the 
Communist press. The article says Patter- 
son's letter ended with: 

"We call the membership of the N.A.A.C.P. . . . 
to join and build the Scottsboro Action Commit- 
tees. . . . Step over the heads of your leadership. 
. . . Only mass pressure will free the Scottsboro 
boys." 

A 1931 letterhead lists: 

J. E. Spingarn as Pres.; Vice Presidents: Arthur 
Capper, Senator from Kansas, Bishop John A. 
Gregg, John Haynes Holmes, James Weldon John- 
son, Arthur B. Spingarn, Oswald G. Villard; 
Executive Officers: Mary Ovington White, chmn. 
bd.; Walter White, sec.; Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, 
Robt. W. Bagnall, dir. of branches; Wm. Pickens, 
field sec.; Mrs. Daisy Lampkin, regional field 
sec.; Herbert J. Seligmann, dir. of publicity; Wm. 
T. Andrews, special legal asst.; National Legal 
Committee: Arthur B. Spingarn, chmn.; James 
Marshall, Herbert K. Stockton, Felix Frankfurter, 
Chas. H. Studin, Clarence Darrow, T. J. Nutter. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 
FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT 
The official name of the group directing 
the Pioneer Youth of America (see). 

NATIONAL CATHOLIC 
WELFARE CONFERENCE 
Cooperates with the Federal Council of 
Churches, Central Conference of Amer- 
ican Rabbis, Catholic Association for 
International Peace, American Civil Liber- 
ties Union, etc.; dir. Social Action Dept, 
John A. Ryan of the A.C.L.U. (same 
position held by John A. Lapp, 1920-27). 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR 

COMMITTEE 

Abolition of child labor is a worthy 
humanitarian cause, with which most 
kindly people are in sympathy, but the 
outstanding Socialists active on this com- 
mittee, in accordance with Socialist prin- 
ciples, seek more than is apparent on the 
surface. They back all laws giving parents 
less and the State more and more control 
over children. Socialism aims at abolition 
of private ownership of children, and of 
Christian marriage, as well as of property 
rights. Complete State control of children, 
free abortions, and free love in Russia 
today, are the fulfillment of this Marxian 
Socialist dogma. 

NATIONAL CITIZENS COMMITTEE 
ON RELATIONS WITH LATIN 

AMERICA 
Nat. Citiz. Com. Rel. Lat. Am. 

A committee echoing the communist 
A.A.A.I. Lg's. "Hands Off" propaganda; 
similar to the Non-intervention Citizens 
Committee; formed in Wash., D.C., with 



Organizations, Etc. 



195 



hdqts. at the Peoples Legislative Service, 
in 1927, when the U.S. Govt. was having 
trouble with the Communist-supported 
Nicaraguans and Calles' Communist-sup- 
ported Mexican Govt., which was intent 
on seizing American-owned property (and 
was persecuting religion in true Soviet 
style) ; it circulated the statement of the 
revolutionary Nicaraguan Governor whom 
the U.S. Govt. refused to recognize; and, 
said Marvin: it "is the organization which 
we are forced to opine sent Rev. Samuel 
Guy Inman" (of the Garland Fund Com. 
on American Imperialism (see) ) "into 
Mexico for the purpose of manufacturing 
a little additional propaganda with which 
to flood the United States. John F. 
Moors of Boston, who is listed as president, 
in a recent statement said the committee 
... believed 'that our present Latin 
American policy as manifested in Nicara- 
gua, Mexico, and elsewhere is in violation 
of every sound American tradition.' . . . The 
Honorary President of the Nat. Citiz. Com. 
is Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska 
who, just now, is being strongly touted 
as a candidate for President on a third 
ticket to be guided by the same Socialist- 
Liberal forces that guided the candidacy of 
LaFollette and Wheeler. Practically all of 
them were backers of the Socialist ticket 
LaFollette and Wheeler in 1924. 
... In view of the Communist agitation 
in connection with the Sacco-Vanzetti affair 
... the same names in many instances, will 
be found attached to petitions in favor of 
the two condemned murderers ... a large 
percentage ... are closely related with the 
Socialist Party." (Marvin Data Sheets, 
25-12, 28-23, 34-15, 1927) "The complete 
list follows": 

Hon. pres., Senator Geo. W. Norris; pres., John 
F. Moors, Mass.; sec., Mercer G. Johnson, Md.; 
treas W. P. Neville, Wash., D.C.; hon. vice 
presidents: Mrs. Edw. P. Costigan, Colo.; Mrs. 
J. Borden Harriman, Wash., D.C.; Bishop Francis 
J. McConnell, Pa.; Cong. R. Walton Moore, Va.; 
Sen. David I. Walsh, Mass.; Wm. Allen White, 
Kans.; Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, N.Y.; Members: 
Dr. Felix Adler, N.Y.; Judge Geo. W. Anderson, 
Mass.; Mrs. Francis C. Axtcll, Wash.; Hon. New- 
ton D. Baker, O.; James H. Batten, Cal.; Judge 
Robt. W. Bingham, Ky. ; Mrs. Emily Newell Blair, 
Mo.; Mrs. Harriet Stanton Blatch, N.Y ; Rev W 
Russell Bowie, N.Y.; Alfred Brandeis, Ky.; P. H. 
Callahan, Ky.; Wm. F. Cochran, Md.; Everett 
Colby, N.Y.; Pres. Ada A. Comstock, Mass.; 
Herbert Croly, N.Y.; Oscar K. Gushing, Cal.; 



. , 

Dr. Edw. P. Devine, Wash., D.C.; Prof. John 
Dewey, N.Y.; Prof. Wm. E. Dodd, 111.; Judge 
Chas. A. Douglas, Wash., D.C.; Prof. Edw. Meade 



Arthur Garfield Hays, N.Y.; Morris Hillquit, 
N.Y.; Prof. Wm. E. Hocking, Mass.; Dr. Samuel 
Guy Inman, N.Y.; Will Irwin, N.Y.; Rabbi Edw. 
L. Israel, Md.; Cong. Meyer Jacobstein, N.Y.; 
W. D. Jamieson, Wash., D.C.; Edw. Keating, 
Wash., D.C.; Paul U. Kellogg, N.Y.; Mrs. Eliz. 
T. Kent Cal.; Horace G. Knowles, N.Y.; Cong. 
O. J. Kvale, Minn.; Sen. Robt. M. LaFollette, 
Wis.; Cong. F. La Guardia, N.Y.; Geo. La Monte, 
N.J.; John A. Lapp, 111.; Mrs. Henry Goddard 
Leach, N.Y.; Jos. Lee, Mass.; Hon. John Lind, 
Minn.; Pres. H. N. MacCracken, N.Y.; Judge 
Julian W. Mack, 111.; Amy G. Maher, O.; Basil 
M. Manly, Wash., D.C.; Lowell Mellett, Wash., 
D.C.; Prof. S. E. Morison. Mass.; James H. 
Moyle, Utah; Pres. Wm. A. Neilson, Mass.; David 
K. Niles, Mass.; Mrs. Gordon Norrie, N.Y.; Sen. 
Gerald P. Nye, N.D.; John D. Pearmain, N.Y.; 
Prof. Bliss Perry, Mass.; Dr. Albert H. Putney, 
Wash., D.C.; Jackson H. Ralston, Cal.; Donald 
R. Richberg, 111.; Dr. Wm. L. Robins, Wash., 
D.C.; Elmer E. Rogers, Wash., D.C.; Hon. Cato 
Sells, Tex.; Prof. Frederick Starr, Wash., D.C.: 
Moorfield Storey, Mass.; Prof. F. W. Taussig, 
Mass.; Norman Thomas, N.Y.; Hon. Huston 
Thompson, Colo.; Mrs. Eliz. Towne, Mass.; Oswald 
Garrison Villard, N.Y.; Hon. Carl S. Vrooman, 
111.; Henry A. Wallace, la.; Frank P. Walsh, 
N.Y.; Cong. Knud Wefald, Minn.; Sen. Burton 
K. Wheeler, Montana; Wm. Allen White, Kans.; 
Prof. Tyrell Williams, Mo.; Prof. A. P. Winston, 
Tex.; Pres. Mary E. Woolley, Mass.; Peter 
Witt, 0. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE 
DEFENSE OF POLITICAL PRISONERS 
Nat. Com. Def. Pol. Pris. 

Formed 1931 as an outgrowth of the 
communist Emergency Committee for 
Defense of Southern Political Prisoners 
"political prisoners" being the radical 
term for those arrested for seditious revo- 
lutionary activities; communist intellectuals 
and sympathizers led by 

Theo. Dreiser, chmn.; Lincoln Steffens, Sher- 
wood Anderson, vice chmn.; John Dos Passes, 
treas.; Melvin P. Levy, sec.; Adelaide G. Walker, 
asst. sec.; com. members: Harry Elmer Barnes, 
William Rose Benet, Prof. Franz Boas, Lester 
Cohen, Eleanor Copenhaver, Malcolm Cowley, 
Bruce Crawford, Edward Dahlberg, Floyd Dell, 
Adolph Dehn, Edgar Fraley, Waldo Frank, Hugo 
Gellert, Lydia Gibson, Murray Godwin, Eugene 
Gordon, C. Hartley Grattan, Paul Green, Horace 
Gregory, Julius Heiman, Josephine Herbst, Lang- 
ston Hughes, Grace Hutchins, Maxwell Hyde, 
Leon Kahn Yereth Kahn, Alfred Kreymborg, 
Suzanne LaFollette, Pierre Loving, Louis Lozo- 
wick, George Maurer, Claude McKay, Edna St. 
Vincent Millay, Dr. Henry Neumann, Samuel 



.. . . 

Earle, N.Y.; Mrs. Mary E. Fels, N.Y.; Prof. 
Irving Fisher, Conn.; Wm. Floyd, N.Y.; Mrs. J. 
Malcolm Forbes, Mass.; Sen. Lynn J Frazier 
N.D.; Zona Gale, Wis.; Dean V. C. Gildersleeve) 
N.Y.; Eliz. Gilman, Md.; J. W. Gitt, Pa.; Prof. 
Chas. W. Hackett, Tex.; Norman Hapgood, N.Y.; 



beaver, Upton bmclair, Bernard J. Stern, Ruth 
Stout, William Monroe Trotter, Mary Heaton 
Vorse, Charles R. Walker, Webb Waldron, Eric 
Walrond, Walter Wilson, Ella Winter (Mrs. Lin- 
coln Steffens), Carl Zigrosser, Marguerite Zorach, 
William Zorach. 

Hdqts. Room 337 St. Denis Bldg., llth 
and Broadway, N.Y. City. (Communist 
hdqts.) 

The Daily Worker, Nov. 13, 1933, car- 
ried a picture of 

"Members of delegation of Nat. Com. for Def. 
Pol. Pris. now in Tuscaloosa, Ala. . . . Members 



196 



The Red Network 



of the delegation are: Alfred H. Hirsch, secretary 
Nat. Com. for Def. Pol. Pris. (of N.Y.); Jessica 
Henderson, Boston, prominent in Sacco-Vanzetti 
defense; Howard Kester, Nashville, Term., South- 
ern Secretary, Fellowship of Reconciliation; Bruce 
Crawford, Norton, Va., editor, Crawford's Weekly; 
Hollace Ransdell of Ky., investigator for A.C.L.U. 
in Scottsboro case; Grace Lumpkin of South 
Carolina, author 'To Make My Bread,' proletarian 
novel; Barbara Alexander of Savannah, Georgia, 
artist." 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON 
LABOR INJUNCTIONS 

Formed by A.C.L.U. 1932 to prevent 
employers who are harassed by radical 
strikers from obtaining injunctions pro- 
hibiting their activities. Chas. F. Amidon 
(former Judge), chmn.; Forrest Bailey, sec. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO AID 

STRIKING MINERS FIGHTING 

STARVATION 

N.C. to A.S.M.F.S. 

Formed to aid the communist National 
Miners Union operating in Pineville and 
Harlan County, Ky., 1931; an intellectual 
communistic group headed by 

Communist John Dos Passes, chmn.; Hugo 
Gellert, sec.; Leon Kahn, treas.; com. members: 
Sherwood Anderson, Roger Baldwin, Polly Boyden, 
"Bishop" Wm. M. Brown, Horace B. Davis, Agnes 
De Lima, Floyd Dell, Babette Deutsch, H. W. L. 
Dana, Robert W. Dunn, Clifton P. Fadiman, 
Sarah Bard Field, Waldo Frank, Lydia Gibson, 
Eugene Gordon, Michael Gold, William Cropper, 
Charles Yale Harrison, Harold Hickerson, Sidney 
Hook, Grace Hutchins, Horace M. Kallen, Carol 
Weiss King, Corliss Lament, Margaret Larkin, 
Melvin P. Levy, Jessie Lloyd, Robert Morss 
Lovett, Louis Lozowick, Paul Luttinger, M.D., 
Clarina Michelson, Elsie Reed Mitchell, M.D., 
Lewis Mumford, Liston M. Oak, Harvey O'Con- 
nor, Samuel Ornitz, Webster Powell, Harry Alan 
Potamkin, John Cowper Powys, Anna Rochester, 
Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, Bernard J. Stern, 
Marguerite Tucker, Genevieve Taggard, Mary 
Heaton Vorse, Alfred Wagenknecht, Charles K. 
Walker, Rev. Eliot White, Anita Whitney, Walter 
Wilson, Charles Erskine Scott Wood, and Carl 
Zigrosser. 

Hdqts. 799 Broadway, N.Y. City (from 
letter appealing for funds, dated June 21, 
1932, signed by Chas. R. Walker). 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO AID 
VICTIMS OF GERMAN FASCISM 

Nat. Com. to Aid Vic. G. Fascism. 

Organized by communist Workers Inter- 
national Relief 1933, "affiliated member- 
ship 400,000" (Daily Wkr., 9/29/33). 

National Officers: A. J. Muste, chmn.; Dr. 
Harry A. Warwick, vice chmn.; Alfred Wagen- 
knecht, exec, sec.; J. B. Matthews, treas.; Inter- 
national officers: Lord Marley (Labor Party), 
London, England, chmn.; Prof. Francis Jourdain, 



Paris, France, sec.; International Supporters: 
England: Fenner Brockway (I.L.P.); Alice Neal 
(Coop, guild) ; Saklatvala (Communist Party) ; 
Jim Watson (Catholic Crusade); Havelock Ellis; 
E. Sylvia Pankhurst (Communist); France: 
Romain Rolland (Communist); Prof. Challaye; 
Henri Barbusse (Communist) ; Mme. Gabrielle 
Duchene (W.I.L.P.F. and communist Lg. against 
Imperialism); Mme. Wanner (W.I.L.P.F.); 
Czechoslovakia: Prof. Nejedly; Egon Erwin 
Kisch; C. Weiskopf; Franz Hoellering; Prof. 
Schalda; Holland: Regisseur Joris Ivans; Helene 
Ankersmith; Belgium: Henry Marteau and 
Karel Van Dooren; Germany: Prof. Albert Ein- 
stein, Ernst Toller, E. J. Gumbel, Hanns Eeisler, 
Arthur Holitscher, Willi Muenzenburg (intl. sec. 
of communist Intl. Lg. against Imperialism), Prof. 
Arthur Eddington, Prof. Levy, Hugh Walpole, 
Ellen Wilkinson, Edo Fimmen, Harry Pollitt, Count 
Michael Karolyi, Prof. Manoury, L. Levy- 
Bruehl, Paul Langevin, Charles Nicolle; U.S.A. 
Supporters: Harry Elmer Barnes, Konrad Ber- 
covici, Roger Baldwin, Prof. Franz Boas, Robert 
C. Brooks, Stephen V. Benet, Heywood Broun, 
Leo Bulgakov, Malcolm Cowley, Dorothy Cher- 
tak, Ralph Cheyney, Prof. Merle Curti, Prof. 
Addison T. Cutler, Prof. Horace B. Davis, Will 
Durant, Robert W. Dunn, Edward Dahlberg, Olin 
Downes, Prof. H. W. L. Dana, Floyd Dell, 
Joseph Freeman, Donald Friede, Clifton Fadiman, 
Rabbi Benjamin Goldstein, Louis Golding, Mor- 
decai Gorelik, Michael Gold, Granville Hicks, 
Max S. Hayes, Ali A. Hassan, Carl Haessler, Inez 



Haynes Irwin, Maxwell Hyde, Francis Fisher 
Kane, Carol Weiss 



Jerome Klein, J. A. 
;, Maxim- 



Maxwell Hydi 
;iss King, Ten 

Kittine, Joshua Kuntz, Eva Le Gallienne, Maxim- 
Lieber, Louis Lozowick, Corliss Lamont, Jessie 
Lloyd, Lola Maverick Lloyd, Prof. Robert Morss 
Lovett, Prof. R. M. Mac Iver, Dr. Lillian Mil- 
grim, Rev. Lester Mondale, Henry Newman, Prof. 
Wm. L. Nunn, Harry Alan Potamkin, Dr. William 
J. Robinson, Burton Rascoe, Meyer Shapiro, Prof. 
Bernard J. Stern, Harry Slochower, W. R. Sassa- 
man, Prof. Winifred Smith, George Soule, Prof. 
Margaret Schlauch, Lincoln Steffens, Otto Sattler, 
Lucia Trent, Ella Winter, Nathaniel Weyl, John 
Wexley. 

Supporting organizations (listed on let- 
terhead) : 

Workers International Relief (Communist) ; 
Conference for Progressive Labor Action (left 
wing Socialist, cooperates with Communists) ; 
International Labor Defense (Communist) ; Jew- 
ish Workers and People's National Committee 
Against Fascism and Pogroms in Germany; Ger- 
man National Anti-Fascist United Front; commu- 
nist Intl. Workers Order; communist T.U.U.L.; 
Communist Party; Arbeiter Saengerbund of U.S.; 
Neue Volkszeitung; communist National Miners 
Union; communist Natur Freunde (Nature 
Friends) ; German Workers and Farmers Verband 
(Winnipeg, Canada) ; Socialist Jewish Workers 
Party (Left Paoli Zion) ; Amalgamated Food 
Workers; communist A.F. of L. Committee for 
Unemployment Insurance; communist Needle 
Trades Workers Industrial Union; communist 
Shoe Workers, and also Food Workers, Industrial 
Unions; Italian Anti-Fascist Committee of Action; 
Youth United Front Against German Fascism; 
Cultural United Front Against German Fascism; 
communist Finnish Workers Federation; Der 
Arbeiter; Kampf-Signal ; German Workers Clubs; 
Arbeiter Turn und Sport Bund, U.S.A.; New York 
German Branch of Socialist Party; Elizabeth 
German Branch Socialist Party. 

Hdqts. 75 Fifth Ave., Room 5, N.Y. 
City; Chicago Committee Hdqts. Room 
310, 208 N. Wells St. 



Organizations, Etc. 



197 



NATIONAL CONSUMERS LEAGUE 

Nat. Cons. Lg. 

A Garland-Fund-aided, Socialist-con- 
trolled organization founded in 1916 by 
Socialist Florence Kelley (formerly of Hull 
House, translator of Marx and Engels, and 
friend and correspondent of Engels and 
Lenin); organizes workers; issues "white 
lists" to blacklist firms not conforming to 
its program; ostensibly promotes consump- 
tion of union made goods, etc. 

In 1931, Florence Kelley (now deceased) was 
gen. sec.; Dr. John R. Commons of Madison, 
Wis., pres.; and Jane Addams, Newton D. Baker, 
Mrs. Edw. P. Costigan, Alice Hamilton, John 
Haynes Holmes, Julia C. Lathrop, Henry R. 
Mussey, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Mrs. M. R. 
Trumbull, etc., vice presidents; Mrs. J. Borden 
Harriman, chmn. of the bd.; hon. pres., John 
Graham Brooks; hon. vice pres., Irving Fisher; 
Jacob H. Hollander (John Hopkins), Frank L. 
McVey (U. of Ky.), Josiah Morse (U. of S. 
Car.), Wm. A. Neilson (Smith Coll.), Jessica B. 
Peixotto (U. of Cal.), Dean Roscoe Pound, Dr. 
John A. Ryan, E. R. A. Seligman (Columbia U.), 
Walter F. Wilcox (Cornell U.), A. B. Wolfe 
(Ohio State), Mary E. Woolley (Mt. Holyoke), 
etc. (listed on the letter head). Hdqts. 156 
Fifth Ave., N.Y. City. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR 

PREVENTION OF WAR 
N. C. for P. W. 

Seymour Waldman, editor of the N.C. 
for P.W. "International Disarmament 
Notes," 1931-32, in October 1933 became 
head of the Washington bureau of the 
communist "Daily Worker." Has been 
called "a clearing house for Socialist-Com- 
munist pacifist propaganda"; formed Sept. 
1921 under chairmanship of a Foreign 
Policy Assn. officer; its director, Frederick 
J. Libby, to quote Arthur Sears Henning, 
"has gained national notoriety for utter- 
ances widely regarded as unpatriotic and 
which were the cause of the board of edu- 
cation of the District of Columbia barring 
him from speaking in the Washington pub- 
lic schools. Libby is leading the move- 
ment for the abolition of military training 
in schools. . . . Libby was a prime mover 
in organizing the propaganda to deter the 
President from withdrawing recognition 
from the Calles government if American 
properties should be confiscated. . . . 
Libby has espoused the Calles side of the 
oil and alien land law controversy." (See 
Mexican Propaganda.) "... One of the 
common aims of the pacifist and radicals 
is to weaken the military preparedness of 
the United States for national defense. The 
most active pacifist organization is the 
National Council for Prevention of War 
which expends $85,000 a year as a clearing 



house for the peace work of 34 groups 
among which are the American Association 
of University Women, the American Farm 
Bureau Federation, the American Fed- 
eration of Teachers, which fights military 
training of youth, the Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation, the Foreign Policy Assn., the 
National Board of the Y.W.C.A., National 
Education Assn., National Women's Trade 
Union League, Women's International 
League for Peace and Freedom, National 
Consumers League, the W.C.T.U. and 
World Alliance for International Friend- 
ship Through the Churches. These com- 
ponent organizations of the National Coun- 
cil expend independently, partly or wholly 
on pacifist propaganda an aggregate of 
more than $500,000 a year. Other mem- 
bers of the Foreign Policy Association 
directorate who are also members of the 
directorate of the National Council for 
Prevention of War are Jane Addams, 
Katherine Ludington, Wm. Allen White, 
Bishop Francis J. McConnell, James G. 
McDonald and Bishop G. Ashton Oldham." 
(From Arthur Sears Henning's "Govern- 
ment by Propaganda.") Five of the co- 
operating organizations mentioned above 
are red Garland Fund proteges. 

In 1927 it claimed to have sent out 
"more than 1,000,000 pieces of literature" 
to 13,600 newspapers, 75,000 ministers and 
others, against the President's naval pro- 
gram alone, to have voted a budget of 
$113,000 for 1928 and maintained a staff 
of 11 persons in the two offices in Wash- 
ington and California with 7 stenographers, 
14 clerks, and 3 "speakers in the fields." 
Hdqts. in 1932 were 532 Seventeenth 
Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.; branch 
offices in San Francisco, Portland, Ore., 
Louisville, Ky., Springfield, Mass., Des 
Moines, la. 

Exec, sec., Frederick J. Libby; vice chairmen, 
Jane Addams, Rev. Peter Ainslie, Clement M. 
Biddle, Mrs. Louis D. Brandeis, Mrs. J. Borden 
Harriman, Will Irwin, John A. Lapp, Julia C. 
Lathrop, Katharine Ludington, Bishop Francis J. 
McConnell, James G. McDonald, Hugh S. Magill, 
Mrs. Lucia Ames Mead, Bishop G. Ashton Old- 
ham, Mrs.^ Arthur Charles Watkins, and William 
Allen White; exec. bd. : T. Janney Brown, 
William F. Cochran, Edward T. Devine, Elizabeth 
Eastman, Mrs. J. Malcolm Forbes, Elisabeth Gil- 
man, Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, Arthur E. Holder 
Rabbi Edward L. Israel, Frederick J. Libby, Felix 
Morley, Rev. R. A. McGowan, Mrs. Sina M. 
Stanton, Richard R. Woop; assoc. secretaries: 
Mrs. Florence Brewer Boeckel, Eleanor D. Bran- 
nan, Gaylord W. Douglass, Mrs. Mary Flahaven, 
J. J. Handsaker, Thomas Que Harrison, Mrs. 
Laura Puffer Morgan, Jeannette Rankin, Dorothy 
Reed, Cynthia Smith, E. Guy Talbott, Jacob H. 
Taylor, Harry E. Terrell, Seymour B. Waldman 
Arthur Charles Watkins, Mary Phillips Webster 
and Mary Ida Winder; office sec.: Mrs. Gladys 
K. Gould Mackenzie; treas.: T. Janney Brown. 



198 



The Red Network 



Listed on the 1932 letterhead as "Par- 
ticipating Organizations" are: 

Am. Assn. Univ. Women; Am. Fed. Tchrs.; 
Am. School Citizenship Lg.; Church of the 
Brethren Bd. of Relig. Ed.; C.M.E.; Fell. Recon.; 
Gen. Alliance Unitarian Women, Com. on Social 
Serv.; Gen. Conf. of Religious Soc. of Friends; 
Intl. New Thought Alliance; Nat. Bd. Y.W.C.A.; 
Nat. Coun. Jewish Women; Nat. Coun. Jewish 
Juniors; Nat. Edu. Assn.; Nat. Fed. of Temple 
Sisterhoods; Nat. Reform Assn.; Nat. Worn. Tr. 
Un. Lg.; Peace Assn. of Friends in Am.; Soc. 
to Eliminate Economic Causes of War; Woman s 
Missionary Un. of Friends in Am.; W.I.L.P.F.; 
Cooperating Organizations: Central Conf. of 
Am. Rabbis; Council of Women for Home Mis- 
sions; Nat. Consumers Lg.; Intl. Soc. of Chris- 
tian Endeavor; United Synagogue of Am.; 
Womens Lg. of the United Synagogue of Am.; 
World Peace Union. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR 

PROTECTION OF FOREIGN 

BORN WORKERS 

Nat. Coun. for Prot. For. Bn. Wkrs. 

A Communist subsidiary (U.S. Fish 
Report; also P. 77 of Report of Exec. 
Com. of Communist International, issued 
1924) ; claims 270,000 members, staged 
mass demonstration when Congress con- 
vened Dec. 6, 1930; agitates against alien 
registration, deportation of alien Reds, etc. 
The N.Y. World, Oct. 16, 1927, stated: 

"Jos. B. Dean, pres. of the Moving Picture 
Operators Union, is pres. of the National Council 
for Protection of Foreign Born Workers; Nina 
Samoradin is nat. sec., and among members of 
the board are James H. Maurer, pres. of the Pa. 
State Federation of Labor, Timothy Healey of 
the Steamfitters Union, W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, 
editor of the Crisis, Clarence Darrow, Albert F. 
Coyle, Robert Morss Lovett, Arthur Garfield 
Hays, and Fred Atkins Moore." 

Henry T. Hunt was legal advisor. The 
Communist Daily Worker, Dec. 19, 1927 
told of a conference of the N.Y. Council 
addressed by Robt. W. Dunn and Dr. 
Edmund B. Chaffee of the Labor Temple 
(of the Presbyterian Church) . Marvin says 
the advisory board of the N.Y. Council 
was in 1927 

"Composed of Adolph Blumfield, Louis F. 
Budenz, August Burkhardt (gen. sec. Amalga- 
mated Food Workers), Stuart Chase, P. E. Cos- 
grove, Solon de Leon, Marion Finn Scott, G. E. 
Powers, Robt. H. Haskell, John Dos Passes, 
Joseph Freeman, Paxton Hibben, I. A. Kittine, 
Horace Liveright, Ludwig Lore, Scott Nearing, 
Chas. W. Wood, Arthur Calhoun, Rev. A. Wake- 
field Statin. 

"All of the above are Communists or 
Socialists or closely allied with the Com- 
munist-Socialist movement in the United 
States. Both the Communists and Social- 
ists openly state their purpose is to destroy 
the government of the U.S. ... On Jan. 
9, 1926 a luncheon conference in opposi- 



tion" (to alien registration and deportation 
bills) "was held at Hotel Astor, N.Y. City. 
At this meeting the bills were denounced in 
no uncertain terms by Max J. Kohler, the 
prominent pacifist Sherwood Eddy, the 
Rev. Chas. K. Gilbert of the Federal Coun- 
cil of Churches and Florence F. Cassidy 
of the Y.W.C.A. of Bridgeport, Conn. A 
letter of denouncement from the Immi- 
grants' Protective League of Chicago, upon 
whose directorate appear the names of 
Jane Addams, Prof. Ernst Freund, Julia C. 
Lathrop and other equally well-known 
radicals was read." (Marvin Data Sheets, 
56-16 and 34-2.) 

N.Y. officers and exec, com.: 

Pres.: Joseph Dean; vice-pres.: Max Orlowsky, 
P. Pascual Cqsgrove; sec.-treas.: Nina Samora- 
din; legal advisor: Henry T. Hunt; field sec.: 
Jeannette D. Pearl; Executive Committee: Tim- 
othy Healy, Max S. Hays, James Maurer, William 
Cohen, Fred Suiter, Percy Thomas, J. L. Studder, 
A. M. Allman, Carl Appel, Rebecca Grecht, A. G. 



Paul J. Zoretich, W. E. B. Du Bois, Clarence 
Darrow, Albert F. Coyre, Robert Morss Lovett, 
Arthur Garfield Hays, Alice Stone Blackwell, 
Francis Fisher Kane, Fred Atkins Moore. (1930 
Fish Report of Investigation of Communist Propa- 
ganda, Part S, Vol. 4, p. 1321.) 

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON 
FREEDOM FROM CENSORSHIP 

Of the A.C.L.U.; to abolish censorship 
of obscene or seditious art, literature, and 
movies and for "freedom in schools and 
colleges"; fought in behalf of Corliss 
Lamont's Russian posters, held by author- 
ities as seditious matter. Hdqts. 100 Fifth 
Ave., N.Y. City. 

Chmn.: Hatcher Hughes; vice chairmen: Bar- 
rett H. Clark, Fannie Hurst, Elmer Rice; treas.: 
Harry Elmer Barnes; sec.: Gordon W. Moss; 
members: Helen Arthur, Bruce Bliven, Dr. Louise 
Stevens Bryant. Witter Bynner, James Branch 
Cabell, Henry Seidel Canby, Edward Childs Car- 
penter, Marc Connolly, Mrs. Mary Ware Den- 
nett, Walter Pritchard Eaton, Morris L. Ernst, 
Rabbi Sidney E. Goldstein, Paul Green, Dr. Louis 
I. Harris. Arthur Garfield Hays, Theresa Helburn, 
B. W. Huebsch, Sidney Howard, Rupert Hughes, 
Inez Haynes Irwin, Dorothy Kenypn, Kenneth 
MacGowan, H. L. Mencken, Lewis Mumford, 
Henry Raymond Mussey, George Jean Nathan, 
Rabbi Louis I. Newman, Rev. Robert Norwood, 
Eugene O'Neill. Maxwell E. Perkins, Llewelyn 
Powys, Aaron J. Rosanoff, Robert E. Sherwood, 
Claire Sifton, Paul Sifton, Harry Weinberger, 
Stewart Edward White, Dr. Ira S. Wile, Harry 
Leon Wilson. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION 
ASSOCIATION 

Radical educational association which 
fostered the National Save Our Schools 
Committee; affiliated with N. C. for P. W. 



Organizations, Etc. 



199 



NATIONAL FARMERS HOLIDAY 
ASSOCIATION 

A supporting organization of the Com- 
munist-organized U.S. Congress Against 
War (see) . Its leader, Milo Reno, is active 
in the radical Conference for Progressive 
Political Action (see). 

NATIONAL MINERS UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. Union; hdqts. 
Frank Borich, 413 Fourth Ave., Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; responsible for violence in Ky., Pa., 
and Ohio mining districts; now agitating 
in New Mexico and Utah, claiming over 
1,000 members in Utah, Carbon County 
district. 

NATIONAL MOONEY-BILLINGS 
COMMITTEE 

Aided financially by Garland Fund; 
formed by A.C.L.U. to aid the Communist 
agitation for release of Mooney and Bill- 
ings, convicted of bombing the 1917 San 
Francisco Preparedness Day Parade, kill- 
ing 10 and injuring 50 persons. Mooney 
was then an anarchist-communist labor 
agitator and with anarchist Alex. Berk- 
man started and ran "The Blast," an anar- 
chist paper. His letter to Stalin appears 
on the front page of the Communist Labor 
Defender for Nov. 1932. In it he says, 
"My dear Comrade Stalin" and after 
rejoicing over the Fifteenth Anniversary of 
the Russian Proletarian Revolution, thanks 
Stalin 

"For the magnificent spirit of International 
working-class solidarity by the militant workers 
of Russia in defense of my fight for freedom, and 
for the freedom of all class war and political 
prisoners. Were it not for the Revolutionary 
workers of Petrograd led by our beloved comrade 
Lenin, in militant demonstrations before the Amer- 
ican Embassy on April 25, 1917, I would not now 
be addressing these greetings to you. Thus my 
life was saved and my usefulness to the revolution- 
ary working class prolonged. It is my hope that 
these revolutionary greetings to you and through 
you to the Toilers of the Soviet Union will be 
presented to you in person on the Fifteenth 
Anniversary of the Russian Revolution by my dear 
84 year old mother, who will be in Moscow on 
Nov. 7th, 1932 in the continued interest of the 
working class fight for my freedom from the Dun- 
geons of American Capitalist Imperialism. All 
hail to the Russian Revolution and the Dictator- 
ship of the Proletariat. I'm for it hook, line and 
sinker, without equivocation or reservation. 
Please accept my warm personal regards and best 
wishes. I am, Comradely yours, Tom Mooney, 
31921." 

Committee Hdqts., 100 Fifth Ave., 
N.Y. City; Henry T. Hunt (Roosevelt 
appointee as gen. counsel PWA), chmn.; 
members: 

Lemuel F. Parton, vice chmn.; Roger N. Bald- 
win, sec.; Harry Elmer Barnes, Alice Stone Black- 



well, John Rogers Commons, Clarence Darrow, 
Jerome Davis, Edward T. Devine, John Dewey, 
Robert L. Duffus, Morris L. Ernst, Sara Bard 
Field, Glenn Frank, Gilson Gardner, Elizabeth 
Giiman, Norman Hapgood, Max S. Hayes, Arthur 
Garfieid Hays, Morris Hillquit, Fannie Hurst, Inez 
Haynes Irwin, Philip LaFollette, Sinclair Lewis, 
Walter W. Liggett, Owen R. Lovejoy, Robert 
Morss Lovett, James H. Maurer, Alexander Meikle- 
john, H. L. Mencken, Wesley C. Mitchell, Fremont 
Older, George D. Pratt, Jr., Roger William Riis, 
John A. Ryan, John Nevin Sayre, Alva W. Taylor, 
B. C. Vladeck, Stephen S. Wise, W. E. Woodward. 

NATIONAL MOONEY COUNCIL 
OF ACTION 

Formed 1933 by the Communist I.L.D. 
for the purpose of drawing radicals 
together in a "united front" under Com- 
munist leadership for the Mooney ballyhoo 
of hate against our "capitalist" govern- 
ment upon which Communism thrives. 
"Free Tom Mooney" has, with the Scotts- 
boro case, been a money making agitation 
for the Communist Party and the excuse 
for countless riots, strikes, demonstrations 
and profitable collections, as was the Sacco- 
Vanzetti case, formerly. The "Free Tom 
Mooney Congress" called by the Commu- 
nist I.L.D. met April 30 May 2, 1933, 
in Chgo., and passed the resolution: 
"Brother Mooney for 17 years now the 
symbol of the unity of working class 
martyrdom must now become the living 
symbol of the unity of the working class. 
. . . Just as the frame-up and imprison- 
ment of Tom Mooney was connected with 
the preparations for the entry of this coun- 
try into the world war, so now the con- 
tinued imprisonment of Mooney and other 
victims of capitalist class justice ... is the 
preparation of a second imperialist war 
by the capitalist nations and against the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. . . . 
This council hereby establishes the National 
Tom Mooney Council of Action, a United 
Front for Workers Rights and the Rights 
of the Negro People. . . . The legal murder 
of the innocent Sacco and Vanzetti was a 
part of the price of disunity of the 
workers. . . . Mass pressure not the 'justice' 
of the courts is responsible for such vic- 
tories as the working class has won." 

"38 Chicago locals of the A.F. of L., 121 
locals of other cities, 23 locals of the Pro- 
gressive Miners of S. 111., 82 independent 
and revolutionary unions affiliated with the 
T.U.U.L. Delegates from the Commu- 
nist Party, Socialist Party, League for 
Independent Political Action, Defense 
organizations, Young Communist League, 
Young People's Socialist League, Industrial 
Workers of the World, ..." were repre- 
sented by 1,200 delegates according to the 



200 



The Red Network 



May ISth "Workers Voice" (Communist) 
and "Robert Minor, veteran comrade of 
Mooney . . . made the keynote address." 
Other speakers were: "W. L. Patterson of 
the I.L.D., A. J. Muste of the Lg. for Ind. 
Lab. Act., Clarence Hathaway and Bill 
Gebert of the Communist Party, Social- 
ists, Trade Union men, delegates of the 
I.W.W. and of farmers groups. . . . Alex 
Fraser of Gillespie, militant leader of the 
Progressive Miners was elected as first 
chairman of the congress ... the proposals 
of the I.W.W. delegation for an 'immediate' 
general strike and boycott of California 
products was rejected while at the same 
time the congress adopted all methods of 
mass struggles, including strikes, demon- 
strations, etc. for the Mooney defense. . . . 
A national Mooney Council of Action of 
42 members was elected" which "will lead 
a fight 'for Workers Rights and Against 
Oppression of the Negro Masses.' " 

Council members: C. A. Hathaway (Commu- 
nist Party); Al. Renner (Proletarian Party, 
Detroit) ; Joshua Kunitz (Nat. Com. Def. Pol. 
Pris.); George Smerkin (Young People's Socialist 
Lg., Chgo.); James P. Cannon, Communist Lg. 
of Am. (Trotskyite) ; Frank Borich (communist 
Nat. Miners Union, Pitts.); James Eagan 
(Journeyman Plasterers, Pitts.. Communist); 
Phil Van Gelder (Socialist Party, Phila.); 
Anthony Chuplis (A.F. of L. Gen. Mine Bd. 
U.M.W.A., Shenandoah, Pa.); John Metzger 
(communist Marine Workers Union, New Orleans) ; 
Ella Reeve Bloor (communist Nat. Farmers Com. 
for Action, Sioux City, la.); Chas. Crone (A.F. 
of L. Intl. Hod Carriers, Mpls., Minn.); Trent 
Longo (A.F. of L. Painters Union, Clev., O.); 
L. O. Puchot (A.F. of L. Bldg. Trades Coun., 
Des Moines, la.); Prof. Robert Morss Lovett 
(Am. Civil Liberties Union, Chgo.) ; James Kodl 
(Irish-Am. Labor Lg., Chgo., Communist sym- 
pathizer); Mrs. Sabina Burrell, Socialist, of Pro- 
gressive Miners of America (P.M.A.) Ladies 
Auxiliary, Gillespie, 111.; Pat Ansboury, P.M.A. 
and Communist Lg. of Am. (Trotskyite) ; L. 
VVeinstock (Painters N.Y. and communist A.F. 
of L. Com. for Unemployment Insurance) ; L. B. 
Scott (A.F. of L. Tom Mooney Molders Def. 
Com., San Francisco, Cal.) ; Jack Clark (I.W.W., 
Chgo.); Chas. Blome (A.F. of L. Conf. Bd. of 
Molders Unions, St. Louis, Mo.); Emil Arnold 
(A.F. of L. Painters, Chgo.); D. Poindexter 
(Lg. Struggle Negro Rights Communist) ; Jesse 
Taylor (A.F. of L. Bricklayers, Buffalo, N.Y.); 
M. Olay (Free Society Group of anarchists, 
Chgo.); Robert Minor (Communist Party); Wm. 
Patterson (communist I.L.D.); L. Hyman (com- 
munist Needle Trades Workers Indust. Union) ; 
Jack Kling (Young Communist Lg., Chgo.); Karl 
Lore, Socialist (Unemp. Citiz. Lg., Chgo.); Albert 
Hansen (Ky. Miners Defense Com. of I.W.W., 
Chgo.); A. J. Muste (Leftwing Socialist, Conf. 
Prog. Lab. Act., N.Y.) ; Roger Baldwin (A.C. 
L.U., N.Y.); Israel Amter (communist Unem- 
ployed Councils, N.Y.); Aileen Barnsdall 
(Mooney's personal appointee, Los Angeles); 
Arthur Scott (A.F. of L. Mooney Molders Def. 
Com., San Francisco); J. B. Matthews (Fellow- 
ship Reconciliation, N.Y.) ; Joe Weber (commu- 
nist T.U.U.L.); John Werlik (A.F. of L. Metal 
Polishers Union, Chgo.) ; Jack Johnstone (commu- 
nist T.U.U.L., Pitts.); Alex Fraser (removed from 



Socialist Party, 111., exec. com. as a Communist, 
P.M.A., Giiiespie, 111.); A. Thorpe (Gen. Defense 
Com. of I.W.W., Chicago). 

NATIONAL POPULAR 
GOVERNMENT LEAGUE 
Nat. Pop. Govt. Lg. 

A publicity bureau for the various organ- 
izations represented on its directorship, 
namely: the A.C.L.U., Socialist Party, 
L.I.D., Public Ownership League (its 
affiliate), the Peoples Legislative Service, 
and the Conference for Progressive Polit- 
ical Action. Judson King, now Pres. 
Roosevelt's Research Investigator for Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority, is its active direc- 
tor, although ex-Senator Robt. L. Owen is 
listed as president. Started in 1913, it has 
consistently advocated government owner- 
ship of the key industries of the nation 
in true Socialist style, as might be expected 
with seven officers of Carl Thompson's 
Public Ownership League at various times 
serving on its directing committee (Wm. 
H. Johnston, Carl S. Vrooman, Father 
John A. Ryan, John R. Haynes, James H. 
McGill, and the deceased Delos F. Wilcox 
and Wm. Kent), and also eight executives 
of the People's Legislative Service (Senator 
Geo. W. Norris, Wm. H. Johnston, J. H. 
McGill, Jackson Ralston, Prof. E. A. Ross, 
Edw. Keating, Father John A. Ryan, Wm. 
Kent). W. H. Johnston also called the 
Conference for Progressive Political Action 
(see) at Cleveland, July 4, 1924, which 
nominated LaFollette for President and 
gave impetus to the fashion of calling rad- 
icals "progressives." 

The League conducts a Forum in Wash- 
ington, circulates reprints of Congressional 
speeches attacking the utilities, and issues 
a bulletin service which it estimated, Tn 
1927, reached through 125 library sub- 
scribers, the A. P. and Universal Press serv- 
ices, some 59,582,000 readers. It declared 
that it did not need to issue a newspaper 
since it could secure such wide publicity. 

Among its pamphlets, it lists as "Valuable 
to Students and Libraries as Research 
Material": " 'The Deportations Delirium 
of 1920,' by Hon. Louis F. Post. The true 
story of how the 'Red Raids' were brought 
about" ; " 'Report of the Twelve Lawyers 
on the Illegal Practices of the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Justice,' by Dean Roscoe Pound 
of Harvard University and others. An 
indictment of the illegal methods of Attor- 
ney General Palmer in his famous 'Red 
Raids' of 1920"; '"Official Hearings of 
Testimony Before the Senate Sub-Com- 
mittee Which Investigated the Report of 



Organizations, Etc. 



201 



the Twelve Lawyers,' 788 pages"; also 
"Report of Senator Walsh Sustaining the 
Twelve Lawyers." 

The "Report Upon the Illegal Prac- 
tises of the U.S. Department of Justice" 
was issued May 27, 1920 by Judson King 
and signed by the twelve lawyers, who 
were: Felix Frankfurter, Ernst Freund, and 
David Wallerstein, all of the Red-aiding 
A.C.L.U. national committee; Jackson H. 
Ralston and Francis Fisher Kane of the 
A.C.L.U.; and Zechariah Chafee, Jr. of 
Harvard Law School, R. G. Brown, Judge 
Alfred Niles, Swinburn Hale, Frank P. 
Walsh, Dean Roscoe Pound (Harvard Law 
Sch.), and Tyrrell Williams. 

This report was a bitter and untruthful 
attack upon the Department of Justice, 
charging wholesale arrests of Reds without 
warrants, cruelty to prisoners, forgery by 
agents to make out cases against "inno- 
cent" Reds, refusal to let prisoners com- 
municate with friends, etc., etc. Of course 
the report took the usual sniping position 
of claiming that its authors were not them- 
selves in favor of any radical doctrines (?), 
but were solely interested in upholding the 
law! The old, deliberately deceptive argu- 
ment, that Attorney General Palmer's sup- 
pression had aided rather than harmed the 
Reds' revolutionary cause in America, was 
also used. (Then why did radicals protest 
suppression?) They bitterly attacked the 
use of Government funds to discover and 
deport revolutionary Anarchist and Com- 
munist agitators. 

In reply, Attorney General Palmer sent 
a telegram to the Popular Govt. League 
signers, saying: "Some of the aliens them- 
selves have since denied the very state- 
ments which your committee filed. Your 
apparent willingness to believe these state- 
ments made by alien anarchists when fac- 
ing deportation in preference to the testi- 
mony of sworn officers of the Government, 
whose only motive is the performance of 
duty, indicates some other desire on your 
part than just administration of the law-" 
(Emphasis mine.) 

The N.Y. Times, June 2, 1920, quoted 
Palmer as saying of the lawyer-signers: 
"We find several of them appearing as 
counsel for Communist and Communist 
Labor Party members at deportation hear- 
ings. I have difficulty in reconciling their 
attitude with that of men sworn to uphold 
the Constitution of the United States." 

But this Red campaign started by these 
men was continued. The Garland Fund 
appropriated funds and bemused Amer- 
icans slept, stupefied by confusing propa- 



ganda, and all funds were, in 192S, stopped 
for anti-Red activities of the Department 
of Justice. Since that time, radicalism has 
made its phenomenal strides in the United 
States undisturbed by the Government. 

One letterhead of the League lists: 
Pres., Robt. L. Owen (U.S. Senator, Okla.) ; 
General Committee: Wm. Kent (Kentfield, Cal., 
Ex-Congressman) ; Dr. John R. Haynes (Los 
Angeles); Senator Gea. W. N orris; J. H. McGill 
(Valparaiso, Ind. manufacturer) ; E. A. Ross 
(Madison, Wis., Prof. Sociology, U. of Wis.) ; 
Harry A. Slattery (Wash., former sec. Nat. 
Conservation Assn.); Jackson H. Ralston (Wash., 
Atty.); director, Judson King, Wash.; Consult- 
ing Committee: Alice Stone Blackwell, Boston; 
Warren S. Blauvelt, Terre Haute; Lawrence G. 
Brooks (Boston, Atty.); Geo. H. Duncan (E. 
Jaffrey, N.H., Mem. State Legis.); Herman I. 
Ekern (Madison, Atty. Gen. Wis.); A. R. Hatton 
(Cleveland, Prof. Pol. Science, Western Reserve 
U.) ; A. N. Holcombe (Cambridge, Prof, of Govt. 
Harvard U.); Wm. H. Johnston (Wash., Pres. 
Intl. Machinists) ; Edw. Keating (Mg. Ed. 
' ; Labor," then official organ Conf. for Prog. 
Political Action) ; Edwin Markham, Staten Is., 
poet; Frank Morrison (Wash., sec. A.F. of L.); 
Chas. H. Porter (Cambridge, Mass., manufaeturer) ; 
Alice Thatcher Post (Wash., former mg. ed. "The 
Public"); Louis F. Post (former Asst. Sec. of 
Labor); Herbert Quick (Berkeley Springs, W. Va., 
author); Chas. Edw. Russell (Wash., author); 
Dr. John A. Ryan (Wash., Prof. Industrial Ethics, 
Catholic Univ.); T. Allen Smith (Seattle, Prof. 
Pol. Science, U. of Wash.); Wm. S. U'Ren, Port- 
land; Carl S. Vrooman (Bloomington, 111., farmer, 
Ex-Sec, of Agriculture); Delos F. Wilcox (Grand 
Rapids, Mich., consulting franchise expert) ; Mrs. 
Laura Williams (director Progressive Education 
Assn.) ; H. H. Wilcox (Pittsburg manufacturer) ; 
J. A. Woodburn (Bloomington, Ind., Prof. History, 
U. of Ind.). There are a few minor changes 1933: 
Robt. Beecher Howell, U.S. Sen., Nebr., added; 
nine dropped (Owen, Kent, Blackwell, Blauvelt, 
Wilcox, Porter, L. F. Post, Quick, Russell). 

Hdqts. 637 Munsey Bldg., Wash., D.C. 



NATIONAL RAILROAD WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

Communist T.U.U.L. Union; now called 
the "Railroad Brotherhoods Unity Com- 
mittee" (see). 

NATIONAL RELIGION AND 

LABOR FOUNDATION 
Nat. R. & L. Found. 

Organized by radicals, about 1932, to 
propagandize "the new social order" (Com- 
munism-Socialism) within Jewish, Catholic 
and Protestant churches. Its Bulletin, 
"Economic Justice," carries plain Red 
revolutionary propaganda; the Nov. 1932 
issue (the first) printed a cartoon of Jesus 
by Art Young, the New Masses Commu- 
nist cartoonist (see facsimile) ; the Jan. 1933 
issue said of this cartoon: "This cut has 
been in demand by the churches and is still 
available. The Editors"; the Jan. issue 
printed a typical atheist Soviet cartoon 



202 



The Red Network 







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Organizations, Etc. 



203 



(see facsimile) ridiculing Christianity, rep- 
resenting Christ, unburdened, leading 
ahead workers with bowed backs crushed 
beneath the weight of a huge cross, 
while these workers are also har- 
nessed to, and pulling, "Capitalism" repre- 
sented as always by the Soviets as a fat 
man with a plug hat. The cartoon is a 
plea to throw off "Capitalism," the Cross, 
and Christ's leadership. 

It prints propaganda such as that of 
Communist Robert Whitaker of Los Angeles 
(see), one of its correspondents and 
national committeemen who says in the 
same issue: "It is no longer a question of 
the need of a revolution; the question is 
as to the method of bringing the revolution 
to pass. ... To this conclusion I have very 
definitely come: that there is little hope 
of making any considerable change in the 
psychology of the masses except as the 
sequence of radical social action outside of 
respectable ranks; that the work of revolt 
will have to be carried through in two 
sections, the first of these, the long-suffer- 
ing and no longer quiescent disinherited 
and unemployed, who will respond to their 
desperation rather than to any well 
digested education, the second, a trained 
and disciplined group who will know how 
to function in a Lenin-leadership when the 
hour of opportunity comes. Consequently 
our concern is to build the understanding 
leadership for the crisis from those who 
need no longer the milk of infantile adap- 
tations to their timidities and polite preju- 
dices but are ready to talk business and 
digest the strong meat of direct revolution- 
ary preparation." 

The April 1933 issue carries the follow- 
ing horrifying anouncement: "A new 
religious Brotherhood is in process of 
formation. The method which it intends 
to employ toward the accomplishment of 
its purpose is designed to fill two long 
felt wants in the radical movement and in 
the religious field. Robert R. Warner, the 
Brother Secretary of the Order, expresses 
its function: 'We place ourselves under the 
vows of poverty and obedience, plus a 
rule of life entailing purity but not neces- 
sarily celibacy. Being a disciplined group, 
willing and anxious to enter into industrial 
disputes to take the posts of danger, we feel 
that there we can be of great benefit, since 
we will not feel the terror of the black 
list, the lock out, or other means of capital- 
ist economic terrorization. Likewise in 
areas of class warfare \ve feel that the 
innate reverence of the average policeman 
for the religious habit will protect our own 



heads from his blows, and so, if we place 
ourselves in the place of greatest danger, 
we can also by that very act, protect the 
workers. On the other hand, we know 
many liberal and radical priests and min- 
isters who are prevented from themselves 
preaching the 'social gospel' in understand- 
able and plain terms for fear of losing their 
jobs; but who would not hesitate to per- 
mit an outside preacher to do so, rather 
would jump at the opportunity. . . . Address 
inquiries or send contributions to Robert 
R. Warner, Brothers Secretary, 27 Win- 
throp House, St. John's Road, Mass.' " The 
slogan of this issue was: "URGE RECOG- 
NITION OF RUSSIA." 

Says the Jan. issue: "We are glad to 
announce that Dr. Willard E. Uphaus . . . 
has joined the staff of the foundation on a 
part time basis. . . . Another addition to 
the staff is Arnold Johnson, recent graduate 
of Union Theological Seminary, who was 
in jail in Harlan, Kentucky, for a number 
of weeks on a charge of criminal syndical- 
ism. Arnold Johnson will specialize in 
organizing the unemployed into Unem- 
ployed Citizens Leagues and for the pur- 
pose of making hunger marches and other 
demonstrations to dramatize the economic 
crisis. He is now working in Ohio." "Com- 
munism Is the Way" by James W. Ford, 
colored Communist, Vice Presidential can- 
didate (running mate of Wm. Z. Foster) 
in 1932, appeared in the May-June issue. 

Excerpts from the address of the pro- 
Soviet "Brain Trustee," Rex. Guy Tugwell, 
delivered before the American Economic 
Assn., 1932 and entitled "The Principle of 
Planning and the Institution of Laissez 
Faire," appeared in the Jan. 1933 issue. To 
quote: "Planning will necessarily become a 
function of the federal government; either 
that or the planning agency will supersede 
that government, which is why, of course, 
such a scheme will eventually be assimilated 
to the state rather than possess some of its 
powers without its responsibilities. Business 
will logically be required to disappear. This 
is not an overstatement for the sake of 
emphasis; it is literally meant. The essence 
of business is its free venture for profits 
in an unregulated economy. Planning im- 
plies guidance of capital uses . . . adjust- 
ment of production to consumption . . . 
the insurance of adequate buying capacity. 
. . . New industries will not just happen 
as the automobile industry did; they will 
have to be foreseen, to be argued for, or 
seem probably desirable features of the 
whole economy before they can be entered 
upon. . . . There is no denying that the 



204 



The Red Network 



contemporary situation in the United 
States has explosive possibilities. The 
future is becoming visible in Russia; the 
present is bitterly in contrast; politicians, 
theorists and vested interests seem to con- 
spire ideally for the provocation to violence 
of a long patient people. No one can pre- 
tend to know how the release of this pres- 
sure is likely to come. Perhaps our states- 
men will give way or be more or less 
gently removed from duty; perhaps our 
constitutions and statutes will be revised; 
perhaps our vested interests will submit to 
control without too violent resistance. It 
is difficult to believe that any of these will 
happen ; it seems just as incredible that we 
may have a revolution. Yet the new kind 
of economic machinery we have in pros- 
pect cannot function in our present econ- 
omy. The contemporary situation is one 
in which all the choices are hard; yet one 
of them has to be made." (Tugwell is now 
Asst. "Commissar" of Agriculture and 
leader of Roosevelt's Brain Trust.) 

Lists of Red books which will be loaned 
to members for merely the cost of return 
postage are sent out. Rabbi Edw. L. Israel, 
Father John A. Ryan and Rev. E. F. 
Tittle are the "Book Editors" and list for 
such distribution: "The Little Lenin Li- 
brary" (Communist) ; "Toward Soviet 
America" by Wm. Z. Foster (Moscow's 
U.S. Communist Party leader) ; "The 
Soviets Conquer Wheat" by Anna Louise 
Strong, Communist editor of the commu- 
nist Moscow Daily News, a paper which, 
along with other Red periodicals, is also 
distributed by this book service; "The 
Necessity of Communism" by Middleton 
Murray; "The Road to Plenty" by Foster 
and Catchings; and other radical literature. 
How self-styled Christians expect to sow 
with atheist Communist enemies of Chris- 
tianity and reap with Jesus Christ is hard 
to understand. The national conference of 
the Foundation was held July 21, 1933 at 
Jane Addams' Hull House. 

Editors, besides the Book Editors mentioned 



above, are: Jerome Davis, Geo. A. Douglas, 
Francis A. Henson; Corresponding Editors: Toy- 
ohiko Kagawa, Japan; Enkichi Kan, Japan; Yao 
Hsien-hui, China; Mahatma Gandhi, India; Max 



Yergan, South Africa; Andre Philip, France; H. 
L. Henriod, Switzerland; N. Stufkens, Holland; 
W. A. Visser't Hooft, Geneva; Judah Magnes, 
Palestine; Robt. Garric, France; Hans Stroh, 
Austria; Paul Prechowski, Germany; Anne 
Guthrie, South America; Julius Hecker, U.S.S.R.; 
Ralph Dwinnel, Egypt; Edwin Barker, England; 
Fritz Beck, Germany. A few hundred priests, 
ministers, rabbis and leaders in the labor move- 
ment are acting as correspondents in the United 
States. 

Subscriptions to the bulletin, $0.50 for 



the eight monthly issues each year. Hdqts. 
304 Crown St., New Haven, Conn. Sends 
out leaflets for Common Sense Magazine, 
Christian Social Action Movement and 
Emergency Committee for Strikers' Relief; 
is member of Jt. Com. on Unemp. 

Honorary Presidents: Sidney Hillman, pres. 
Amalg. Cloth. Wkrs. of Am.; J. E. Hagerty, pres. 
Catholic Conference on Industrial Problems; 
Francis J. McConnell, Bishop N.Y. Area, M.E. 
Church, and pres. Fed. Coun. Chs. 1929-32. Field 
secretaries are Arnold Johnson and Williard E. 
Uphaus; exec, secretaries, Geo. A. Douglas and 
Francis A. Henson; office sec., Helen-Louise 
Porter; National Committee: Grace Abbott, Jane 
Addams, Donald B. Aldrich, Roland H. Bainton, 
E. Wight Bakke, A. G. Baldwin, Bernard J. Bam- 
berger, W. R. Barnhart, John C. Bennett, John C. 
Biddle, Dwight Bradley, Harvie Branscomb, Chas. 
R. Brown, Chas. S. Brown, J. F. Burke, Vincent 
Burns, S. Parkes Cadman, Robt. L. Caihoun, E. 
Fay Campbell, Edmund B. Chaffee, Elisabeth 
Christman, Wm. F. Cochran, Geo. A. Coe, Geo. S. 
Counts, Albert F. Coyle, James R. Cox, Abraham 
Cronbach. Ethel M. Davis, Gardiner M. Day, 
William Horace Day, Sherwood Eddy, Robert B. 
Eleazer, A. R. Elliott, Phillips Elliott, Harold 
Fey, Charles W. Gilkey, James Gordon Gilkey, 
Elisabeth Oilman, William E. Gilroy, Israel Gold- 
stein, Herbert D. Graetz, Harold Gray, Ernest 
Graham Guthrie, Herman J. Hahn, Powers Hap- 
good, S. Ralph Harlow, Erdman Harris, Hornell 
Hart, A. A. Heist, Arthur E. Holt, John Hope, 
Walter M. Horton, Lawrence T. Hosie, Lynn 
Harold Hough, Allan A. Hunter, Paul HuLchinson, 
Cecelia I. Jeffrey, Paul Jones, Howard A. Kester, 
A. Roger Kratz, Maynard C. Krueger, George S. 
Lackland, Halford E. Luccock, Alex Lyall, Louis 
L. Mann, J. B. Matthews, Oscar E. Maurer, Jacob 
Mirviss, Darwin J. Meserole, Herbert A. Miller, 
Ethelwyn Mills, H. W. Morgan, Charles Clayton 



O'Neall, G. Bromley Oxnam, Kirby Page, William 
Pickens, Arthur Pound, Helen E. Price, F. J. 
Schlink, Clarence Shedd, Guy Emery Shipler, E. B. 



Shultz, Tucker P. Smith Edmund D. Soper, 
George Soule, T. Guthrie Speers, George Stewart, 
Alfred W. Swan, Ronald J. Tamblyn, Wellington 
H. Tinker, Ernest F. Tittle, Henry P. Van Dusen, 
H. J. Voorhis, John Warford, Wellman Warner, 
Luther A. Weigle, Robert Whitaker, Eliot White, 
Walter White, J. Stitt Wilson, L. Hollingsworth 
Wood, Winnifred Wygal; Executive Committee: 
Herman A. Brautigam, P. H. Callahan, Allan K. 
Chalmers, Eleanor Copenhaver, Jerome Davis, Sid- 
ney Goldstein, William P. Hapgood, Hubert C. 
Herring, John Haynes Holmes, Edward L. Israel, 
Berton E. Kile, John A. Lapp, Douglas C. 
Macintosh, A. J. Muste, Reinhold Niebuhr, Frank 
Olmstead, A. Phillip Randolph, Alva W. Taylor, 
Edward Thomas, Norman Thomas, Charles C. 
Webber, Stephen S. Wise. 



NATIONAL SAVE OUR SCHOOLS 

COMMITTEE 
Nat. Save Our Schs. Com. 

Says the expert Francis Ralston Welsh 
of Phila.: "It is a red affair through and 
through, with possibly a very few respect- 
able dupes. The evident object was to 
take patriotic teaching out of the schools 
and substitute propaganda more pleasing to 
Leftwing Socialists and Communists. It is 
the Communist-aiding American Civil 



Organizations, Etc. 



205 




BONOEABY PRESIDENTS 



EXECUTIVE OOIfXITTEE 



Erdman Harrto 
Hernell Hart 

&&*&** 

WalleflTHortoa 
Lawrjnc. T. Boiie 
Lvnn Harold Houb 
Allan A. Hunur 
Paul Hutchlneon 
Cecelia I. Jeffrey 



M.nn 
1. B. Matthew. 
Oscar E. Maorar 
Jacob IflTTlia 
Danrtn J. Meierob 
Herbert A. Miilcr 
Ethelvrj-n Kill* 
W. Horf an 
' la Clayton Morrltoa 
Nel.on 



8& 



OUrt'ne* 8hdd 



Tucker P. Bmltb 

Edmund D. 8otr 
Oeorre Soul. 
T. Outhrie Spoer. 
George Stewart 
Alfred W. Swan 
Ronald J. Tamblya 
Wellington U. Timkw 



NATIONAL RELIGION AND LABOR FOUNDATION 

NON-SECTARIAN. NON-DENOMINATIONAL 

104 CROWN STKEET, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 
TELEPHONE: S-4447 



February 16, 1933. 




Th<n 
a Webber 



Mr. John E. Waters, 

Box 242, 

Madison Wisconsin. 

my dear Lb:. Waters: 

I regret that the Foundation is unable to help 
you carry forward the work you outline in your letter. 
We believe that the primary Job today is one of 
achieving economic Justice, "e believe that this 
will require revolutionary changes in our social and 
economic order. Therefore, instead of attacking 
Soviet Russia , we are anxious to appreciate the 
contributions which it has made and, at the same time, 
build here in this section of the world an order that 
has all of the values of the one that is being 
created in the Soviet Union, without the sacrifice 
of other important values. 




Francis A. Henson, 
Economic Adviser* 



H. J. Voorhit 
John Warford 
Wellman Warner 



Facsimile of letter significant of the pro-Soviet attitude of the National Religion and Labor Foundation. 
Letterhead contains names of officers, National Committee, etc. 



206 



The Red Network 



Liberties Union crowd at work. Among 
members of the Nat. Save Our Schools 
Committee given out and released to the 
public in December 1928 are the following:" 
Jane Addams, Prof. Wm. C. Bagley and Prof. 
Fred G. Bonsall (both of Teachers Coll. Columbia 
U.); Mrs. Mary C. Barker (then pres. of the 
radical Am. Fed. Tchrs.) ; Selma M. Borchardt; 
Prof. John Bremer of Harvard; Prof. Sterling G. 
Brinkley; A. S. Burrows of Seattle; Prof. Chas. 
Cooley (U. of Mich.); Prof. Geo. S. Counts; 
Prof. Wm. N. Connor; Mrs. Edw. P. Costigan; 
Mrs. Minnie Fisher Cunningham (New Waverly, 
Tex.); Jerome Davis; Edw. T. Devine; John 
Dewey; Paul H. Douglas; Prof. Edw. M. Earle 
(Columbia U.) ; Prof. Felix Frankfurter of Har- 
vard; Wm. Floyd (editor of the radical "Arbi- 
trator"); Eliz. Gilman; Mrs. J. Borden Harriman; 
Prof. Jos. K. Hart (U. of Wis.); Prof. Wm. E. 
Hocking of Harvard; Richard W. Hogue; Dean 
Chas. W. Hunt (Sch. of Edu., Cleveland); Jesse 
H. Holmes of Swarthmore; Mercer Green John- 
son; Wm. H. Johnston ("former president of the 
Machinists' Union A.F. of L. and the man who 
stood in with the communist Otto Wangerin in 
trying to get up the 16 railroad brotherhoods"); 
Francis Fisher Kane; Edward Keating (editor of 
the radical paper "Labor"); Prof. Wm. Kilpatrick 
(Columbia U.); Prof. Wm. S. Knickerbocker 
(Univ. of the South, Sewanee) ; Mrs. Laura Under- 
bill Kohn; John A. Lapp; Abraham Lefkowitz 
("dropped as a teacher in the N.Y. schools for 
his unpatriotic and untruthful utterances"); 
Henry R. Linville; Prc.". Robt. Morss Loyett; 
Miss Amy Maher of Toledo; Basil Manly; Bishop 
Francis J. McConnell; Eliz. R. McCormick 
(Howe School, Superior, Wis.); Prof. Alex. 
Meikeljohn (U. of Wis.); Chas. Clayton Morrison; 
Prof. Josiah Morse (U. of S. Carolina); Prof. 
John R. Neal ("Ncal Institute of Law and after- 
wards attorney for communists under the I.L.D. 
and A.C.L.U., who testified before the Fish Com- 
mittee that exposed some of these people"); John 
J. Noonan; Prof. Herman Oiiphant (Columbia 
U.); Prof. Ralph D. Owen (Temple U., Phila.) ; 
Evelyn Preston; Prof. John Herman Randall, Jr. 
(Columbia U.); W. T. Rawleigh (pres. of own 
company, Freeport, 111.) ; Miss Florence Rood of 
St. Paul; Edw. A. Ross (U. of Wis.); Father 
John A. Ryan; Jos. H. Saunders (Supt. of 
Schools, Newport News, Va.) ; E. Schwartztrauber 
of Portland, Ore.; Prof. Edw. L. Sisson (Reed 
Coll., Portland, Ore.); Harry A. Slattery; Dr. 
Henry Lester Smith (U. of Indiana); Dr. Fred- 
erick Starr of Seattle; Prof. Alva W. Taylor 
(Vanderbilt U., Nashville) ; Dr. M. Carey Thomas 
(former pres. Bryn Mawr Coll.) ; Huston Thomp- 
son (former radical member of Federal Trade 
Commission); Oswald Garrison Villard; Frank P. 
Walsh; Henry A. Wallace (now Secretary of 
Agriculture); Wm. Allen White; Prof. Tyrell 
Williams (Law Sch., Washington U., St. Louis); 
Caroline S. Woodworth (prin. State Normal Sch., 
Castleton, Vt.) ; Mary E. Woolley. 

NATIONAL STUDENT LEAGUE 

(AND STUDENT REVIEW) 
N.S. Lg. 

Communist High School and College stu- 
dent organization which, after getting 
under way early in 1932, spread like wild- 
fire into about 150 schools and colleges, 
giving the L.I.D. strenuous competition; 
but like Communist and Socialist rival 
organizations everywhere these two co- 



operate in riot demonstrations, picketing, 
red student tours to agitate Kentucky 
miners, Mooney and Scottsboro agitations, 
red Hunger Marches, demonstrations in 
front of the Japanese consulates in Chicago 
and elsewhere "for the defense of the Chin- 
ese Soviets," in the Student World Con- 
gress Against War organized by the N.S. 
Lg., held at the U. of Chgo., etc., etc.; 
N.S. Lg. Students have been arrested in 
many places. Prof Donald Henderson, an 
organizer and its nat. exec, sec., when 
ousted from Columbia U., was tendered 
a riotous protest demonstration at which 
Rivera, Mexican Communist artist of 
Rockefeller "Radio City" fame, harangued 
the students. Henderson's wife, a Commu- 
nist candidate, was arrested in a Negro red 
riot. The U. of Chgo. branch in 1933 pub- 
lished a paper called "Upsurge" at 1373 
E. 57th St., near a Communist Party 
center located at 1505 Cable Court. U. of 
C. Profs. Robt. Morss Lovett and Fred L. 
Schuman are N.S. Lg. leaders (see "Who's 
Who") and the N.S. Lg. is a recognized 
U. of Chgo. student activity, defended by 
Pres. Hutchins (at Springfield Hearing May 
1933) on the basis that Communism is 
allowed on the ballot of the State of 111.; 
large N.S. Lg. mass meetings with Commu- 
nist speakers and the N.S. Lg. Student 
Congress (see) are held in U. of Chgo. 
bldgs. The U. of Illinois branch, while 
not so powerful, has acquired a radical 
book shop, conducts forums, etc., the May 
14, 1933, meeting being addressed at 109 
Lincoln Hall by Jack Sher of the Commu- 
nist I.L.D. The N.S. Lg. takes credit for 
strikes and demonstrations of thousands 
of Chicago school children; supported by 
the A.C.L.U., it fights any suppression of 
"academic freedom" for revolutionary 
Reds. 

Its Anti War Committees have been 
formed in Crane Junior College, North- 
western U. (led by James M. Yard), and 
many other schools. The Northwestern 
branch shows Soviet movies and meets in 
Rev. Mondale's Unitarian Church, Mon- 
dale being on the nat. com. (see Intl., Am. 
and Chgo. Corns, for Struggle Against 
War). 

The official organ is the "Student 
Review"; the staff and contributors are 
part of the Revolutionary Writers Fed- 
eration; it agitates the whole revolutionary 
Communist program. Hdqts. 13 W. 17th 
St., N.Y.C. 

Editorial bd.: Harry Magdoff, Herschel Prav- 
dan, Nathaniel Weyl, Robt. Eastfield, Muriel 
Rukeyer, Mgr. Paul D. Lazare, and Ralph Click. 



Organizations, Etc. 



207 



Contrib. Editors: Sherwood Anderson; Jos. Budish 
(City Coll.); Gabriel Carritt (Oxford U.) ; Elliot 
Cohen; H. W. L. Dana; John Dos Passos; Theo. 
Draper (Brooklyn Coll.); Waldo Frank; Jos. 
Freeman; Leonard Cans (Wis. U.) ; Carl Geiser 
(Tenn. and Nash. Junior Colleges) ; A. Girschick 
(U.S.S.R. Correspondent); Michael Gold; Donald 
Henderson; Arthur S. Johnson (Wis. U.) ; Herbert 
Solow; Herbert Spence (Harvard U.) ; Edmund 
Stevens (Columbia U.) ; Geo. Perazick (U. of 
Cal.); Louise Preece (U. of Texas); James Rorty; 
Stanley Ryerson (Canadian correspondent). 

In the Daily Worker, Sept. 28, 1932, a 
call was issued by the New Masses group 
begging financial support for the commu- 
nist National Student League and praising 
its efforts. Signers of this call were 
listed as: 

Sherwood Anderson, Newton Arvin, Roger Bald- 
win, Malcolm Cowley, H. W. L. Dana, Mark 
Van Doren, Theodore Dreiser, Max Eastman, 
Waldo Frank, Michael Gold, Oakley Johnson, 
Corliss Lamont, Scott Nearing, and John Dos 
Passos. 

Contributions were directed to be sent to 
Nathan Solomon, treas. of the N.S. Lg., 
13 W. 17th St., N.Y. City; hdqts. now 
114 W. 14th St., N.Y. City. 

NATIONAL TEXTILE 

WORKERS UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. Union; hdqts. M. 
Russak, 1755 Westminister St., Providence, 
R.I. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE 
UNION LEAGUE 

Nat. Worn. Tr. Un. Lg. 

An ultra radical A.F. of L. affiliate to 
which Mrs. F. D. Roosevelt announced 
that she donated her radio earnings and 
of which (according to a press report) she 
said she had been a member "for years." 
It is listed in the Lusk Report as "a Social- 
ist organization favoring pacifism." 

Whitney's "Reds in America" (p. 177) 
states that "In a document found at 
Bridgman at the time (1922) of the raid 
of the illegal convention of Communists 
was one on 'Work Among Women' in 
which it is set forth that: The interest 
of the working class demands the recruit- 
ing of women into the ranks of the pro- 
letariat fighting for communism.'" (Four 
categories of work were then defined.) 
" 'The Woman's Trade Union League is at 
present jogging along. With the introduc- 
tion of new blood it could be made a 
powerful weapon.' " 

At any rate, the official reports of the 
Garland Fund, which I have, show that 
Communists Wm. Z. Foster, Scott Nearing, 
Benj. Gitlow (the first American Commu- 
nist arrested during the war), Robt. W. 



Dunn ; Eliz. Gurley Flynn (I.W.W .-Com- 
munist) and their fellow Fund directors 
(Norman Thomas, Harry Ward, Sidney 
Hillman, etc.) voted as a Board to donate 
to the "National Women's Trade Union 
League, Chicago, 111. April 11, 1923 for 
general budget for 1923, with special refer- 
ence to training workers in the trade union 
movement, $2,500"; and (Report for year 
ending June 30, 1926) to the "National 
Women's Trade Union League, Chicago, 
HI., $1,147.33" and to the "New York 
Women's Trade Union League, New York 
City for salary of an organizer, $2,500"; 
and (Report for year ending June 30, 1927) 
to the "National Women's Trade Union 
League, Chicago for educational work 
conditioned on raising an equal amount 
from trade union sources, $629." A nota- 
tion also of $913 paid on conditional 
appropriations is listed on p. 8 of the 
1924-5 report. 

According to Whitney's "Reds in Amer- 
ica," Mrs. Raymond Robins and Agnes 
Nestor, its executives, sponsored a parade 
for the release of "Big Bill" Haywood (who 
afterwards escaped to Russia), referred 
to by the Chicago Tribune at the time 
as an "anarchist parade." Its president, 
Rose Schneidermann (now a Roosevelt 
appointee to the NRA Labor Board) has 
resented, it is said, the nickname given her 
of "the Red Rose of Anarchy." She has a 
long record for radicalism. 

According to the Am. Labor Year Book 
1932, the Women's Trade Union League 
was aided by the Young People's Socialist 
League during the year; "The local units 
aided as usual in organization and strike 
activities"; conferences in Greensboro, 
N.C., Waukegan, 111., Mt. Kisco, N.Y., on 
"Labor's Stake in Economic Planning" 
"included students and faculty members of 
colleges and high schools, government offi- 
cials, social workers, members of unions, 
industrial workers, agricultural interests,, 
housewives," etc. ; the officers and executive 
board are: 

Mrs. Raymond Robins, hon. pres.; Rose 
Schneiderman, pres.; Mathilda Lindsay, vice pres.; 
Eliz. Christman, sec. -treas. ; Mary E. Dreier 
(sister of Mrs. Robins), Mary V. Halas, Irma 
Hochstein, Agnes Nestor, Ethel M. Smith, and 
Maud Schwartz. 

The Progressive Labor World, Sept. 17, 
1931 in an article headed "A Million 
Women Demand Arms Cuts" stated: "The 
Women's Trade Union League of N.Y. has 
started a campaign to get the signatures 
of at least 10,000 women on a petition 
for 'bold reduction of every variety of 



208 



The Red Network 



armament.' . . . The country-wide move- 
ment is under the auspices of the National 
Committee for the Cause and Cure of War 
which is headed by Carrie Chapman Catt. 
The Women's Trade Union League, an 
organization devoted to the interests of 
working women, has in its membership 
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Mrs. Otto H. 
Kahn, Mrs. Ruth Baker Pratt, Mrs. Gerard 
Swope, Mrs. James Lees Laidlaw, Mrs. 
Frank Day Tuttle, Miss Lillian D. Wald, 
Mrs. Dwight W. Morrow, Mrs. Thos. W. 
Lamont, Mrs. Daniel O'Day, and other 
leaders who will aid in the circulation of 
the petition." 

NATURE FRIENDS (NUDISTS) 

Communist subsidiary; affiliated with 
communist Labor Sports Union; "organized in 21 
countries with a world membership of 170,000 and 
400 camps. The organization was founded in Vienna 
(1895) as a hiking club, but it has now widened its 
scope of activity to include workers' education and 
country camps. Most of the branches have music, 
photo and junior sections ... in the United 
States it has IS branches" (Am. Labor Year Book), 
with units in New York City, Brooklyn, Syracuse, 
Rochester, Newark, N.J., Paterson, Jersey City, 
Philadelphia, Allentown, Chicago, Milwaukee, De- 
troit, St. Louis, San Francisco, Oakland, Los An- 
geles, Cal., with camps at Midvale, N.J., Elka Park 
Greene Co., N.Y., Boyerstown, Pa., Long Pond 
Road, Lima, N.Y., Crisman, Ind., Mill Valley, Cal., 
etc. Hdqts. N.E. District: 43 E. 84th St., N.Y.; 
Hdqts. West Coast: 143 Albion St., San Francisco. 

NEEDLE TRADES WORKERS 

INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union; its fur sec- 
tion alone claims 11,400 members; leader 
of strikes in Chicago, N.Y. City, Bridge- 
port, Conn., Gloversville, N.Y., etc., in 
Sept. 1933; hdqts., Ben Gold, 131 W. 28th 
St., N.Y. City. 

NEW DANCE GROUP 
Communist; organized in N.Y.C., Feb. 
26, 1932 ; "have worked hard at a reper- 
toire of revolutionary dances and are now 
planning to present a whole program of 
them on their first anniversary at the 
Hecksher Theatre, N.Y.C., Sunday, Mar. 
12, 1933. . . . Membership includes about 
300 comrades They have large sections of 
workers who meet to dance and talk every 
evening." ("Workers Theatre," Mar. 1933.) 

NEW FRONTIER 

Organ of Chicago Workers Committee 
on Unemployment (see). 

NEW LEADER 

Official Socialist Party organ. 

NEW MASSES 

A very revolutionary Communist month- 
ly magazine owned and operated by the 



Garland Fund (American Fund for Pub- 
lic Service) directors of which (1933) are: 
Roger Baldwin, Robt. W. Dunn, Morris 
L. Ernst, Lewis S. Gannett, Benj. Gitlow, 
Clinton S. Golden, James Weldon John- 
son, Freda Kirchwey, Clarina Michelson, 
and Norman Thomas. It started in 1910 
as "The Masses," changed name to "New 
Masses," 1926; the Sept. 1931 issue an- 
nounced: "After Sept. 3 the New Masses 
will be located at 63 West 15th Street, New 
York City. We leave a historic location, 
since our old address was also the address 
of the old Masses as far back as 1911. We 
go now to what we believe will be another 
historic location; the first American Revo- 
lutionary Center, in which we join hands 
with the John Reed Club of New York 
(with an Art gallery and Art School) and 
the new Workers Cultural Federation. We 
invite our readers to visit us at our new 
headquarters." 

Editorial bd.: Robert Evans, Whittaker Cham- 
bers, Hugo Gellert, Michael Gold, Louis Lozowick, 
Moissaye J. Olgin; contributors: Phil Bard, Emjo 
Basshe, Jacob Burck, Whittaker Chambers, Robert 
Cruden, Jack Conroy, Adolph Dehn, Robert Dunn, 
John Dos Passos, Kenneth Fearing. Ed. Falkowski, 
Hugo Gellert, Eugene Gordon, Horace Gregory, 
Wm. Cropper, Chas. Yale Harrison, Wm. Hernan- 
dez, Langston Hughes, Jos. Kalar, I. Klein, Mel- 
vin P. Levy, Louis Lozowick, H. H. Lewis, Nor- 
man Macleod, A. B. Magil, Scott Nearing, Myra 
Page, Harry Alan Potamkin, Paul Peters, Walter 
Quirt, Louis Ribak, Anna Rochester, E. Merrill 
Root, James Rorty, Martin Russak, Esther She- 
mitz, Wm. Siegel, Upton Sinclair, Agnes Smedley, 
Otto Soglow, Herman Spector, Bennett Stevens, 
Joseph Vogel, Mary H. Vorse, Keene Wallis, Jim 
Waters, Art Young. 

Becomes a weekly with an increased staff 
1934. 

"NEW REPUBLIC" 

Weekly magazine; "advocate of revolu- 
tionary socialism" (Lusk Report) ; pres. 
Bruce Bliven; editors: Bruce Bliven, Mal- 
colm Cowley, R. M. Lovett, Stark, Young; 
contrib. eds.: H. N. Brailsford, John 
Dewey, John T. Flynn, Waldo Frank, E. 
C. Lindeman, Lewis Mumford, Gilbert 
Seldes, Rex. G. Tugwell, and Leo Wolman ; 
421 W. 21st St., N.Y.C. 

NEW SCHOOL FOR 
SOCIAL RESEARCH 
Was "established by men who belong to 
the ranks of near-Bolshevik Intelligentsia, 
some of them being too radical in their 
views to remain on the faculty of Columbia 
U." (Lusk Report p. 1121); research insti- 
tution fostering communistic-socialistic 
doctrines; instructors for 1932: Commu- 
nist Moissaye J. Olgin, Sidney Hook, Hor- 
ace M. Kallen, Harry Elmer Barnes, Mrs. 
Henry Goddard Leach (Agnes Brown 



Organizations, Etc. 



209 



Leach), Harry A. Overstreet, Leo Wolman 
and Henry Cowell; 66 W. 12th St., N.Y. 
City. 

NEW WORKERS SCHOOL 
Of the Communist Party (Opposition) ; 
1933 was being decorated by artist Diego 
Rivera; faculty includes: Benj. Gitlow, Jay 
Lovestone, Will Herzberg, Herbert Zam, 
Bertram Wolfe (director). Am. Lab. Year 
Book states it reported 410 students for 
1931-2 and "arranged debates between 
Bertrand Russell and Jay Lovestone on 
'Proletarian Dictatorship' and between Rev. 
Edmund B. Chaffee and Bertram Wolfe on 
'Religion and Labor'"; organized 1929. 
Hdqts. 51 West 14th St., N.Y.C. (were 228 
Second Ave.) ; branches in Philadelphia, 
Paterson, Passaic, etc. 

NEW YORK SUITCASE THEATRE 

Communist; organized by Workers Cul- 
tural Federation in 1931 at 63 W. 15th St., 
"to create a group of proficient actors who 
will travel with a minimum equipment and 
a repertory of working-class plays to be 
given before labor organizations"; its 
directors are Paul Peters, Whittaker Cham- 
bers, Langston Hughes and Jacob Burck. 

NON-INTERVENTION CITIZENS 

COMMITTEE 

Said Marvin (Daily Data Sheets 28-4 
and 5, March 9, 1927): "The 'center' 
organization in the city of New York 
engaged in propaganda against the United 
States and in favor of the Socialist-Com- 
munist scheme to Sovietize Mexico and 
all Central American States is easily 
located in what is called the Non-inter- 
vention Citizens Committee. Through the 
members of this committee the work rami- 
fies into more than one hundred organ- 
izations some of them openly Socialistic 
and Communistic, while others are legiti- 
mate enough but appear to be in the 
hands of clever Adepts. . . . Those domi- 
nating and controlling as will be shown 
are Socialists or Communists. As such they 
believe our entire system is wrong and 
should be destroyed. They hold to the 
theory that any form of nationalism backed 
up by any form of patriotism should be 
destroyed. . . . The inspiration for this 
organization came from Moscow, via 
Mexico. Its object is to aid Moscow in 
Mexico. Because of its nature and pur- 
poses one is forced to ask the question: 
Who is doing the financing for the nation- 
wide propaganda scheme now being car- 
ried on in the interests of Mexico and its 



Socialist-Communist controlled bodies and 
against the foreign policies of the United 
States? ... In the center or 'controlling 
group' of the Non-intervention Citizens 
Committee we place the following: Jos. 
Schlossberg, B. C. Vladeck, Max Zucker- 
man, Rose Schneidermann, Stephen S. 
Wise, A. I. Shiplacoff, Oswald Garrison 
Villard, Fannia May Cohn, Lillian Wald, 
Morris Hillquit, A. J. Muste, A. Castro, 
Robt. Dunn, Louis Budenz, L. Hollings- 
worth Wood, August Claessens, Norman 
Thomas, John Nevin Sayre, Max Danish, 
S. E. Beardsley, J. Lieberman, John 
Haynes Holmes, Abraham Beckerman, 
Morris Ernst, J. M. Budish, Paul U. Kel- 
logg. Here we have the dominating con- 
trolling and directing forces 26 out of the 
total of 75 names presented as making up 
the entire Nat. Citizens Committee. 

"While we have not placed them as a 
part of the 'real center' of the Non-inter- 
vention Citizens Committee there are a 
number on the general committee who are 
exceptionally active in working with one 
or more of the organizations . . . guided 
... by the true 'center.' We will not go 
into the connections of the others except 
to say that all have been more or less con- 
nected unto the pacifist movement in the 
United States" (Data Sheet 28-8). 

Chmn., John Howard Melish; sec., Eleanor 
Brannon (N.Y. sec. W.I.L.P.F.); exec, com.: Fan- 
nia May Cohn (Intl. Ladies Garm. Wkrs. Un); 
Paul U. Kellogg (ed. Survey); Miss Gordon Nor- 
ries (N.Y. Council for Intl. Cooperation to Pre- 
vent War) ; Mrs. Egerton Parsons (Am. Assn. 
Univ. Women); John Nevin Sayre (sec. Fell. 
Recon.) ; Norman Thomas (exec. sec. L.I.D., 
Socialist leader). Members: Ruth Morgan (Lg. 
W9men Voters); Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt 
(vice chmn., N.Y. Womens Democratic State 
Committee); Lillian D. Wald (head of Henry St. 
Settlement, etc.); Mrs. Francis O. Affeld, Jr. 
(Am. Assn. Univ. Women); Mrs. Chas. Niel 
Edge; Mrs. Chas. R. Henderson; Mrs. Frank D. 
Tuttle; Mrs. F. Louis Slade of the Y.W.C.A.; 
Mrs. John Lewis Childs (chmn. Com. on Latin 
Relations of N.Y. State Fed. Womens Clubs); 
Mrs. John Ferguson (pres. Council of Women for 
Home Missions); Mrs. E. H. Silverthorn 
(Womens Board of Foreign Missions) ; Evelyn 
Preston: Mrs. Harriet B. Laidlaw; "Professors": 
James T. Shotwell, Edw. M. Earle, Le Roy Bow- 
man (all of Columbia Univ.); "Business men": 
Raymond Fosdick, Harold A. Hatch, L. Hollings- 
worth Wood, George La Monte, Geo. Foster Pea- 
body, Morris Ernst, Gould Harold; "Labor 
Leaders": Jos. Schlossberg, Adolph Held, B. C. 
Vladeck, A. J. Muste, S. E. Beardsley, Max 
Zuckerman, A. Castro, J. Liebermann, Morris Hill- 
quit, Max Danish, August Claessens, Abraham 
Beckerman, A. I. Shiplacoff, J. M. Budish, Rose 
Schneidermann: "Writers": Kirby Page, Wm. 
Floyd, Rev. Halford E. Luccock, Rev. Isaac Land- 
man, Guy Emery Shipler, Fleming H. Revell, 
Robt. W. Dunn, Edward Levinson, S. A. Dewitt. 
Margaret Shipman. Oswald Garrison Villard, Louis 
Budenz: "Clergy": Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin 
(pres. Union Theol. Sem.), Samuel M. Cavert 



210 



The Red Network 



(gen. sec. Fed. Coun. Chs.), S. Parkes Cadman 
(pres. Fed. Coun. Chs.), Samuel Guy Inman (of 
Nat Citiz. Com. on Relations with Latin Am.), 
Karl Reiland, Ralph W. Sockman, W. Russell 
Bowie, John Haynes Holmes, John H. Lathrop, 
Rabbi Alexander Lyons, John W. Langdale, A. 
Lane Miller, S. M. Shoemaker, Henry Evertson 
Cobb, T. Guthrie Speers, Finis S. Idleman, W. T. 
Crocker, Minot Simons (pastor All Souls Unitarian 
Ch.), Felix Adler (pres. Ethical Culture Society), 
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise. 

NON-PARTISAN COMMITTEE 

FOR LILLIAN HERSTEIN 
Formed to aid the campaign of Lillian 
Herstein (See "Who's Who") as candidate 
in the 1932 election on the Farmer-Labor 
(Socialist) ticket. According to a letter to 
the Chicago Evening Post of Sept. 15, 
1932 by Prof. Arthur E. Holt, 7800 sig- 
natures were obtained on a petition to 
have Lillian Herstein 's name placed on the 
ballot and among the so-called "Civic 
Leaders" supporting her candidacy named 
by Holt were: 

Anton J. Carlson (U. of C.); Edith Abbot, 
Sophonisba Breckenridge, Rev. W. R. Boddy, 
Mollie Ray Carroll, Dr. H. W. Cheney, Mr. and 
Mrs. Paul Douglas, Mrs. James A. Field. Mr. 
and Mrs. A. L. Foster, Mrs. Chas. W. Gilkey, 
Harry D. Gideonse, Anton Johannsen. A. Eustace 
Haydon, Rev. Douglas Horton, Rev. Blaine Kirk- 
patrick, Dr. John A. Lapp, Mary McDowell, 
Dr. Louis L. Mann. H. A. Millis, James Mullen- 
bach, Letitia R. Myles, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. 
Roberts, S. D. Schwartz. Lorado Taft (father-in- 
law of Paul Douglas) and Rev. Norris L. Tibbetts. 

NON-PARTISAN LEAGUE 

"This was purely a Socialist movement, 
organized, directed and dominated, at all 
times, by those who had been prominent 
in the Socialist Party" (Marvin Data 
Sheet 81-27). 



OFFICE WORKERS UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union; hdqts. 799 
Broadway, N.Y. City; its official organ 
"Office Worker" announced (Feb. 1933 
issue): "O.W.U. meets every 2nd and 4th 
Thurs., 7 P.M., at Labor Temple, 14th 
St. and 2nd Ave., N.Y.C." (of Presbyterian 
Church). A Chicago branch was formed 
in the Kimball Bldg., Room 1430, on Aug. 
18, 1933. Clyde Jenkins (alias Wade D. 
Rogers) the Chgo. exec. sec. has been 
arrested and his membership records 
seized by the police, 1934. 

OPEN ROAD 

Affiliate of communist Intourist (Soviet 
Govt. travel agency) and V.O.K.S. (see 
A.S.C.R.R., its Communist - subsidiary 
American branch) ; a propaganda travel 
bureau "primarily concerned with what 



happens to the traveler emotionally and 
intellectually . . . the first travel bureau to 
establish independent representation in the 
Soviet Union and has been the only one 
to maintain it constantly since," says its 
1933 booklet; organizes summer schools 
abroad for American university students; 
arranges for travelers to meet the "right" 
Soviet representatives; I.S.H.A. or Inter- 
national Student Hospitality Association is 
its European collaborator; Carleton Wash- 
burne's praise of its I.S.H.A. guides, and 
Elmer Rice's and Louis Fischer's endorse- 
ment of its Russian service are printed in 
the 1933 booklet, which lists as its "Amer- 
ican Advisory Committee": 

Wm. Allan Neilson, chmn. (pres of A.S.C.R.R., 
the Communist-subsidiary, and of Smith College) ; 
Stephen P. Duggan and John Dewey (A.S.C.R.R. 
officers); Mary E. Woolley (pres. Mt. Holyoke 
Coll.); Glenn Frank (pres. U. of Wis.); Arthur E. 
Morgan (pres. Antioch Coll., Yellow Springs, O., 
birthplace of Lg. for Org. of Progress) ; Aurelia 
H. Reinhardt (pres. Mills Coll.); Henry Noble 
MacCracken (pres. Vassar Coll.); Ada L. Corn- 
stock (pres. Radcliffe Coll.); Lotus D. Coffmann 
(pres. U. of Minn.) ; Donald T. Cowling (pres. 
Carleton Coll., Minn, and member of 1928 delg. 
to Russia) ; Livingstone Farrand (pres. Cornell 
Coll.); Harry A. Garfield (pres. Williams Coll.); 
Meta Glass (pres. Sweet Briar Coll.); Hamilton 
Holt (pres. Rollins Coll., pacifist); Kerr D. Mac- 
millan (pres. Wells Coll., N.Y.); Marion Edwards 
Park (pres. Bryn Mawr Coll.); Ellen F. Pendel- 
ton (pres. Wellesley Coll.) ; David Allan Robert- 
son (pres. Goucher Coll.); Ray Lyman Wilbur; 
Harry D. Gideonse; etc. Eliot Pratt (A.C.L.U.) 
and Frederic V. Field (bd. dir. L.I.D., etc.) are 
members of the board of directors. 

Among 1933 "Open Road" Russian tour 
conductors were: 

Karl Borders; Colston E. Warne for L.I.D. 
tour (Amherst Coll. prof.); Lucy Textor (Vassar 
prof, and member John Dewey's 1928 delegation) ; 
Lord Marley of the red Ind. Lab. Party, who 
was barred from Japan; Edith Osbourne, W.I.L. 
P.F. tour; Maxwell Stewart, Foreign Policy Assn. 
economist, and his wife, "both former residents 
in Russia as teachers at Moscow Institute"; John 
Rothschild, director of Open Road; etc., etc. 

Hdqts. 56 W. 45th St., N.Y. City. 



PACKING HOUSE WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

Communist T.U.U.L. union; M. Karson, 
Communist organizer at St. Paul and 
Mpls., reports, for example, that there are 
now 850 packing house workers organized 
in it there and that an independent union 
has been organized at Austin, Minn., by 
the Communists. 

PAINTERS INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 



Organizations, Etc. 



211 



PAN PACIFIC TRADE UNION 
SECRETARIAT 

Oriental counterpart of the American 
Communist T.U.U.L.; for the organization 
and spread of Communist labor groups in 
the Orient; Hdqts. Shanghai, China. When 
Walter Noullens Ruegg, its sec., was 
arrested by the Chinese Govt. in 1932 
charged with sedition, "a sharp protest 
was made by hundreds of Socialists and 
Liberals, including Prof. Albert Einstein 
and Senator Borah. . . . Shortly before the 
arrest, the Pan Pacific Trade Union Secre- 
tariat had issued denunciations of French 
rule in Indo-China and American imperial- 
ism in the Philippines" (Am. Lab. Year 
Book 1932). 

"Organization Conference With the backing of 
the trade union federations of New South Wales, 
China, France, and the Soviet Union, all affiliated 
with the Red International of Labor Unions, and 
the minority left wing movements in the United 
States, Great Britain, Java, Japan, Korea, and 
elsewhere, . a conference was held in Hankow, 
China, May 19-26, 1927, and the Pan Pacific Trade 
Union Secretariat was established. An executive 
meeting followed in Shanghai, in February, 1928. 
Due to the refusal of Prime Minister Bruce to 
permit the meeting to be held in Australia, the 
next conference will take place in Vladivostok, 
Russia, starting August 1, 1929. After a sharp 
debate, the Australian trade union council voted 
at its last convention to continue affiliation. 

"At the first organization conference in Hankow 
resolutions were adopted to maintain a struggle 
against the dangers of war in the Pacific, to 
oppose the imperialists in China, to demand self- 
determination for the peoples of the Pacific, to 
demand the removal of racial and national preju- 
dices, and to promote international trade union 
unity." 

(Am. Lab. Year Book 1929, p. 239.) 

PAPER BAG WORKERS 

INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

PAXTON HIBBEN MEMORIAL 

HOSPITAL FUND 

"To do honor to the Communist Paxton 
Hibben whose remains were taken by the 
Communists to Russia for burial" (Francis 
Ralston Welsh). Photo of Paxton Hibben 
decorating grave of John Reed in Moscow 
appears in Whitney's "Reds in America." 

PEACE PATRIOTS 
Radical A.C.L.U. - controlled "peace" 
society. According to its pamphlet "War 
Resistance" (by Wm. Floyd, its director; 
price 20c), which was distributed at the 
communist Student Congress Against War 
(see), the Peace Patriots' program (to 
quote) : "includes the following activities: 
1. Requesting universal total disarmament 
is the chief aim of the conference to be 



held in Geneva in Feb. 1932. 2. Encourag- 
ing membership in the War Resisters League 
or Fellowship of Reconciliation, repeating 
the request already made to President 
Hoover for recognition of exemptive status 
for their members in the next war. 3. Dis- 
tributing '2 per cent' buttons to symbolize 
Einstein's idea that if 2 per cent of the 
people will not fight, governments will not 
declare war (6 buttons for 25 cents, 100 
for $1.50, 500 for $6.00). There are no 
dues. Office expenses have been provided. 
. . . American men and women may join 
by signing the following declaration Mem- 
bership Declaration of Peace Patriots: 
Since our government has pledged itself 
never to resort to war for the solution of 
international controversies and has agreed 
to settle all disputes by pacific means, we 
express our loyalty to this principle by 
opposing all preparation for war. We con- 
demn military training and conscription 
and demand universal disarmament." 

Ironically enough, after Germany went 
anti-communist and anti-Einstein, Einstein 
urged preparations for war against Ger- 
many (in Patrie Humaine, a newspaper, in 
the form of a letter to Alfred Nahon, Bel- 
gian "war resister," reprinted in Chicago 
Tribune, Sept. 10, 1933), saying: 

"There is in the center of Europe a state, 
Germany, which is publicly preparing for war 
by all means. Tn these conditions the Latin coun- 
tries, above all France and Belgium are in great 
danger and can only count on their preparedness. 
. . . Imagine Belgium occupied by present-day 
Germany! It would undoubtedly be worse than 
1914. . . . That is why I am telling you in the 
most direct fashion that if I were a Belgian / 
would not refuse to do military service under the 
present circumstances, but on the contrary I 
would accept it in full conscience with the feel- 
ing that I was contributing to save European 
civilization. This does not mean I am renouncing 
my former opinion. I desire nothing more than 
to see the moment return when refusal to do 
military service could be the means of an effi- 
cacious fight for the progress of humanity." 

Listed "Peace Patriot Sponsors" are: 

Roger N. Baldwin. Norman B. Barr, Edwin L. 
Clarke, Marguerite W. Clarke, Sarah N. Cleg- 
horn, Mary Ware Dennett, Babette Deutsch, Kate 
Crane Gartz, C. H. Hamlin, Hornel! Hart, Jesse 
H. Holmes, Paul Jones, Alfred Lief, Edwin D. 
Meade, Lucia Ames Meade, Henry Neumann, 
Kirby Page, Orville S. Poland, John Nevin Sayre, 
Vida D. Scudder, Gep. H. Spencer, Sidney Strong 
(father of Communist Anna Louise), Margaret 
Loring Thomas, Goodwin Watson, Eliot White, 
and Wm. Floyd (director). 

Hdqts. 114 East 31st St., N.Y. City. 



PEN AND HAMMER 

Communist clubs; 114 W. 21st St., N.Y. 
City; Detroit Pen & Hammer Forum, 111 
Forest West; etc.; section of Revolutionary 



212 



The Red Network 



Writers Federation; Chicago club meets in 
Kimball Bldg. 

PENNSYLVANIA COMMITTEE 

FOR TOTAL DISARMAMENT 
Pa. Com. for Total Disarm. 

A supporting organization of the com- 
munist-organized U.S. Congress Against 
War; affiliate of the Green International. 
Its letterhead slogan is: "Work for a Con- 
stitutional Amendment to make war and 
preparedness for war illegal for the United 
States." Its letter-questionnaire sent out 
to statesmen, Mar. 21, 1932, questioning 
their position on U.S. national defense 
states that the Pa. Com. for Total Disarm, 
"was formed two years ago to work for 
total world disarmament by example or 
by international agreement." Listed on 
this letterhead are the following: 

Chmn., Wm. I. Hull, Swarthmore; assoc. 
chairman, Wm. Eves, 3rd (George School) ; vice 
chairmen: David W. Amram, Feasterville ; Henry 
J. Cadbury, Haverford; Mrs. Walter Cope, Phila.; 
Rev. Wm. H. Fineshreiber, Phila.; Walter W. 
Haviland, Lansdowne; Leslie P. Hill, Cheyney; 
Jesse H. Holmes, Swarthmore; Darlington Hoopes, 
Reading; Maynard C. Krueger, Phila. (now U. of 
Chgo. Prof.); Mrs. Helen Martin, Harrisburg; 
Rev. Jos. Paul Morres, Ardmore; Vincent D. 
Nicholson, Phila.; Andrew G. Smith, Pitts.; Agnes 
L. Tierney, Phila.; Nathan P. Walton, New Gar- 
den; legislative chairman: Mary Winsor, Haver- 
ford; sec., Mrs. Stanley Carnell, Phila.; treas., 
Edw. N. Wright, Moylan; exec, sec., Sophia H. 
Dulles, Phila.; Council: John H. Arnett, M.D., 
Phila.; M. Georgina Biddle, Phila.; Andrew J. 
Biemiller, Phila.; E. Lewis Burnham, Berwyn; 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Collins, 3rd, Phila.; 
Helen Crawley, Pitts.; Emily Dawson, Phila.; 
Rev. John M. De Chant, Phila.; Dorothea 
De Schweinitz, Phila.; Herbert W. Fitzroy, Jr., 
Phila.; Alex. Fleisher, Churchville; Mrs. John F. 
Folinsbee, New Hope; Mary K. Gibson, Wynne- 
wood; Jessie Gray, Phila.; Allan G. Harper, Har- 
risburg; Wm. B. Harvey, West Town; Walter W. 
Hyde, Phila.; Mrs. E. E. Kiernan, Phila.; Mrs. 
Philip Kind, Jenkintown; Mrs. Spencer King, 
Pitts.; Rev. Paul S. Leinbach, Phila.; Mr. and 
Mrs. Simon Libros, Cynwyd; Ada F. Liveright, 
Phila.; Eliz. G. Marot, Phila.; Mary T. Mason, 
Phila.; Raymond E. Maxwell, Greensburg; Mrs. 
Mildred S. Olmstead, Moylan; Anna M. W. 
Pennypacker, Phila.; Clarence E. Pickett, Phila.; 
Edw. C. M. Richards, Pottsville; Florence L. 
Sansville, West Town; Arthur Shrigley, Lansdowne; 
Mrs. Samuel A. Shuman, Phila. ; D. Owen Stevens, 
Pitts.; C. Seymour Thompson, Morton; Geo. L. 
Townsend, Pitts.; Geo. T. Underwood, Clearfield; 
Ernest N. Votaw, Media; J. Barnard Walton, 
Swarthmore; Rev. Ben F. Wilson, Erie; Chas. E. 
Wright, Dusquesne; Mrs. Sue C. Yerkes, 
Lansdowne. 

PEOPLE'S COLLEGE 
The "Yours for the Revolution" college 
in which Carl D. Thompson of the Public 
Ownership League of America played an 
active part. Six Socialists associated with 
him in this venture became affiliated with 
the Non-Partisan League (Geo. D. Brewer, 



Marion Wharton, Kate Richards O'Hare, 
Chas. Edw. Russell, John M. Work, 
Arthur Le Sueur) . "The Peoples College- 
Fort Scott, Kansas, J. I. Sheppard, Presi- 
dent Eugene V. Debs, Chancellor Arthur 
Le Sueur, Vice President 'To remain 
ignorant is to remain a slave' " was printed 
on the letterhead of a letter dated Jan. 12, 
1916, addressed to Timothy Woodham, 
Fairdale, No. Dakota, which said: 

"Dear Comrade: Answering yours of the 7th 
instant will say that we will hold all lessons and 
material until we hear from you again with another 
address. You are making first class work with 
the law study, and if you have the nerve to stick 
through with it I feel that you will strike many 
a valiant blow to the damned old capitalist system 
that makes it necessary for a man to worry about 
becoming unvagranted. At any rate, Comrade, 
you can rest assured now and for all time, that 
we are Yours for the Revolution, (signed) 
Arthur L. Le Sueur, Vice President." 

The International Socialist Review, May 
191 S, advertising it, said: 

/'Study law in your own school and save money. 
We offer all that the capitalist schools offer you 
and something else they canot give. . . . Remember 
the Peoples College is the only school in the 
world owned and controlled by the working class. 
. . . On its controlling board are Caroline A. 
Lowe, George D. Brewer, Charles P. Stein- 
metz, Duncan P. McDonald, George Allen Eng- 
land, George R. Kirkpatrick, J. Stitt Wilson, John 
M. Work, Marion Wharton, Carl D. Thompson." 

PEOPLE'S COUNCIL OF AMERICA 
People's Coun. 

According to its own literature and the 
Lusk Report, it was " 'modeled after the 
Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Coun- 
cils, the sovereign power of Russia today,' " 
whose "Proclamation to the People of the 
Whole World" appealing for Red revolution 
everywhere and saying "Proletarians of 
all countries unite! . . . Long live the 
international solidarity of the proletariat 
and its struggle for final victory" signed 
by the "Petrograd Council of Workers and 
Soldiers Deputies" was reprinted and 
widely distributed in the People's Council 
Bulletin of Aug. 17, 1917 with the note: 
"The original copy of this bulletin was 
smuggled over to this country." The Lusk 
Report says: "We have in Lochner's run- 
ning footnotes in the People's Council 
Bulletin of Aug. 7, 1917 'proof of the 
altogether socialistic cooperation of these 
People's Councillors as well as a forecast 
of the Bolshevist revolution of Nov. 
1917'"; a telegram sent March 3, 1918, 
signed by Lochner, Scott Nearing and 
James Maurer, to the "People's Commis- 
sars at Petrograd" said: "People's Coun- 
cil of America for democratic peace repre- 
senting 300 radical groups in 42 states has 
consistently stood for Russian formula of 



Organizations, Etc. 



213 



no annexations, no indemnities, and self 
determination. We urge you to make no 
other terms." 

"By 1917," says the Lusk Report, "the 
old peace strategy having worn rather 
thin, Lochner and his followers came more 
and more into the open with their revo- 
lutionary Socialism." People's Councils 
were formed all over the U.S. aided openly 
by the committee (Lola M. Lloyd, Carl 
Haessler, etc.), and quietly through pri- 
vate cooperation by Jane Addams (who 
recommended Norman Thomas, Rabbi 
Magnus for certain posts, etc.), and with 
Max Eastman, James H. Maurer, I.W.W.'s, 
and other radical speakers, holding mass 
meetings extensively, at which the Russian 
system was extolled and the American 
denounced. The U.S. was then at war. It 
is no wonder that Roger Baldwin became 
a little uneasy and advised typical Red 
camouflage in his letter of Aug. 21, 1917 
to Lochner, saying: "1. Do steer away 
from making it look like a Socialist enter- 
prise. Too many people have already got- 
ten the idea that it is nine-tenths a Social- 
ist movement. 2. Do get into the move- 
ment just as strong as possible the leaders 
in labor circles . . . not the radical Social- 
ists. . . . Also bring to the front the 
farmers. ... 3. I think it is an error to 
get the public thinking we are launching 
a political party at Minneapolis. To be 
sure we are launching a political move- 
ment but that is quite another matter from 
a political point. It is a mistake already 
to have tied up with the name of Mr. 
LaFollette fine as he is. ... 4. We want 
to look like patriots in everything we do. 
We want to get a lot of good flags, talk 
a good deal about the Constitution and 
what our forefathers wanted to make of 
this country, and to show we are the folks 
that really stand for the spirit of our 
institutions." Lochner, answering (Aug. 24, 
1917), agreed to all four points even to "I 
agree with you that we should keep pro- 
claiming our loyalty and patriotism. I will 
see to it we have flags and similar para- 
phernalia." 

When it was expected that anarchists 
Emma Goldman and Alex Berkman would 
be elected to the Council's Assembly (Mor- 
ris Hillquit was their attorney), Lochner, 
from Minneapolis hdqts., wrote the Peo- 
ple's Council's N.Y. hdqts.: "As for Berk- 
man and Goldman, I do hope they will 
not be elected. Here people are awfully 
stirred up about the I.W.W. ... but if in 
addition we have those two splendid 
fighters for liberty with us that may be 



too big a burden to carry. . . . Personally I 
have only the highest regard for the two." 
However, public opinion arose to such a 
pitch that Gov. Burnquist of Minnesota 
barred the People's Council from holding 
a meeting in that state because, if held, it 
might "result in bloodshed, rioting and loss 
of life" and could "have no other effect 
than that of aiding and abetting the 
enemies of this country." They held a 
convention in Chicago, Sept. 2, 1917, but 
were finally dispersed by order of the 
Gov. of Illinois. 

A "Justice to Russia" bulletin (which I 
have seen) tells of a People's Council mass 
meeting addressed by John Haynes Holmes 
and others which passed the following 
resolution: "This mass meeting of citizens 
assembled in the Madison Square Garden 
this 25th day of May, 1919, congratulates 
the people of Russia upon having thus far 
maintained a successful revolution against 
the powers of reaction in the face of ter- 
rific obstacles interposed from within and 
without and sends greetings of sympathy 
and solidarity to the people of Russia and 
to the Federated Soviet Republics," etc. 
(It demanded: lifting the Russian blocade; 
that troops be recalled; that the American 
Govt. refuse to recognize counter revo- 
lution, etc.). Published by Peoples Print, 
138 W. 13th St., N.Y.C. 

Among names listed on the organizing 
committee of the People's Council we find: 

Emily Greene Balch, Jos. D. Cannon, H. W. L. 
Dana, Eugene V. Debs, Mary Ware Dennett, 
Crystal and Max Eastman, Edmund C. Evans of 
Single Tax Society, P. Geliebter of Workmen's 
Circle, Morris Hillquit, Bishop Paul Jones, Alger- 
non Lee, Rabbi Judah L. Magnes, James H. 
Maurer, Rev. Howard Melish, Scott Nearing, 
James O'Neal, Jacob Panken, Benj. Schlesinger, 
Jos. Schlossberg, Rose Schneidermann, Sidney 
Strong of Seattle, Mrs. Wm. I. Thomas (sec. 
Womens Peace Party, Chgo.), Irwin St. John 
Tucker, John D. Works (former U.S. Sen.), etc., 
etc. Officers: Louis Lochner, exec, sec.; Leila Fay 
Secor, org. sec.; Rebecca Shelley, finan. sec.; Eliz. 
Freeman, legislative; Wm. E. Williams, publicity; 
David Starr Jordan, treas.; etc., etc. 

Jordan was paid by the Council for his 
activities, according to Lusk Report evi- 
dence, which also prints letters he wrote 
to Lochner of his work with "statesmen" in 
Washington, D.C., which he called his 
"Courses of instruction" and "university 
extension for statesmen," naming as his 
"pupils": 

" 'Senators LaFollette, Norris, Johnson, Borah, 
Vardaman, Gronna, Smoot, Curtis, New. Repre- 
sentatives Kitchen, Huddleston, Grosser, Hilliard, 
Dill, Gordon, Little, Rankin, Randall, Dillon, 
Cooper (Wis.), Cooper (W. Va.), Bowers, Cramp- 
ton, Mondell, Frear, Woods (la.), Lundeen, 
La Follette (an excellent man), Sisson, Slayden, 
Ragsdale, Mason, London. . . . ' " 



214 



The Red Network 



PEOPLE'S FREEDOM UNION 
The 1920 successor of the infamous 
People's Council; cooperated with and 
occupied same premises with A.C.L.U. at 
138 W. 13th St., N.Y. City. "The curious 
combination of so-called liberals, educators, 
writers, anarchists and revolutionary so- 
cialists, who bend their energies toward 
controlling public opinion through the 
medium of this association, is revealed by 
the following list of officers of the union 
and the members of the committee which 
is known as the Free Political Prisoners 
Committee. ... it was this organization 
that sponsored a rather melodramatic 
demonstration on Christmas Day, parading 
on Fifth Ave., in N.Y. city, in single file, 
with touching banners, for the purpose of 
arousing sympathy for so-called political 
prisoners." 

"John Lovejoy Elliott, chmn.; Arthur S. Leeds, 
treas. ; Frances Witherspoon, exec. sec. Committee 
Members: Tracy D. Mygatt, sec.; Pauline Cahn, 
Evans Clark, Joe Coffin, Stella Daljord, Lottie 
Fishbein, Anna Fite Peck, M. E. Fitzgerald, Eliz. 
Gurley Flynn, Paul Furnas, Lewis Gannett, 
Gratia Goller, Ruth Gordon, Alfred Hayes, Helen 
Holman, Wilfred Humphries, Virginia Hyde, Harry 
W. Laidier, Gertrude U. Light, Winthrop D. 
Lane, Florence Lattimore, Alice E. Mauran, 
Therese Mayer, Donald McGraw, Leland Olds, 
Ida Rauh, Florence Rauh, Merrill Rogers, Jessica 
Smith, Evan Thomas, Norman Thomas, Pauline 
H. Turkel, Albert Rhys Williams, Jacob and Jules 
Wortsman." (Lusk Report, p. 1110.) 

PEOPLE'S LEGISLATIVE SERVICE 
A radical lobby supplying "facts and 
figures" to radicals in Congress, and pro- 
moting socialistic legislation for national- 
ization of all public utilities; closely 
affiliated with the Public Ownership 
League, National Popular Government 
League, League for Industrial Democracy, 
and Socialist Party; made a special drive 
for socialization of Muscle Shoals and 
Boulder Dam projects; organized Dec. 17, 
1920, under the leadership of Robt. M. 
LaFollette, Socialists Basil Manly and Wm. 
H. Johnston; it called (Feb. 20-22, 1922) 
the Conference for Progressive Political 
Action (see) to "steal" party nominations 
and elections for radical candidates; Basil 
Manly, director, in the Sept. 1927 bulletin, 
under the heading "A Program for Pro- 
gressives," in a call for unity of radical 
elements "to double or treble their forces 
in the next congress," said: "The nation- 
wide publicity devoted to the informal 
conferences which a few of the Progressive 
Senators held in Washington is a clear cut 
recognition of the power which the Pro- 
gressives can wield during the coming year. 
. . . they can effectively control the course 



of legislation in the Senate. . . . with such 
a block to build upon it will then be time 
to consider how best to mobilize the voters 
so as to have a real voice in the election 
of a president in 1932." Manly has now 
been rewarded by appointment by Pres. 
Roosevelt as chairman of the Federal 
Power Commission, which controls the 
Muscle Shoals project, etc. and has broad 
powers affecting the public utility industry 
(and its "progress" toward socialization). 

According to Robt. M. LaFollette's 
account (in June 1921, United Farmers 
Forum), it was organized with a legislative 
division, to keep watch of all pending 
legislation; a statistical division, to com- 
pile information for use of radical legis- 
lators; and a publicity division "To keep 
the people informed regarding pending 
legislation." On the first National Council 
which was then set up to direct the lobby- 
ing activities of the People's Legislative 
Service the following names, among others, 
appear : 

Director, Basil M. Manly; chmn. exec, com., 
Robt. M. LaFollette; Wm. H. Johnston, sec.-treas.; 
nat. coun. members: Geo. W. Norris, David I. 
Walsh, Chas. F. Amidon (U.S. Dist. Ct.), J. F. 
Sinclair (mem. Congress), Jane Addams, Harriet 
Stanton Blatch, Wm. Bouck, Smith W. Brook- 
hart, Mrs. Edw. P. Costigan (of Nat. Lg. Women 
Voters, wife of Colorado Sen.), Herbert Croly 
(ed. New Republic), Eliz. Glendower Evans, E. 
H. Fitzgerald (Broth. R. R. & Steamship Clerks), 
Rev. John Haynes Holmes, Frederic C. Howe 
(Roosevelt appointee), Florence Kelley, W. Jett 
Lauck, Owen R. Lovejoy, Prof. E. A. Ross of 
Madison, Wis., Robert Morss Lovett, James H. 
McGill of Valparaiso, Ind., Rabbi Judah L. Mag- 
nes, Anne Martin of Reno, Nev., J. P. Noonan, 
Jackson H. Ralston, Donald R. Richberg, Rev. 
John A. Ryan, John F. Sinclair, Prof. Tnorstein 
Veblen, Oswald Garrison Villard, Frank P. Walsh, 
Wash., D.C., etc. 

Publishes the "People's Business," edited 
by Basil Manly. Hdqts. 212 First St., 
Southeast, Washington, D.C. 

PEOPLE'S LOBBY 

Radical Socialist lobby; the red Garland 
Fund official reports of donations for 1925- 
26 lists: "People's Reconstruction League 
(now the People's Lobby), Washington, 
D.C., for general expenses, $1,000"; and 
for 1929-30, "People's Lobby, Washington, 
D.C. for anti-imperialism work, con- 
ditioned on raising an equal amount, 
$1,800." The 1933 letterhead reads: "The 
People's Lobby To Fight for the People 
We Get and Give the Facts 63 Bliss Bldg. 
35 Constitution Avenue Lincoln 2748 
Washington, D.C." A letter headlined 
"Kill the Sales Tax by Taxing Wealth" 
sent out May 19, 1933 to members stated 
in part: "The President has signed the 



Organizations, Etc, 



215 



Costigan-LaFollette-Wagner Bill approp- 
riating $500,000,000 for relief grants for 
which we have been working for three 
years. Income redistribution through tax- 
ation is now our BIG JOB Yours sin- 
cerely, Benjamin C. Marsh." It listed as 
"Officers": 

John Dewey, pres.; Ethel Clyde, vice pres.; 
Henry T. Hunt, treas.; Benjamin C. Marsh, 
exec. sec. "Board of Directors": Harry W. Laidler 
and the officers. "Council": Oscar Ameringer, Harry 
Elmer Barnes, Paul Blanshard, Harriet Stanton 
Blatch, Leroy E. Bowman, Stuart Chase, Otto 
Cullman, Harry Pratt Fairchild, Kate Crane 
Gartz, Florence C. Hanson, Chas. H. Ingersoll, 
Edward L. Israel, F. C. Leubuscher, E. C. Linde- 
man, Broadus Mitchell, Francis J. McConnell, 
J. H. McGill, Jackson H. Ralston, S. A. Stock- 
well, VVm. S. U'Ren, and Oswald G. Villard. 

PIONEER CAMPS 

Are conducted for the Young Pioneers 
(Communist) by the communist Workers 
International Relief, and for the Pioneer 
Youths (Socialist) by the Nat. Assn. for 
Child Development, otherwise known as 
the Pioneer Youth of America (see). 

PIONEER YOUTH OF AMERICA 
A Socialist organization well aided by 
the red Garland Fund; formed 1924, "to 
provide camp and club activities for the 
children of workers"; corresponds to the 
Communist Party's "Young Pioneers"; 
during 1931, camps and groups were main- 
tained in N.Y., Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
two camps in N.C., and "play schools for 
children of textile workers ... in five 
southern mill towns . . . three conferences 
each year are held for the training of 
camp and club leaders" (Am. Labor Year 
Book). Among its organizers were: 

James Maurer, Wm. H. Johnston, Henry Lin- 
yille, A. J. Muste and Maude Schwartz, Social- 
ists, and Morris Sigman, Abraham Baroff, Abraham 
Bronstein, Max Zuckerman, Jos. Schlossberg, So- 
cialists born in Russia. Officers 1931 were: Walter 
Ludwig, exec. dir. ; Thos. J. Curtis, pres.; Fannia 
M. Cohn and A. J. Muste, vice presidents; Eva 
A. Frank, treas.; E. C. Lindeman, exec, dir.; 
John Dewey, Florence Curtis Hanson, John Haynes 
Holmes, James Weldon Johnson, Wm. H. Kil- 
patrick, A. J. Muste, Wm. F. Ogburn, Rose 
Schneidermann, Norman Thomas, and Stephen 
S. Wise, advisors. 

Hdqts. Walter Ludwig, 45 Astor Place, 
N.Y. City. 

POLISH CHAMBER OF LABOR 

To quote "The Communist," Sept. 1933 
issue: "The newly organized Polish Cham- 
ber of Labor, which is a united front 
organization and which has already estab- 
lished a certain influence, is a good instru- 
ment with which to penetrate among the 
masses of workers. One of the outstand- 



ing tasks confronting the Party among the 
Polish Workers is to develop cadres and 
to orientate the entire work toward the 
major problem of organizing Polish 
workers into the T.U.U.L. and Communist 
Party." 

POLISH WORKERS CLUBS 
Communist Foreign Language Groups 
(see) in various cities. 

PORTO RICAN 
ANTI-IMPERIALIST ASSN. 
Section of the All- America Anti-Imper- 
ialist Lg. (now Anti-Imperialist League). 

PRAVDA 

Meaning "Truth"; the official organ of 
the Communist Party of Russia. 

PRINTERS INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

PRISONERS AID SOCIETY 
Of the communist International Labor 
Defense. 

PRISONERS RELIEF FUND 
Of the communist I.L.D.; "Organized 
under the Auspices of the International 
Labor Defense to Help Political Prisoners 
and Dependents 80 East llth St., Room 
338, New York City," says the letterhead 
of this organization. It solicits funds to 
provide $5 each month "to every political 
prisoner in the United States" and "To 
dependent families of prisoners the Fund 
attempts to send $20 a month." "Political 
prisoners" is the radical term for those 
prisoners who are jailed for revolutionary 
and seditious crimes. They are treated 
therefore as the honored martyrs of the 
Red Revolutionary movement by their 
sympathizers. The following names are 
listed on the letterhead, Dec. 1932: 

Sherwood Anderson, chmn.; Edmund Wilson, 
treas.; Diana Rubin, sec.; Roger N. Baldwin, 
Silas Bent, Winifred Chappell, Elliot E. Cohen, 
Malcolm Cowley, Robt. Cruden, Horace B. Davis, 
Solon de Leon, John Dos Passes, Robt. W. Dunn, 
Sara Bard Field, Eliz. Gurley Flynn, Waldo Frank, 
Lydia Gibson, Michael Gold, Jack Hardy, Josephine 
Herbst, Walter Hinkle, Henry T. Hunt, Grace 
Hutchins, Oakley Johnson, Ellen Kennan, Mar- 
garet Larkin, Melyin P. Levy, Esther Lowell, 
Jessie Lloyd, Louis Lozowick, Helen Mallery, 
Clarina Michelson, Geo. Novak, Wm. L. Nunn, 
Harvey O'Connor, Frank Palmer, Paul Peters, 
Wm. Pickens, Hannah Pickering, Hollace Rans- 
dell, Anna Rochester, Edward Royce, Adelaide M. 
Schilkind, Bernard J. Stern, Ruth Stout, Maurice 
Sugar, Belle Taube, Charlotte Todes, Marguerite 
Tucker, Jessie London Wakefield, Chas. R. Walker, 
Paul Wander, Arthur Warner, Anita Whitney, 
Walter Wilson, Chas. E. S. Wood. 



216 



The Red Network 



"PROFESSIONAL PATRIOTS" 
An A.C.L.U. publication. Its distribution 
was listed as "Work in Hand" for 1927 in 
the A.C.L.U. 1926 Report. The book was 
edited by Norman Hapgood, whose wife 
was then a director of the American Society 
for Cultural Relations with Russia, a Com- 
munist subsidiary. It ran serially in the 
communist Daily Worker (June 1927) as 
Communist pprpaganda. In it, Hapgood 
attempts to show that all outstanding 
patriotic societies which fight the A.C.L.U. 
and Communism are motivated in doing 
so by greedy commercialism or cowardice. 
The term "professional patriot" was 
eagerly taken up by the Reds and is now 
popularly used by them to scornfully 
describe anyone who opposes them. 

The list of "Endorsers" of this book as 
printed therein is as follows: 

Alice Stone Blackwell; Harry Elmer Barnes, 
Smith Coll.; Prof. Phillips Bradley, Amherst 
Coll.; Bishop Chauncy B. Brewster, Hartford, 
Conn.; John Graham Brooks, Cambridge, Mass- 
John Brophy; Dr. Richard C. Cabot; Prof. F. A. 
Cleveland, Boston, Mass.; Prof. Francis W. 
Coker, Ohio State U.; Pres. Norman F. Cole- 
man, Reed Coll.: Mrs. Edward P. Costigan; Her- 
bert Croly; Prof. H. J. Davenport, Cornell U.; 
Prof. Jerome Davis, Yale U.; Edward T. Devine; 
Prof, John Dewey; Prof. R. C. Dexter, Skidmore 
Coll.; Prof. Paul H. Douglas, U. of Chgo.; Mary 
Dreier; W. E. B. Du Bois; Fred Eastman, Chgo.: 
Prof. H. A. Eaton, Syracuse U.; Sherwood Eddy 
Prof. Thomas D. Eliot, Northwestern U.; John 
Lovejoy, N.Y.C.; Prof. C. A. Ellwood, U. of 
Missouri; Charles T. Ennis, Lyons, N.Y.; Prof. 

C. O. Fisher, Wesleyan U.; Rev. Harry Emerson 
Fosdick; Prof. Felix Frankfurter, Harvard Law 
School; Senator L. J. Frazier, Hoople, N. Dak.; 
Zona Gale; Prof. Karl F. Geiser, Oberlin O 
Prof. Max Handman, U. of Texas; Mrs. J. Bor- 
den Harriman; Prof. E. C. Hayes, U. of 111 
Robert Herrick, York Village, Maine; Prof. A. N. 
Holcombe, Harvard U.; Congressman Geo. W. 
Huddleston, Birmingham, Ala.; Henry T. Hunt- 
Paul Hutchinson; Prof. L. H. Jenks, Rollins 
Coll.; Rev. Burris A. Jenkins, Kans. City, Mo.; 
Prof. David Starr Jordan, Stanford U.; Francis 
Fisher Kane; Paul Kellogg; Prof. W. S. Knicker- 
bocker, U. of the South; Prof. Frank H. Knight, 
U. of Iowa; Congressman F. H. La Guardia- Prof 
William Ellery Leonard, U. of Wis. ; Dean William 
Draper Lewis, U. of Pa.; Prof. E. C. Lindeman; 
Judge Ben B. Lindsey; Prof. Robert Morss Lovett; 
Rev. Halford E. Luccock; Prof. C. C. Maxey, 
Whitman Coll.; Bishop Francis J. McConnell; 
Lucia Ames Mead; Prof. H. A. Miller, Ohio State 
U.; Prof. Underbill Moore, Columbia U. Law 
Sch.; Pres. William A. Neilson, Smith Coil- 
Fremont Older, San Fran., Cal.; Prof. Willirm A. 
Orton, Smith Coll.; Prof. Max C. Otto, Madison, 
Wis.; Prof. Harry A. Overstreet; Jessica B. Peix- 
otto; James D. Pbelan, San Fran., Cal.; Amos 
Pinchot; Prof. Louise Pound, Lincoln, Nebr.; 
Mrs. Raymond Robins and Raymond Robins, 
Chgo.; Prof. Edward A. Ross, U. of Wis.; Father 
John A. Ryan, Wash., D.C.; Dean William Scar- 
lett, St. Louis, Mo.; Prof. Ferdinand Schevill, 
Chgo.; Prof. A. M. Schlesinger, Harvard U.; 
Prof. Nathaniel Schmidt, Cornell U.; Prof. Vida 

D. Scudder, Wellesley Coll.; John F. Sinclair, 
Mpls.; Dean M. Carey Thomas, Bryn Mawr, Pa.; 
Samuel Untermyer, N.Y.C.; Senator T. J. Walsh, 



Helena, Mont.; Prof. U. G. Weatherly, Indiana 
U.; Senator B. K. Wheeler, Butte, Mont.; William 
Allen White, Emporia, Kans.; Prof. J. M. 
Williams, Hobart Coll.; Peter Witt, Cleveland, O.; 
and H. B. Woolston, Seattle, Wash. 

PROFINTERN 

Russian abbreviation of Red Inter- 
national of Labor Unions (of which the 
T.U.U.L. is the American section). 

PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION 

ASSOCIATION 
Prog. Edu. Assn. 

Hon. pres. John Dewey; Leroy Bowman, 
Arthur E. Morgan, Joshua Lieberman, 
Carleton Washburne, Harold Rugg, E. C. 
Lindeman, Alvin Johnson, and other rad- 
icals serve as directors and advisory board 
members. 

Says Francis Ralston Welsh, Nov. 20, 
1933: "We learn from yesterday's papers 
that the Progressive Education Association 
(Pink, yellow and red) is to hold a meet- 
ing on November 24th and 25th and that 
such people as Mrs. Franklin D. Roose- 
velt; Louis Montgomery Howe, the Presi- 
dent's secretary ; Norman Thomas, Socialist 
candidate, communist sympathizer and 
member of the A.C.L.U. national com- 
mittee; William H. Kilpatrick of pink 
fame; Harry A. Overstreet, exposed in the 
Lusk Report on Revolutionary Radicalism ; 
F. Ernest Johnson of the Federal Council 
of Churches and frequently exposed, and 
Reinhold Niebuhr, member of the openly 
communist National Council for the Pro- 
tection of Foreign-Born Workers, are to 
be speakers. Mrs. Roosevelt will probably 
be in congenial company. Perhaps it will 
be even more congenial since Litvinoirs 
arrival." 

"We have always claimed that the Pro- 
gressive Education Assn., a competitor of 
the radical National Education Assn., was 
a radical left-wing teachers group. . . . 
The following special release just issued 
by the John Day Co., Inc., leaves but 
little doubt as to the actual pro-revo- 
lutionary character of the Prog. Ed. Assn." 
(From report of Advisory Associates.) Its 
manifesto is written by a committee and 
entitled "A Call to the Teachers of the 
Nation." 

To quote from the declarations of this 
committee: "our society has come to the 
parting of the ways. It has entered a revo- 
lutionary epoch. It stands in the presence 
of momentous decision. It is already at 
war with itself. ... If the teachers are 
to play a positive and creative role in 



Organizations, Etc. 



217 



building a better social order they will 
have to emancipate themselves completely 
from the domination of the business 
interests of the nation, cease cultivating the 
manners and associations of bankers and 
promotion agents . . . take up boldly the 
challenge of the present, recognize the cor- 
porate and inter-dependent character of 
the contemporary order and transfer the 
democratic tradition from individualistic 
to collectivist economic foundations. . . . 
This would involve the frank abandon- 
ment of the doctrines of 'laissez faire,' . . . 
and the wide adoption of the principle of 
social and economic planning. . . . First of 
all if the profession is to be a factor in 
the process of social reconstruction, its 
members must prepare to struggle co- 
operatively and valiantly for their rights 
and ideas. They must fight for tenure, for 
adequate compensation, for a voice in the 
formulation of educational policies; they 
must uphold the ancient doctrine of acad- 
emic freedom . . . they must oppose every 
effort on the part of publishing houses, 
business interests, privileged classes and 
patriotic societies to prescribe the content 
of the curriculum" (note the opposition to 
patriotic societies). "... Consequently if 
the foregoing argument means anything 
it means that the progressive-minded 
teachers of the country must unite in a 
powerful organization, militantly devoted 
to the building of a better social order. 
... In the defense of its members against 
the ignorance of the masses and the malevo- 
lence of the privileged such an organ- 
ization would have to be equipped with 
the material resources, the legal talent, and 
the trained intelligence necessary to wage 
successful warfare in the press, the courts, 
and the legislative chambers of the nation. 
To serve the teaching profession of the 
country in this way should be one of the 
major purposes of the Progressive Edu- 
cation Association." A list of recommended 
books by radicals such as Paul H. Douglas, 
Lincoln Steffens, Stuart Chase, etc. is then 
appended. 

This manifesto is printed as John Day 
Pamphlet No. 30 (other pamphlets of the 
series include such radical authors and 
subjects as V. F. Calverton "On Revo- 
lution," Albert Einstein "The Fight Against 
War," Norman Thomas, Stuart Chase, Geo. 
S. Counts, etc.). Its full title is: "A Call 
to the Teachers of the Nation: by the 
Committee of the Progressive Education 
Association on Social and Economic Prob- 
lems" ; the author - committee - members 
listed are: 



Geo. S. Counts, chairman; Merle E. Curti, Smith 
Coll. prof.; John S. Gambs, Teachers Coll. prof.; 
Sidney Hook, N.Y.U. prof.; Jesse H. Newlon, dir. 
Lincoln's School, Teachers Coll.; Chas. L. S. 
Easton, headmaster Staten Is. Acad.; Goodwin 
Watson, Teachers Coll. prof.; Willard W. Beatty, 
pres., and Frederick Redefer, exec. sec. of the 
Progressive Education Assn. 

PROGRESSIVE MINERS OF 

AMERICA UNION 
P.M.A. or Prog. Miners Un. 

After ten years of constant agi-tation 
against the dictatorship of John L. Lewis, 
leader of the A.F. of L. United Mine 
Workers Union, led by the communist 
National Miners Union, the Communists 
in conjunction with the left wing Social- 
ists (Conf. Prof. Lab. Act. under A. J. 
Muste) and the Communist League or 
"Trotskyites," effected a split and organized 
46,000 Southern 111. Miners in 1932 into 
this new P.M.A. union. Active in the 
formation were: Hugo Oehler (Communist 
League) ; Gerry Allard (a Communist Lg. 
"Trotsky ite"), editor of the P.M.A. organ 
"The Progressive Miner" with Loren Nor- 
man (Trotskyite), assistant editor, and 
Scott Nearing (Communist), editorial 
writer; Pat Ansboury (Trotskyite), organ- 
izer; Tom Tippett, made educational 
director of the P.M.A. by the Conf. for 
Prof. Labor Action; etc. The communists 
have delegates at every P.M.A. confer- 
ence to present Communist 'resolutions. 
Delegates from the P.M.A. attend Com- 
munist "united front" congresses. The 
"militancy" of the P.M.A. is highly praised 
by the Communist press. The P.M.A. com- 
munistic parade to Springfield in 1933, the 
murders, bombings, and disorders in S. 
111. since its formation which have neces- 
sitated the presence of the 111. National 
Guard for long periods of time, the pro- 
tests of the A.C.L.U. against the inter- 
ference of the National Guard with these 
revolutionary activities, are all testimonials 
of its character. It remains to be seen 
which faction will finally emerge as its 
dominating one. 

PROLETARIAN ANTI-RELIGIOUS 
LEAGUE 

American section of the communist Inter- 
national of the Godless, formed in Moscow 
1931; Kalmon Marmor, exec, sec., SO E. 
13th St. (and St. Denis Bldg.), N.Y. City; 
affiliated with the World Union of Atheists 
of the 4A. 

PROLETARIAN DRAMATIC LEAGUE 

One of the American sections of Mos- 
cow's communist International Union of 



218 



The Red Network 



the Revolutionary Theatre (see also Lg. 
of Wkrs. Theatres). 

PROLETARIAN PARTY 
A "highbrow" Communist party sup- 
porting the program of the Communist 
International altho not affiliated; "Pro- 
letarian News," its organ, said in May 1, 
1932 issue: "The organization in America 
that is preparing the workers for the 
momentous act of self emancipation is the 
Proletarian Party"; the Feb. IS, 1932 issue: 
"We must spread the message of commu- 
nism to all. Workers, Comrades, Friends 
support the Proletarian News. It is needed 
to instill class consciousness into the 
American workers, to organize them for 
the approaching conflict. Build for Com- 
munism in America!", and under the head- 
ing "God and the Holy Ghost in Rus- 
sia" (same issue): "Things will never be 
the same again for religion in Russia. Since 
the workers came into power, the state no 
longer pays and protects the church for 
keeping the minds of the workers filled 
with superstition. On the contrary, 
religion is receiving the ridicule it so richly 
deserves as pointed out in the following 
from the magazine Time: 'Common in 
Soviet cartoons is a comical little old man, 
always accompanied by a comical little 
white bird. The little old man who has 
wings, flops awkwardly about, annoying 
Comrades who sometimes smack him with 
a fly swatter while the little white bird 
squawks in terror. The little old man is 
labeled "God," the little white bird "Holy 
Ghost" and both are kept constantly in 
Red cartoons by the zealous efforts of 
Comrade Emilian Yaroslavsky, Leader of 
the Godless!' It is gratifying to see this 
survival of man's primitive ignorance rele- 
gated to its proper place the joke book 
and the museum. E. A." Edgar Anderson 
of the nat. com., is in charge of Chicago 
activities; C. Jilset is editor and Martin 
Larson, bus. mgr. of the paper; Lenin 
Memorial meetings are held; cooperates 
with Communists, Socialists, and I.W.W.'s 
in various joint activities such as the 
Mooney committee, Kentucky Miners Def. 
and Relief Com., U.S. Congress Against 
War, Karl Borders' C.W.C. on Unemp., 
Communist Party's Oct. 31, 1932 joint 
Chgo. Hunger March, etc.; conducts 
"Open," "Labor" or "Proletarian" forums 
and study classes in Chicago, Grand 
Rapids, Ann Arbor, Los Angeles, Rochester, 
Detroit, Cleveland, etc., frequently ad- 
dressed by radical college professors; 
organizes unemployed into "Workers 



Leagues." Hdqts.: 2409 W. Chicago Ave., 
Chicago, Edgar Anderson; "Proletarian 
News" pub. same address. 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP 
LEAGUE OF AMERICA, THE 

As Socialist Norman Thomas said: "To 
begin with, Socialists first seek key indus- 
tries." This Socialist League, headed by 
Carl Thompson, former executive of the 
"Yours for the Revolution" People's Col- 
lege and Information Director (1912-16) 
of the Socialist Party, thus outlines its 
activities: "In the cities, the League works 
for municipal ownership; nationally it 
works for such immediate measures as the 
permanent public ownership of railroads, 
postalization of the telegraphs and tele- 
phones, conservation of natural resources 
and the like." In his Report of the 
League's work in 1924, he said "... the 
public ownership movement goes steadily 
forward step by step, point by point, from 
victory to victory. The action is not so 
spectacular, the victories not so notable, 
that they awaken nation wide interest . . . 
but they are the necessary steps . . . and 
as such are quite as essential as the others 
. . . and may ultimately prove to be the 
one sure approach to the larger achieve- 
ments." (Emphasis supplied.) 

The Nov. 1933 issue of "Public Owner- 
ship," organ of the Public Ownership Lg. 
headlined the following: 

"FATHER COUGHLIN FOR PUBLIC 
OWNERSHIP Comes Out Baldly for 
Nationalization of Banks, Currency and 
Credit Millions Hear Him." 

The jubilant article beneath this head- 
line states in part: 

"Father Coughlin's heroic stand brings 
encouragement to those of us who have 
come to the same conclusions and who are 
urging the same remedy. Through his 
national hookup, Father Coughlin's ad- 
dresses reach no less than ten millions of 
people in the United States, and by way 
of cables across the sea, reach many 
millions more in England and Continental 
Europe. This is an educational effort of 
unparalleled extent and significance and 
means much to the country. In the course 
of his address, he told his hearers that any 
who wished to have copies of his speeches 
could get them by merely addressing to 
him a request for them. We rushed in our 
request, and would certainly advise all of 
our readers to do the same. Address Rev. 
Chas. E. Coughlin, Box ISO, Detroit, 
Mich." 

In the light of what is now being done 



Organizations, Etc. 



219 



in Washington, Carl D. Thompson's leaflet 
entitled "Are Socialists Practical," issued 
when he was director in the National 
Office of the Socialist Party, 1912-16, about 
20 years ago, is interesting and prophetic. 
He said: "Some folks object to Socialism 
because they say it's impractical it won't 
work. We are going to answer that objec- 
tion. As a matter of fact Socialists are the 
most practical people in the world today. 

"First they have actually succeeded in 
putting into the statute books of the 
various states 134 different laws. ... A 
hundred and thirty-four measures of that 
kind, secured by the merest minority of 
representatives, is surely a good beginning. 
But it is only the beginning. 

"The measures mentioned above are, 
after all, only the less important parts of 
the program of Socialism. They are such 
as the old party politicians thought they 
were compelled to pass, throwing them out 
as a sop to the growing Socialist sentiment 
in the country. They hope thereby to 
stop Socialism, not to advance it. 

"We want no one to think these sops 
are Socialism. By no means. We want 
something more than sops. We want the 
whole soup. We are going to take all the 
sops they give and thereby gain strength 
to get the whole feed. . . . Fighting it out 
on this line will . . . finally overthrow 
capitalism. (Emphasis supplied.) 

"States under the direction of this Social- 
ist program, and finally the nation, will 
take over one after the other the public 
utilities, mines, railroads, pov/er plants, tele- 
graph and telephone systems, waterways, 
forests." (Communism.) 

"The Socialists will push their campaigns. 
They will elect more representatives in the 
states where they already have them. They 
will win seats in new states. They will 
capture cities. Later they will control State 
Legislatures, and finally, the United States 
Congress and the Supreme Court. . . . 
Socialism will push the tendency to its 
logical conclusion. ... Is not this a prac- 
tical program? There is nothing else that 
IS practical." "Public Ownership," organ 
of the Pub. O. Lg., Feb. 1924 stated: "Five 
years ago we were a voice crying in the 
wilderness on this public ownership ques- 
tion. Today a chain of powerful daily 
papers, monthly and weekly journals reach- 
ing every section of the continent is carry- 
ing our story. . . . Ten students from one 
Chicago High School, the Crane Technical, 
called upon the League recently. They 
were all required to write a theme of 
2,000 words on the subject." 



Voters are deluged with public owner- 
ship propaganda during campaigns. "It is 
not unusual for the League to handle 
sometimes three or four lists of voters in 
towns and villages in a single day," says 
Thompson, and "Careful canvasses of Con- 
gress are made to supply them with 
information. Conferences are arranged 
with Congressmen and other public offi- 
cials who are willing to give government 
ownership their attention." And yet 
Thompson says the League is non-political! 

Rejoicing over Wisconsin State legis- 
lation manipulated by the League is 
expressed in the 1928-29 Report and 
Thompson calls particular attention to 
their economical system of reaching every 
voter in a community with public owner- 
ship literature under Senator Norris* 
frank! Cooperation of the Methodist Fed- 
eration for Social Service and the Debs 
Memorial Radio station (WEVD, station 
of the 4A Atheist Society), is reported, as 
might be expected. 

National office: 127 N. Dearborn St., 
Room 1439, Chicago. 

1933 Secretary and leader, Carl D. Thompson; 
treas., Chas. H. Ingersoll; pres., Willis J. Spauld- 
ing; vice presidents: W. T. Rawleigh, J. D. Ross, 
John R. Haynes, Robt. M. LaFollette, Jr., Charles 
Edward Russell, E. F. Scattergood, D. B. Robert- 
son, L. E. Sheppard, Rudolph Spreckels, William 
T. Evjue, M. C. Parsons, Arthur P. Davis, Lynn 
J. Frazier, C. H. Foster, John A. Ryan, E. H. 
Fitzgerald, A. Emil Davies, Theo. F. Thieme, 
Amos Pinchot, Bishop F. T. McConnell, S. A. 
Stockwell, E. J. Manion, C. C. Dill, Homer T. 
Bone, Chas. W. Ward, William Madgett, Edward 
P. Costigan, Gov. Floyd B. Olson, Thos. R. 
Amlie. Executive Committee: William H. Holly, 
chairman; Otto Cullman, James H. McGill, Fay 
Lewis, Edward F. Dunne, Grace F. Peter, Wiley 
W. Mills, S. J. Konenkamp, David Rosenheim, 
Margaret Haley, Ralph U. Thompson, John J. 
Walt, James H. Andrews, Clarence Darrow, 
George A. Schilling, R. E. McDonnell. 

In 1920 the officers were Carl D. Thompson, 
as ever, secretary; Albert M. Todd, pres.; Chas. 
H. Ingersoll, treas.; vice presidents: Jane Addams, 
Frank P. Walsh, Warren S. Stone, Chas. Zueb- 
lin, David J. Lewis, Hon. Lynn J. Frazier, Amos 
Pinchot, Carl S. Vrooman, Glenn E. Plumb, Delos 
F. Wilcox, Frederic C. Howe, Timothy Shea, 
Wm. Lemke. Executive Board: Otto Cullman, 
Dr. G. H. Sherman, James H. McGill, Willis J. 
Spaulding, Duncan MacDonald, Fay Lewis, Chas. 
K. Mohler, Ed. V. de La Grange, Edw. F. Dunne, 
Harriet T. Treadwell, Austin P. Raines, Grace F. 
Peter, Wm. Rodriguez, Wiley W. Mills, S. J. 
Konenkamp. 

R 

RAILROAD BROTHERHOODS 
UNITY COMMITTEE 

Formerly National Railroad Workers 
Industrial Union, a communist T.U.U.L. 
union; the Chicago branch organ is "Rail- 
road Unity News," pub. at 2003 N. Cali- 
fornia Ave., C. A. Adams, chmn. 



220 



The Red Network 



RAILROAD WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL LEAGUE 

Communist T.U.U.L. union; hdqts. Otto 
Wangerin, 717 East 63rd St., Chicago. 

RAND SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 

A Socialist training school for labor 
agitators formerly heavily supported by 
the Garland Fund (see) and owned by the 
American Socialist Society, which was con- 
victed under the Espionage act in 1919 and 
fined $3,000 for "feloniously obstructing 
enlistment service of the U.S." and for 
publishing and distributing a pamphlet 
"The Great Madness" by Scott Nearing, a 
regular instructor there. Among other 
regular instructors were H. W. L. Dana, 
Alex. Trachtenberg, Louis P. Lochner, 
Norman Thomas, D. P. Berenberg, Alger- 
non Lee, Herman Epstein, Ludwig Lore, 
etc. Evidence produced in the Lusk Report 
illustrates its teachings namely: class hate; 
to "Take Over the State"; to fight gov- 
ernment defense; work for U.S. disarma- 
ment; class consciousness; red agitation of 
all kinds. 

"Iri the Rand Book Store, run in con- 
junction with the Rand School itself, and 
which contributes toward the support of 
the school, are found works dealing not 
only with Socialism and extreme radical 
thought, but a large number of books on 
sex problems, and a section of the book 
store is devoted solely to the subject of 
sex. These sex books are sold to boys and 
girls of immature age, and one of these 
books, entitled 'Love and Marriage* by 
Marie C. Stopes, was sold to a young lad 
of fifteen. Some portions of the book are 
of an extremely lascivious and indecent 
character." (Lusk Report.) 

It publishes the American Labor Year 
Book (of radical activities), which states 
that in 1932 it had 231 students, that its 
lecturers included John Dewey, Marc Con- 
nolly, Jos. Schlossberg, George Soule, Hen- 
drik Van Loon, John B. Watson, Anita 
Block, etc. and names: Algernon Lee as 
pres. of the staff; W. E. Born as educa- 
tional director; Nathan Fine as dir. of 
research dept., which publishes the Am. 
Labor Year Book; and Anna Bercovitz as 
exec. dir. 

At a meeting held Apr. 27, 1933 attended 
by some 400 Socialists and sympathizers, 
pledges were made for a fund of SI 7,000 
to save the school from loss of its quar- 
ters, "Peoples House." Among those 
pledging support were John Dewey, Ex- 
Congressman La Guardia, Norman Thomas, 



John Haynes Holmes, and Morris Hillquit. 
An appeal was sent out asking for funds 
signed by the above and also by Upton 
Sinclair, Paul Douglas, Gilbert Seldes, Wm. 
H. Kilpatrick, Stuart Chase, Oswald Gar- 
rison Villard, Chas. A. Beard, Wm. P. 
Montague, Clarence Senior, Heywood 
Broun, Helen Keller, Margaret I. Lamont, 
Fanny Hurst, Hendrik Willem Van Loon, 
Eliz. Gilman, Jerome Davis, Broadus Mit- 
chell, Elmer Rice, Michael Strange. The 
appeal stated: "We join with John Dewey 
in saying: 'It would be a calamity to 
intelligent untrammeled thought and 
speech everywhere ... all sincere friends 
of sound adult education MUST JOIN IN 
KEEPING THE RAND SCHOOL DOORS 
OPEN.'" ("The Nation," July 5, 1933.) 
Hdqts. 7 East 15th St., N.Y. City. 

REBEL PLAYERS 

Of Los Angeles, etc.; Communist dra- 
matic group affiliated with the League of 
Workers Theatres (the American section 
of the Intl. Union of the Revolutionary 
Theatre). 

RECEPTION BANQUET COMMITTEE 

FOR FORD 
Recep. Banq. Com. for Ford. 

As announced by the Communist Chi- 
cago paper, "Workers Voice," Oct. 15, 
1932: The Communist Party and a "non- 
partisan" committee sponsored a reception 
banquet for "white and negro workers and 
intellectuals" in honor of James W. Ford, 
colored Communist Vice Presidential 
candidate held Thursday, Oct. 18, 1932, 
10 P.M. at Alvin Hall, 51st St. and 
Michigan Ave., Chicago. The committee 
was composed of: 

Lucius Harper (mg. ed. Chicago Defender), 
chmn.; Frank Hamilton, sec.; I.L.D. atty. Albert 
Goldman, treas. ; Prof. Frederick L. Schuman, U. 
of C.; Rev. Raymond Bragg (sec. Western 
Unitarian Conf.); Mrs. Bragg; Thomas McKenna 
(A.C.L.U. exec, sec.) ; Perry O. Thompson 
(editor Chicago Review) ; Rev. O. F. Peterson 
(pres. of Phylanx Club); Miss Thelma McWater; 
Dr. James W. McCaskill; Dr. Homer Cooper; 
Geo. W. Clark; John Williamson (Party func- 
tionary) ; Mrs. Blanche Cole Lowenthal (social 
worker) ; Carl Haessler of the Communist 
Workers School. 

RECEPTION COMMITTEE FOR 

SOVIET FLYERS 
Recep. Com. Soviet Flyers. 

A committee formed by the communist 
Friends of the Soviet Union (F.S.U.) to 
welcome and raise funds for the Soviet 
flyers who, in September 1929, flew from 
Moscow to New York (photographing 
landing fields and gathering other military 



Organizations, Etc. 



221 



information on their way). A letter sent 
out on stationery headed "Reception Com- 
mittee for Soviet Flyers Auspices of the 
Friends of the Soviet Union 175 Fifth 
Ave., Room 304, New York" said in part: 
"To commemorate this first Moscow-New 
York flight, we want to present these 
flyers with a present. We want to give 
them something that they can take back 
to the workers and peasants of Russia to 
help them in their economic and agricul- 
tural upbuilding. . . . During the famine 
days, appeals for help from the Soviet 
Union met with splendid response. Those 
days are now over. Now we are helping 
the Soviet Union to build its new society. 
The money you send will be devoted to 
this one end, and this only, to buy trac- 
tors and trucks to be given to the Soviet 
airmen for the Russian people." Members 
of the committee listed on this letterhead 
are: 

S. Alexanderson, Jack Baker, Roger N. Baldwin, 
Forrest Bailey, Louis B. Boudin, J. M. Budish, 
Heywood Broun, Louis F. Budenz, Ralph E. 
Blount, H. Bank, S. W. Barnett, A. Brenner, 
Nathan Beilas, Carl Brodsky, Joseph R. Brodsky, 
Mike Belcastro, A. Basskoff, Paul Brissenden, 
David Burlind, Dr. Frank Hurburt Booth, Stuart 
Chase, Ann Coles, E. Calligan, Sonia Chaikin, 
Bertha Crawford, Chas. H. Calvin, S. Citvet, 
K. M. Chen, Harry W. L. Dana, Margaret 
DeSilver, Anna N. Davis, Horace B. Davis. W. 
E. B. Du Bois, Robert Dunn, Jerome Davis, 
Solon DeLeon, Virginia Ellen, J. Evans, A. 
Freidenferd, Hilja Frilund, A. Fox, Lewis S. Gan- 
nett, Dorothy Gary, F. Geschlecht, M. Grener, 
Milton Goodman, Dr. A. L. Goldwater, Dr. I. B. 
Goodman, Pauline Gorbaty, F. Goodstone, Mike 
Gold, Arthur Garfield Hays, Ellen Hayes, Dr. 
Alice Hamilton, Henry T. Hunt, Grace Hutchins, 
Y. Hsu, T. Hoyos, Anna T. Haines, John Haynes 
Holmes, Timothy Healy, Paul Jones. Dr. Oakley 
Johnson, William Johnson, I. A. Kittine, Alfred 
Kreymbqrg, Walter Kowolsky, Bertha Kaleva, M. 
Kniazewich, Dr. Horace M. Kallen, Jacob Kepecs, 
N. Kotlenko, Esther Lowell, Lola Maverick 
Lloyd, Walter Landauer, L. Landy, Geo. Laitsch, 
Irma Lee, M. Lurie, Ernest Lundeen, M. Maich- 
alowski, Darwin J. Meserole, Frank Mozer, Mar- 
garet A. Marsh, Roy Mezara, J. Miller, D'Arcy 
Milliken, John Morelly, G. Mink, M. Malyk, 
Dr. A. Markoff, Dr. J. Mindel, James Mo, P. 
Mueller, S. Merz, Chas. Musil, Scott Nearing, 
Dr. Per Nelson, A. Olken, Harvey O'Connor, M. 
Olgin, Frank L. Palmer, Alex Pappas, Henry W. 
Pinkham, Leon Pruscika, M. Piser, Rose Paul, 
J. Pearl, Ruth H. Pearson, F. Piskothy, M. Pitt- 
koff, J. S. Joyntz, Dr. L. M. Powell, Anna 
Rochester, Gilbert E. Roc, J. F. Romese, William 
Ross, S. B. Russack, Edith Rudquist, J. Rappo- 
port, M. Rosenblatt, J. Reed, Dr. Karl Sandberg, 
Freda Sahud, Dr. Moses Sahud, Art Shields, Dr. 
David Saletan, A. Trachtenberg, H. Silverman, 
A. W. Sevtrino, E. R. Stout, J. Stillman, Carlo 
Tresca, Ben Thomas, N. Turlewich, Mary Heaton 
Vorse, Arthur Warner, A. Wagenknecht, Lillian 
Wald, E. Wickstrom, J. B. Collings Woods, Helen 
Yaskevich, M. Zibel, John Zatko; Jessie Lloyd, 
sec.; Jacques Buitenkant, treas. 

The Committee was revived in 1933 to 
raise funds for the Soviet flyers, return- 



ing this time without their plane, the 
money to be donated to buy machinery 
for Russia. 

RECONCILIATION TRIPS 

Are "group visits" of the Fellowship of 
Reconciliation under the direction of Clar- 
ence V. Howell, who urged support of the 
Communist Party and announced he was 
voting Communist in the 1932 election 
(Christian Century, Sept. 21, 1932). 
According to Howell's definition of the 
Trips: "The Purpose: is to reconcile 
group to group as well as person to per- 
son. . . . The Method: ... to bring quar- 
relling persons or anti-pathetic groups 
face to face at the point of conflict under 
cordial auspices. So we conduct nordic 
blondes, many southerners, into the heart 
of Negro Harlem. . . . We conduct the 
same kind of trips to thirty other groups. 
Reconciliation trips are now being con- 
ducted in New York, Chicago, Milwaukee, 
Syracuse and Boston." 

"Cooperating Educators" see that Col- 
lege young people are formed into groups 
and taken to Communist, Socialist, and 
I.W.W. headquarters, where they are given 
propaganda lectures. They listen to sex 
lectures and participate in sex discussions. 
The trips are made attractive by taking the 
young people to unusual places to dine, 
such as "Black and Tan" joints, "Dill 
Pickle Clubs," or those having fantastic or 
foreign customs. Revolutionary songs are 
sung and the idea advanced that the trips 
are venturesome educational larks and not 
propaganda tours. 

Of course the propaganda of Communism 
is the reconciliation of all religions into 
no-religion and all varying moral laws into 
no-moral law. 

The Chicago Herald and Examiner (N. 
Shore edition, Oct. 9, 1933) described one 
trip taken by Northwestern Students and 
others led by Frank Orman Beck which 
visited Socialist Party headquarters and 
included a round-table symposium at Hull 
House, and to quote: "The highlight of 
the trip was a visit to the West Side 
Workers' Forum at 338 S. Halsted St., 
headquarters of Unemployed Council C 1 
The tourists were greeted by the militant 
words of the 'Internationale' lustily intoned 
by more than 300 Communist sympathizers 
who had gathered for the regular Saturday 
night discussion meeting." This was fol- 
lowed by a question box period at the 
Communist headquarters. 

Each week (in spite of complaints) the 
"Daily Northwestern," college paper (Evan- 



222 



The Red Network 



ston, 111.), makes announcements of these 
Reconciliation Trips conducted by Frank 
Orman Beck (I have also seen the 
announcements on Tittle's M.E. Church 
bulletin board). A front-page column 
(Nov. IS, 1929) devoted to describing one 
trip promised "The tour will leave the 
Public Health Institute, 159 N. Dearborn 
St., Chicago, at 9 o'clock Saturday morn- 
ing. The first trip of inspection will be 
through the largest venereal disease clinic 
in the world," etc. 

To quote from the printed program of 
another tour headed "Love, Sex, Marriage, 
and the Family," Saturday, July 12, 1930: 
"There has been too great a tendency to 
regard this aspect of life as something 
dangerous. The trip is an honest facing 
of facts, hoping thereby to make some 
contribution to a positive and constructive 
ideal of the place of love and sex in life." 

"Northwestern University, 8:15 A.M. 
Leave Davis St. 'L.' Chicago University, 
8:15 A.M. Leave Reynolds Club. . . . 
2 P.M. Clinic of the American Social 
Hygiene Assn. and the American Birth 
Control League. 'Sex and Health' will be 
presented by Rachelle S. Yarros, M.D. 
(General discussion and inspection of the 
clinic.) 4 P.M. 'Companionate Marriage,' 
a round table discussion, 6 P.M. Stroll by 
the Oak St. Beach, the city's most popular 
playground through area where 'the night 
club is the thing . . . land of the new 
Hedonism." (An atheist term) "... 8:15 
P.M. 'What Is There About Life Man 
Should Not Know,' Lee Alexander Stone, 
M.D. . . . general discussion and summary. 
9:30 P.M. Dill Pickle Club, No. 18 Tooker 
Alley. . . . Frank Orman Beck, director, 
2000 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, 111. Russel 
de Long, assistant." 

A poster for a New York trip (Mar. 21, 
1931), "For Everybody," headlines for its 
program: "Margaret Sanger, Dr. Eugene 
L. Swan on 'Love Art,' Dr. Eliot White on 
'Companionate Marriage'; 3:30 P.M. Love 
art which depicts the Art of Love where 
goodness and beauty meet in uplifting 
ecstacy . . . 6:30 P.M. Ceylon India dinner 
. . . 7:15 P.M. Psychologist on 'What Is 
Love?' . . . 9:15 General symposium. 
Books to read": (a list of sex books by 
V. F. Calverton, Judge Ben. Lindsey, Mar- 
garet Sanger is given.) "Conducted by Clar- 
ence V. Howell, N.Y." 

Another program for a tour, "Especially 
arranged by Prof. LeRoy Bowman for his 
class in Columbia U. and for all who care 
to go," features "Frank Olmstead, friend 
of Judge Lindsey on 'Companionate Mar- 



riage' and V. F. Calverton on 'Changes in 
Sex Attitudes Versus Monogamy" (Jan. 
13, 1931). Sex books by Calverton (the 
Marxist), Judge Lindsey and Margaret 
Sanger are listed for preparatory reading. 

Another poster program, headed "Visit 
Anarchists, Communists, Socialists, Roch- 
dale Cooperative, I.W.W.'s. How profound 
the ignorance of most people on what the 
radical really believes," lists on its pro- 
gram: "2:15 P.M. 'What the Anarchists 
Believe and How They Have Helped Mod- 
ern Education,' 219 Second Ave. by 
Harry Kelly, an Anarchist. Answers to 
questions. 3:15 P.M. Leave. Walk west 
to 26-28 Union Square, Workers Party 
Hdqts. (communist). 3:30 P.M. 'What 
the Communists Believe and How They 
Propose to Achieve Their Ends' by Com- 
rade Biedenkapp. Answers to questions. 
4:45 P.M. West to Rand School of Social 
Science, 7 E. 15th St. 5 P.M. 'What Social- 
ists Would Do With the City, State, 
Nation and World' by August Claessens, 
executive secretary Socialist Party, Local 
New York. Answers to questions. 6:45 
P.M. Dinner Rochdale Cooperative Restau- 
rant . . . others Russian Restaurants (Rus- 
sian Balalaika orchestra). 8:30 'Their 
Preamble The Basis on Which the I.W.W. 
Organized Unskilled and Skilled Workers 
Whom Others Had Failed to Organize,' 31 
Coentis Slip by Fellow Worker Leigh H. 
Bearce. Answers to questions. This will be 
followed for those who can remain, with 
a chance to meet the I.W.W. 10 P.M. 
Leave for home. Directors Clarence V. 
Howell, Ida Oatley Howell, Marvin H. 
Shore. For everyone who cares to attend. 
Expenses 75c for each trip . . . Add cost of 
dinner. Pay on trip. Reconciliation Trips, 
229 W. 48th St., N.Y." 

Director Howell in a release listing pro- 
grams said: "All trips, except four, this 
year in New York City were sponsored by 
professors or ether groups." He lists: 
" 'Love, New Sex Ideals,' 'Conflict of Cul- 
tures' sponsored by LeRoy E. Bowman; 
'New Religions (sometimes called Cults)' 
by Arthur L. Swift ; 'Radical Labor Head- 
quarters' by Jerome Davis; 'Atheist,' 'Dope, 
drink,' 'Union Labor,' 'Social Settlement,' 
etc. by Wm. M. Gilbert; 'Negro, Harlem 
and Radical Headquarters' by Lyford P. 
Edwards of St. Stephens College (see) ; 
five trips each summer for Summer Con- 
ference at Union Theological Seminary; 
New Riverside Church High School Dept., 
also Guild trips,' " etc., etc. Y.W.C.A. and 
Y.M.C.A. branches frequently sponsor and 
advertise trips. 



Organizations, Etc. 



223 



The Reconciliation Trips letterhead lists 
as its "Committee": 

Prof. LeRoy E. Bowman of Columbia U., 
chmn.; Julia Pettee, 85 Bedford St., treas.; Ed- 
mund B. Chaffee; Winifred L. Chappell (of the 
Communist P. G. for F. and F. campaign com- 
mittee); Frederick B. Newell; Arthur L. Swift 
of Union Theol. Sem.; Frederick M. Thrasher of 
New York U.; C. Everett Wagner; Chas. C. 
Webber; and "Cooperating Educators": Harrison 
S. Elliott, Daniel J. Fleming. Robt. Ernest Hume, 
Harry F. Ward, Gaylord S. White, for Union 
Theol. Sem.; Jerome Davis, for Yale Divinity 
School; Sarah E. D. Sturges, for National School, 
Y.W.C.A.; Walter W. Pettit for N.Y. School of 
Social Work; Chas. Homer Boynton for General 
Theol. Sem; Sidney E. Goldstein and Stephen S. 
Wise for Jewish Institute of Religion; Thos. C. 
Blaisdell, LeRoy E. Bowman, Henry R. Seager 
for Columbia U.; Clarence G. Dittmer, Louis R. 
Spriggs, Frederick M. Thrasher for New York 
U.; Eliz. F. Baker, Mabel Foote Weeks for Bar- 
nard Coll.; Arthur Dickson for Coll. of City of 
N.Y.; Paul M. Limbert for Franklin and Marshall 
Coll.; Twila Lytton Cavert (wife of Samuel 
McCrea Cavert) for Sarah Lawrence Coll.; S. 
Ralph Harlow for Smith Coll.; Adelaide T. Case, 
John L. Childs, Daniel H. Kulp, Sarah L. Pat- 
rick, F. Tredwell Smith for Teachers Coll.; Wm. 
M. Gilbert for Drew Theol. Sem. 

"RECOVERY THROUGH 
REVOLUTION" 

This is the title of a 1933 book, "A 
Symposium edited by Samuel Schmaul- 
hausen," on the "revolutionary trends in 
all major countries," by writers who favor 
a Red revolution of violence. 

Editor Schmaulhausen (p. 476) says: 
"We, the people, must recover from Cap- 
italism, a disease that has wasted and 
undermined our lives. Recovery through 
revolution ! That's the road of sanity in 
our insane social order. . . . Life and 
creation belong henceforth to Commu- 
nism." 

He also says (p. 468): "I have long 
maintained that if the Communists in 
Soviet Russia had never done anything 
else of great moment than to undo the 
evil power of the church . . . they would 
deserve in ensuing centuries of light and 
liberation the immortal thanks and affec- 
tion of their mortal fellow men. . . . From 
a psychiatric point of view religion is a 
compound neurosis; it specializes in teach- 
ing men and women to feel inferior . . . ; 
not only that but to feel ashamed of their 
sexual impulses. ... If the modern mind 
and our civilized emotions are to be saved 
. . . the very first task of a new social 
order is to eliminate the church completely 
from among man's institutions." Speaking 
of liberty, he says (p. 471) : "A proletarian 
revolution . . . must revoke , this liberty 
which is so precious to the classes pursuing 
profit and prestige. , , . Class consciousness 



is the newer and deeper type of fraternity. 
Comradeship in Communism . . . attained 
by means of socialization of the State and 
the communization of cultural and human 
relations." 

Robert Briffault, of England, another 
contributor, tells (p. 486) that promis- 
cuity, nudism, sex expression is a revolt 
against the Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie 
with its present Christian tabus concern- 
ing sex, family and marriage, but that the 
way to abolish these tabus is to abolish the 
Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie by a 
violent Red Revolution. 

Says he (p. 494): "To argue with a 
Christian, a business man, a senator, an 
old lady of independent means, or an influ- 
ential university pundit is puerile. . . . The 
only instruments of persuasion relevant to 
the case are lethal weapons. Force is the 
only argument. Those who cannot be per- 
suaded must perforce be liquidated. The 
social revolution . . . cannot be effected 
without a considerable liquidation of irra- 
tionalists. . . . Failure of gentle intellectuals 
to perceive that necessity is one of the 
most pathetic effects of their failure to 
apprehend the Marxian key thought. ..." 

V. F. Calverton, the Sex and Communist 
author, says on p. 390: "It is only by 
revolution that that realization" (of Com- 
munism) "can be translated into action. 
It is no little task that confronts us and 
it behooves us to gather up all our energies 
and dedicate all our strength to its achieve- 
ment." 

Other contributors' r are: Maxmilian Olay> 
Anarchist-Communist: Prof. Robt. Morss 
Lovett of Chicago; John Gunther, Chicago 
Daily News correspondent; H. N. Brails- 
ford, G. D. H. Cole, Harold J. Laski, of 
England ; Lewis Corey ; Louis Fischer, since 
1922 principally in Russia; Ludwig Lore; 
Max Nomad; Walter Polakov; Sachio Oka, 
Japanese Red; Chi-Chen Wang, Chinese 
lecturer at Columbia U. since 1929; Her- 
man Simpson, former teacher City Col- 
lege, N.Y.; Gaetano Salvemini, barred from 
Italy, but visiting professor at Yale 1932, 
Harvard 1930; Edwin D. Schoonmaker, 
former college professor; Arnold Roller, 
the pen name of the author of "Anti- 
militarist syndicalist pamphlets on Direct 
Action and the Revolutionary General 
Strike . . . has so far been in 35 countries 
and 8 jails. ... He has traveled through 
all Caribbean and most South American 
countries to get acquainted with the back- 
ground and the men behind the revolution- 
ary movements in these regions. . . . He 
was also a translator, smuggler, hod car- 



224 



The Red Network 



rier and even lecturer." (Contributor to 
"The Nation," "New Masses," etc.) 

RED INTERNATIONAL 
OF LABOR UNIONS 
(R.I.L.U. Magazine) 
R.I.L.U. 

The Profintern's international federation 
of communist Moscow-directed unions; 
the Trade Union Unity League (formerly 
known as the Trade Union Educational 
League, then and now headed by Wm. Z. 
Foster) is the American section; Confed- 
eration Generale du Travail Unitaire is the 
French section; founded in England in 1921 
led by Tom Mann; its magazine, "R.I. 
L.U." published at 59 Cromer St., London 
W.C.I, is sold at all Communist book- 
stores. 

RED SPORTS INTERNATIONAL 

Moscow's international Communist sports 
organization of which the Labor Sports 
Union is the American section; called the 
second line of defense of the Soviet Union 
by U.S.S.R. Commissar of Army and 
Navy Voroshilov. Conducted a Spar- 
takiade (sports contest) at Moscow 1933 
attended by delegates from all over the 
world. 

REPEAL COMMITTEE 
A San Francisco A.C.L.U. and commu- 
nist I.L.D. committee working for repeal 
of syndicalism laws (against sedition). 

RETAIL CLERKS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

REVOLUTIONARY WRITERS 
FEDERATION 

American section of Moscow's communist 
"International Union of Revolutionary 
Writers" (of the International Bureau of 
Revolutionary Literature) ; it formed the 
Workers Cultural Federation (see) ; it 
includes the John Reed Club Writers 
Group, Proletpen, Hungarian Proletarian 
Writers and Worker-Correspondents Assn., 
Japanese Cultural Federation, Finnish Cul- 
tural Federation, Lithuanian Literary Dra- 
matic Group, Jack London Club, Pen and 
Hammer, Student Review (New Masses, 
Ap. 1933) ; American author members who 
served on the 1933 staff of the Inter- 
national Union of Revolutionary Writers 
issuing its organ "Intl. Literature" include: 

Upton Sinclair, Michael Gold, A. Magil, John 
Dos Passos, Erajo Basshe, Walter Cannon, Theo- 



dore Dreiser, Fred Ellis, Ed. Falkowski, Jos Free- 
man, Josephine Herbst, Langston Hughes, Joseph 
Kalar, Joshua Kunitz, Louis Lozowick, Norman 



Chambers, Charles Yale Harrison, Melvin P. Levy, 
Harry Alan Potamkin, K. Wallace. 

Issues a monthly "Literary Service" 
edited by Keene Wallis of the John Reed 
Club, beginning Aug. 1932. Typical of the 
efforts of these writers is this sacrilegious 
poem by Langston Hughes, Negro poet: 

"GOODBYE CHRIST" 

"Listen, Christ, 

You did alright in your day, I reckon- 
But that day's gone now. 
They ghosted you up a swell story too, 
Called it Bible 
But its dead now. 
The popes and the preachers 'ye 
Made too much money from it. 
They've sold you to too many 

"Kings, generals, robbers and killers- 
Even to the Czar and the Cossacks, 
Even to Rockefeller's church, 
Even to THE SATURDAY EVENING 

POST. 

You ain't no good no more. 
They've pawned you 
Till you've done wore out. 

"Goodbye, 

Christ Jesus Lord God Jehova, 
Beat it on away from here now. 
Make way for a new guy with no religion 

at all 

A real guy named 
Marx Communist Lenin Peasant Stalin 

Worker ME 

"I said, ME! 

"Go Ahead on now, 

You're getting in the way of things, Lord. 
And please take Saint Ghandi with you 

when you go, 
And Saint Pope Pius, 
And Saint Aimie McPherson, 
And big black Saint Becton 
Of the Consecrated Dime. 
And step on the gas, Christ! 
Move! 

Don't be so slow about movin'! 
The world is mine from now on 
And nobody's gonna sell ME 
To a king, or a general, 
Or a millionaire." 

RUBBER WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 



Organizations, Etc. 



225 



RUSSIAN-AMERICAN 
INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION 

Prior to 1924 a circular sent out by the 
communist Friends of Soviet Russia (Whit- 
ney's "Reds in Am.") read: "The Friends 
of Soviet Russia, Local New York, has 
just opened a joint campaign for the Rus- 
sian-American Industrial Corporation and 
the Children's Homes in Soviet Russia. 
The corporation, formed recently in the 
Amalgamated, has for its purpose the pro- 
motion of industrial activity in Russia by 
raising sufficient capital to start large fac- 
tories. A million dollars is needed for the 
initial capital, and thousands have already 
purchased stock, which sells at $10 a share. 
Every worker who wishes to see Soviet 
Russia prosper must lend his financial 
assistance to this project." Sidney Hillman 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
headed this organization. Lenin, Eugene 
V. Debs, Jane Addams, P. Steinmetz, Con- 
gressman LaGuardia, etc., were listed as 
stockholders. 

RUSSIAN COOPERATIVE 

ASSOCIATION 

One of the communist Russian language 
mass organizations; see Foreign Language 
Groups. 

RUSSIAN MUTUAL AID SOCIETY 

Official Russian language Communist 
fraternal insurance group. 

RUSSIAN RECONSTRUCTION FARMS 
Formed to aid and finance "teaching 
Russian peasants machine methods in agri- 
culture . . . located in the Caucausus and 
is under American management . . . with- 
out the Fund's aid the first year it would 
not have gotten under way," says the red 
Garland Fund's official report listing its 
donations of $20,000, the purchase of 
$10,000 stock and a gift of $3.000 "for 
purchase of equipment in the United States 
Jan. 20, 1926." 

Says Francis Ralston Welsh: "This 
organization was under contract with the 
Communist government and its funds 
aided the Communist objects. It was got- 
ten up and controlled by the American 
Civil Liberties Union crowd and almost 
all the officers and advisory board were 
members of that crowd." Taken from its 
official pamphlet soliciting funds put out 
in 1925 are the following names: 

Officers: Horace W. Truesdell, pres.; Dr. 
Gregory Soragnell, vice-pres.; Stuart Chase, treas.; 
A. A. Heller, sec.; J. B. ColHnss Woods, auditor; 
W. Mills Hinkle, counsel; Harold A. Ware, mgr. 
in Russia; Donald Stephens, mgr. in America; 



Lucy Branham, field sec.; and Jessica Smith, exec, 
sec. Advisory board: Jane Addams, Roger N 
Baldwin, Alice Stone Blackwell, Susan Brandeis, 
Prof. Sophonisba Breckinridge, Horace J. Bridges, 
Prof. Arthur W. Calhoun, C. N. Carver, Clarence 
Darrow, Anna N. Davis. Prof. Jerome Davis, 
Mary Dreier, Sherwood Eddy, Zona Gale, Dr. 
Alice Hamilton, Rev. L. O. Hartman, Arthur 
Garfield Hays, Prof. O. P. Hedrick, Stanley High, 
Hilda P. Holme, Prof. Jesse H. Holmes, Rev! 
John Haynes Holmes, J. A. H. Hopkins, Charles 
H. Ingersoll, Marietta Johnson, Rufus Jones, 
David Starr Jordan, Mabel Hyde Kittredge, Mary 
Knoblauch, Owen R. Lovejoy, Robert Morss 
Lovett, Dr. Charles Clayton Morrison, Prof. 
Henry R. Mussey, Dr. Henry Neumann, Mrs. 
Gordon Norrie, LeRoy Peterson, Walter W. 
Pettit, Roscoe Pound, I. J. Sherman, Rev. George 
Stewart, Dr. Gregory Stragnell, Graham R. Taylor, 
Seth Sprague Terry, Jr., Norman Thomas, Wil- 
bur K. Thomas, C. A. Tupper, Allen Wardwell, 
Dean R. L. Watts, Edward C. Wentworth, and 
Mary E. Woolley. 

s 

SACCO-VANZETTI 
NATIONAL LEAGUE 
Sacco-V. Nat. Lg. 

Formed to aid the Communist agitation 
in behalf of Nicolai Sacco and Bartolomeo 
Vanzetti, the anarchist-communists con- 
victed of the murder of a paymaster and 
theft of $15,000 at Braintree, Mass. The 
red Garland Fund contributed thousands 
of dollars for this cause, to committees and 
to II Nuovo Mondo, a newspaper. In 1927 
the case was finally carried to the Supreme 
Court and Moscow-instigated demonstra- 
tions of Reds were held all over the world, 
falsely using the argument that this con- 
viction was a "frame up" of our "capital- 
istic government" against the innocent 
downtrodden Red "working class" (just as 
the Scottsboro and Mooney cases are now 
being used), thus inciting hatred of our 
government and revolutionary sentiment. 
When executed, finally, these murderers 
died yelling "Long live anarchy!" The 
home of a Judge in the case who ruled 
against them was recently bombed, accord- 
ing to press reports, by their sympathizers. 

A letter sent out by the Sacco-Van- 
zetti Nat. Lg., May 1928, signed by Robt. 
Morss Lovett, listed on its letterhead the 
following names: 

Executive Committee: Robt. Morss Lovett, 
chmn.; Eliz. Glendower Evans and Robt. L. Hale, 
vice chmn.; B. W. Huebsch, treas.; Leonard D. 
Abbott, Forrest Bailey, Paul F. Brissenden, Stuart 
Chase, Michael A. Cohn, John Lovejoy Elliott, 
Morris L. Ernst, Norman Hapgood, Jessica Hen- 
derson, John Haynes Holmes, Karl Llewellyn, 
Arthur Warner; exec, sec., Hollace Ransdell; 
"National Committee (To Date)": Jane Addams, 
Egmont Ahrens, Ruth Ahrens, Devere Allen, Dud- 
ley Babcock, Corinne Bacon, Warren Worth 
Bailey, Ella Reeve Bloor. Edmund B. Chaffee, 
Ralph Cheyney, Susan S. Codman, Felix S. Cohen, 
Morris R. Cohen, Algernon Coleman, John Collier, 
Helen Gray Cone, Clarence Darrow, Anna N. 
Davis, Floyd Dell, John Dewey, Smith O. Dexter, 



226 



The Red Network 



Wm. E. Dixon, John Dos Passes, Paul H. Doug- 
las, Betty Dublin, Will Durant, Louise A. Els- 
worth, John F. Finerty, Gilson Gardner, Karl F. 
Geiser, Eliz. Gilman, Frank A. Hamilton, Mildred 
F. Harnack. Eliz. S. Harrison, Margaret Hatfield, 
Mrs. H. C. Herring, Elsie Hillsmith, Paul J. 
Himmelreich, Hector M. Holmes, Henry T. Hunt, 
Louisa C. James, Heath Jones, Bishop Paul Jones, 
Alex. Kadison, Francis Fisher Kane, Wm. S. 
Kennedy, Natalie B. Kimber, A. H. Klocke, 
Frank H. Knight, Jos. Wood Krutch, F. H. La- 
Guardia, Harry W. Laidler, Wm. Ellery Leonard, 
Horace Liveright, Frank A. Manny, Jeannette 
Marks, Margaret Marshall, George Mischke, 
Dorothy I. Mulgrave. A. J. Muste, F. S. Onder- 
donk, Eugene O'Neill, John Orth, C. E. Parsons, 
Wm. L. Patterson, Helen Peabody, Eliz. G. Peck- 
ham, Caroline H. Pemberton, Henry W. Pinkam, 
Allan Rathburn, Mabel L. Rees, A. K. Rogers, 
John Nevin Sayre, J. Salwyn Schapiro, Samuel D. 
Schmaulhausen, P. M. Schubert, Vida D. Scud- 
der, C. W. Shumway, Claire C. Simmonds, Upton 
Sinclair, Garland Smith May Stanley, Eliz. Stuy- 
vesant, Geo. Sutherland, Genevieve Taggart, Geo. 
L. Teele, Norman Thomas, Lucia Trent, John 
Veldhuis, Oswald Garrison Villard, Ernest Wald- 
stein, Arthur L. Weatherly, Harry Weinberger, Jos. 
Weinrebe, Howard Y. Williams, Laura C. Williams, 
Milton Wittier, Arthur Evans Wood, Amy Woods, 
Mary E. Woolley. 

Hdqts. 104 Fifth Ave., N.Y.C. 

SAN FRANCISCO WORKERS SCHOOL 
A communist Workers School (see) 
"sponsored by Lincoln Steffens, Langston 
Hughes," etc., opened Dec. 4, 1933; tem- 
porary address, 624 Golden Gate Ave. 
(Daily Worker, Dec. 2, 1933.) 

SCANDINAVIAN WORKERS CLUBS 

Communist mass Foreign Language 
Groups (see). 

SCOTTSBORO COMMITTEES 
OF ACTION 

Several hundred local Committees in 
cities all over the United States had already 
been formed by the communist I.L.D. in 
May 1933. Their purpose is to stir up race 
and class hatred and distrust of our form 
of government among Negroes and to show 
them that "class solidarity" with the revo- 
lutionary Communists against the "boss 
class" of whites is their only hope of 
justice and equality. 

"The National Scottsboro Committee of 
Action is a united front body supporting 
the fight of the International Labor 
Defense for the Scottsboro Boys and the 
enforcement of civil rights for Negroes," 
said the communist Daily Worker, May 
12, 1933, in describing a meeting of 4,500 
persons held at Rockland Palace, N.Y. 
City, the night before to greet the Scotts- 
boro committees' marchers (to Pres. Roose- 
velt). Richard B. Moore, colored Commu- 
nist organizer, Ruby Bates, and others suc- 
ceeded in stirring up a hysteria of class 



hatred, evidently, in this audience. 
" 'Strikes for the enforcement of the Bill' " 
(for Negro rights) " 'and freedom of the 
Scottsboro Boys must be brought into 
existence, ' declared Moore. ... A most im- 
pressive part of the meeting was when 
Moore declared 'We know who the rapists 
of America are.' The audience broke into 
a tremendous ovation that lasted over 
three minutes and women shouted 'Tell the 
truth brother. You're on the right way.' 
Moore received an ovation when he 
exposed the white ruling class as rapists 
and oppressors also of white women 
workers." 

The Chicago Scottsboro Action Com- 
mittee, which is headed by Prof. Robt. 
Morss Lovett of the U. of Chgo., staged 
an interracial dance at the colored "Savoy 
Ballroom" (South Parkway near 47th St., 
Chgo.), Aug. 19th, 1933, arranged under 
the name of "Freedom Ball" and supported 
by various intellectual Communist-Socialist 
sympathizing radical educators, ministers, 
etc. The national executive committee of 
the National Scottsboro Committee of 
Action as printed in the Daily Worker, 
May 3, 1933 is as follows: 

Roger Baldwin, A.C.L.U.; J. B. Matthews, Fell. 
Recon.; A. Clayton Powell, Abyssinian Baptist 
Church; James W. Ford, T.U.U.L.; Shelton Hale 
Bishop, St. Phillips Church; Wm. L. Patterson, 
I.L.D. ; Edward Welsh, Harlem Interracial Forum; 
John Henry Hammond, Jr., Nat. Com. Def. Pol. 
Pris.; W. C. Handy, hon. chmn. of former Scotts- 
boro United Defense Com.; Harry Haywood, 
Communist Party of Am.; Heywood Broun, N.Y. 
World-Telegram; Cyril Brings, editor "Liberator"; 
A. J. Muste, Conf. for Prog. Lab. Act.; Maude 
White, T.U.U.L. council; Bishop Collins, Epis- 
copal Synod; Joshua Kunitz, exec. sec. Nat. Com. 
Def. Pol. Pris.; Sophie Epstein, Women's Council; 
John Goldber, Conf. for Prog. Lab. Act.; Sam. C. 
Patterson, Caribbean Union and Grand Order of 
Odd Fellows; Wm. Fitzgerald, I.L.D. (Harlem 
division) ; Mrs. Adelaide Blackwell, Eureka Temple 
of Elks Women; Cyril Phillip, Students Literary 
Assn.; Mary D. James, Supreme Coun. of Moses; 
Grace Campbell, Professional Wkrs. Lg.; Herman 
Osborne, Nat. Students Lg.; John T. Ballam, 
I.L.D.; G. B. Maddox, Williamsbridge Scotts- 
boro Action Com.; Mrs. C. J. West; Sidney Spen- 
cer, Young Communist Lg. ; J. Dalmus Steele, 
Elks; Jos. Moore, Mechanics Assn.; Herman W. 
Mackwain, Lg. Struggle for Negro Rights; Paul 
Petters, John Reed Club; Louise Thompson, sec. 
of former Scottsboro Unity Def. Com.; Frank 
Palmer, Fed. Press; Wm. N. Jones, Baltimore 
Afro-American; Matthews Crawford, Jr., Scotts- 
boro Com. in San Francisco; Loren Miller, editor 
of Cal. Eagle, Los Angeles; Eugene Gordon, Bos- 
ton Post; J. B. Blayton, Atlanta, Ga. Negro 
Chamber Commerce; Benj. J. Davis, Jr., Atlanta 
Com. for Defense of Angelo Herndon; Rev. J. W. 
Broun, Mother Zion Church; Rev. R. M. Bolden, 
First Emanuel Ch.; Wm. M. Kelley, Amsterdam 
News; Dr. Thos. S. Harten, Holy Trinity Baptist 
Ch., Brooklyn; Dr. L. H. King, St. Marks Ch.; 
Channing H. Tobias, Y.M.C.A., a representative 
of Corona Scottsboro Com.; Richard Warner; 
Samuel Mitchell; H. I. Thomas; Seward L. Virgil. 



Organizations, Etc. 



227 



SCOTTSBORO UNITY DEFENSE 

COMMITTEE 

Preceded the present Scottsboro Com- 
mittees of Action (see). 

SHARECROPPERS UNION 
Cotton pickers' communist T.U.U.L. 
union ; affiliated with the League of Strug- 
gle for Negro Rights; organized largely in 
Alabama; membership in 1933, about 5,000. 

SHOE AND LEATHER WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 

Communist T.U.U.L. union; Fred Bied- 
enkapp (see "Who's Who") nat. sec.; 
its 10-day amalgamation convention held 
in Boston, Dec. 1933, succeeded in uniting 
70,000 shoe workers under the banner of a 
new union, the United Shoe Workers 
Union, under Communist leadership. (Daily 
Worker, Dec. 23, 1933); a celebration 
meeting held in N.Y. City was addressed 
by Rose Wortis of the T.U.U.L. and by 
Biedenkapp, over a telephone broadcasting 
arrangement. 

SLOVAK WORKERS SOCIETY 
Communist fraternal mass Foreign Lan- 
guage Groups (see). 

SMALL HOME AND LAND 

OWNERS ASSOCIATION 
A communist-conceived organization 
which has been successful in Detroit and 
Cleveland; a unit being organized in Pitts- 
burg was to be addressed Sept. 1, 1933 by 
Cleveland organizers. Communists cer- 
tainly do not care whether small home 
owners lose their property or not, for 
wherever they gain control they intend, as 
in Russia, to take it away from private 
owners anyway, but they use any pretext 
whatever to stir up strife. 

SOCIALIST-LABOR PARTY 

Left-wing openly revolutionary Socialist 
party; publishes Hungarian, South Slav- 
onian, Bulgarian, Greek papers, and the 
English paper "Weekly People." John P. 
Quinn, nat. organizer; hdqts. Arnold Peter- 
sen, 45 Rose St., N.Y.C. 

SOCIALIST PARTY 

See under general articles, Socialist Party 
and the New Deal, etc., also under Inter- 
nationals (2nd), and Socialist and Labor 
International. 1933 Socialist Party National 
Executive Committee: Norman Thomas, 
Albert Sprague Coolidge, Powers Hapgood, 
Darlington Hoopes, Leo. M. Krzycki, Mor- 



ris Hillquit, James D. Graham, Daniel W. 
Hoan, Jasper McLevy, John L. Packard, 
Lilith M. Wilson. 

SOUTHERN LEAGUE FOR 

PEOPLES RIGHTS 
Organized in 1933 at Atlanta, Ga.; stands 
for unlimited "free speech," academic free- 
dom, social and racial equality, etc. Sher- 
wood Anderson was elected chmn., Bruce 
Crawford, vice chmn., Vann Woodward, 
exec. sec. and Jessie B. Blayton, treas. 

SOVIET AMERICAN SECURITIES 
CORPORATION 

Organized Dec. 1932 to sell in the U.S.A. 
a ten million dollar issue of Soviet gov- 
ernment bonds to finance the second Five 
Year Plan. A 1933 Chgo. Daily News 
article stated that the organization was 
being investigated for a possible violation 
of the Security Act of 1933. It is reported 
that thousands of dollars worth of these 
bonds have already been sold many to 
American workers. Incorporators were: 

Miles Sherover of Greenwich, Conn, (former 
Consulting Engineer for Soviet Govt.) ; Osmund 
Fraenkel of Greenwich, Conn, (an attorney for 
the communist I.L.D., who has been active in the 
Scottsboro and other Communist cases in the 
South); Arthur Fisher of Winnetka 111. (pres. of 
the A.C.L.U. Chgo. Committee and a director of 
the Amalgamated Bank, Chgo.) 

The communist Daily Worker, July 27, 
1933, featured a huge advertisement of 
this Corporation and its Soviet bonds. 

SOVIET RUSSIA TODAY 

Magazine of communist Friends of the 
Soviet Union; published monthly; 80 E. 
llth St., N.Y.C. ; ed. bd.: A. A. Heller, 
Cyril Lambkin, Listen M. Oak. 

SOVIET TRAVEL 

Intourist (Soviet govt. travel agency) 
magazine; pub. at 261 Fifth Ave., N.Y. 

SOVIET UNION 
INFORMATION BUREAU 

Until recognition, the unofficial embassy 
of the Soviet govt. in the U.S.; headed 
by Boris Skvirsky; 1637 Mass. Ave., 
N.W., Wash., D.C.; publishes "Soviet 
Union Review" and recommends books 
favorable to the U.S.S.R. 

SOVIET UNION REVIEW 
Publication of Soviet Union Information 
Bureau. 

SOVKINO 

Soviet government official motion picture 
organization which produces revolutionary 



228 



The Red Network 



propaganda films shown all over the world. 
Serge Eisenstein, one of its Moscow staff, 
was recently engaged by Hollywood pro- 
ducers. Upton Sinclair and Kate Crane 
Gartz aided and financed his Mexican pic- 
ture, according to the latter's letter pub- 
lished in New Republic, Sept. 6, 1933. 

SPARK, THE 

Official organ of the communist Student 
League of Canada. 

SPORT AND PLAY, NEW 
Monthly magazine of the communist 
Labor Sports Union ; 813 Broadway, N.Y.C. 

STEEL AND METAL WORKERS 

INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.UJL. union; claimed 
14,600 members in 1933 with 2,000 in 
Buffalo district, 820 in the Chicago district, 
3,100 in the Pittsburg district, 450 in the 
St. Louis district, and 2,400 in the N.Y. 
district; led strikes (Sept. 1933) in St. 
Louis, N.Y. City, Chicago, Indiana Har- 
bor, Buffalo, N.Y., McKee's Rocks, Pa. 

STELTON SCHOOL 
At Stelton, NJ. ; see under "Anarchism." 

ST. STEPHENS COLLEGE 

See Union Theological Seminary. 

STUDENT CONGRESS AGAINST WAR 

(AT U. OF CHICAGO) 
Student Cong. Ag. War. 

In opening the Congress, Jos. Cohen, 
who had been a student delegate of the 
communist National Student League to the 
World Congress Against War at Amsterdam, 
said: "This Congress was called by the 
National Committee at the suggestion of 
the World Congress Against War in Am- 
sterdam" (see). 

Professors Robt. Morss Lovett, Fred- 
erick L. Schuman and Harry D. Gideonse 
were official faculty sponsors of this Stu- 
dent Congress, which was held at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, Mandel Hall, Dec. 27- 
29, 1932, with the sanction, necessarily, of 
Pres. Hutchins. 

According to the official printed program 
of the Congress, speakers and leaders of its 
discussion groups were: Earl Browder, nat. 
sec. of the Communist Party of the U.S.A. 
(who attends the more important Com- 
munist functions) ; Scott Nearing, a Com- 
munist leader; Jos. Freeman, Communist 
editor of New Masses and co-author with 
Scott Nearing of "Dollar Diplomacy"; J. 



B. Matthews of the Fell Recon.; Upton 
Close; Jane Addams (speaker with Scott 
Nearing and J. B. Matthews, Dec. 28, 
afternoon session) ; and a few others. It 
stated also: "Arrangements are being 
made to house the delegates on or near the 
campus." Dec. 27th was given to register- 
ing the delegates at Mandel Hall. 

According to the Advisory Associates 
stenographic report of the session, the fol- 
lowing events occurred: 

Joe Weber and Joe Jurich, Communist 
Party functionaries, were officially present; 
Ben Gray of Cleveland and Jack Kling of 
Chicago, both of the Young Communist 
League, and communist I.L.D. atty. Vlad- 
imir Janowicz and his wife, were also 
present. The sessions averaged about 600 
delegates present and a gallery of from SO 
to 300 visitors. 

The chairman first read greetings sent 
by sympathizers. Among these was a mes- 
sage from Communist Theodore Dreiser 
saying: "This is the most significant step 
towards peace since the Russian Revo- 
lution." This message also called upon the 
youth in capitalist countries to convince 
members of existing armed forces that 
their real enemies were at home that it is 
the capitalist system and those enemies, 
who are driving people to poverty and 
death. A message from Rev. Henry Sloane 
Coffin, president of Union Theological 
Seminary, started: "Every Christian 
should be heart and soul against war. I 
heartily endorse the Student Congress 
Against War." Corliss Lament and Jos. 
Freeman sent "Revolutionary Greetings." 

Jos. Cohen in his "Keynote Address" 
urged that the "Manifesto" of the Amster- 
dam W.C.A.W. be studied by every dele- 
gate of this Congress. He asserted that "the 
importance of this Congress lay in the 
action that would be taken for the future, 
in the fight against the R.O.T.C. and 
C.M.T.C., and other war institutions." 

Earl Browder (nat. sec. Communist 
Party) was greeted with a burst of 
applause. He said that Communism, while 
opposing imperialist war was not opposed to 
civil war, which was the only way to over- 
throw capitalist imperialism and stop 
imperialist war; and that the only answer 
to the war dangers in schools was the 
National Student League (Communist) ; 
that the student of today must tear down 
tradition and fight for the abolition of the 
private ownership system; that in Russia 
and throughout the world Communists 
advocate birth control and allow only those 
physically fit to bring children into the 



Organizations, Etc. 



229 



world the same as manufacturing is limited 
to the needs of the nation; and that any- 
one really working against war must unite 
with the Communist Party for the over- 
throw of capitalism. Following Browder's 
address was a question period in which the 
question was asked "Can Communist stu- 
dents strike against the R.O.T.C.?", to 
which Browder replied: "The Communist 
Party energetically supports any movement 
designed to fight the R.O.T.C. Every stu- 
dent should join in a united front against 
the damn menace." 

J. B. Matthews said the pacifists have 
always been a failure because they were 
one war behind; that in the next war they 
must be organized in a united front to 
march on the seat of authority where war 
is declared, and that in order to do this 
we must be organized and prepared to 
overthrow any government that attempts 
to plunge us into war for any cause what- 
ever; that even if capitalism could outlaw 
war, pacifists would still have a social duty 
to perform, as there can be no peace in 
the world for the workers as long as this 
parasitical bloodsucking system has the 
world in its grip. He also lauded Jane 
Addams and Scott Nearing for their war 
time work. 

Jane Addams spoke next and said she 
stood with Gandhi in his policy of non- 
violence. (He unfortunately incites such 
violence in others that he has to be jailed 
continually.) 

Communist Scott Nearing, who spoke 
next, said that war is the central political 
function of modern capitalist states, that 
the only way to peace was through a new 
social order based on production for use 
and not for profit, and that the producers 
must organize to take away the social and 
economic machinery from the gang of 
profiteers now in power. "We call it 
seizure of power" he said. He said that 
the Amsterdam Congress advocated strikes 
in munition plants, fraternization among 
troops of opposing armies, refusal to trans- 
port war materials, and organization of 
nuclei in armed forces to spread revolution- 
ary ideals. Concluding, he said the day 
would come when organized groups would 
settle all differences over green-top tables 
and say "Down with Capitalism and up 
with the Soviet Union." 

An evening discussion of Group No. 1 
was led by J. B. Matthews and Mac Gor- 
don and delegates from Toledo, Syracuse, 
John Hopkins U., N.Y. City, etc. told of 
their efforts to smash the R.O.T.C. A 
delegate from Columbia stated: "If a col- 



lege is in the Soviet Union, a military unit 
should be an integral part of the institu- 
tion's life but not so in the United States." 
At Syracuse, it was explained, the pacifist 
clergymen among the alumni body were 
played upon to work against military 
training in the schools. This was highly 
recommended for a line of strategy in 
Church schools. Mac Gordon summarized 
the discussion by saying that "the most 
important thing is not whether I take it 
or not" (military training), "but to break 
up the corps entirely by propagandizing 
against it and to fight against the National 
Guard, C.M.T.C. and American Legion." 

Discussion Group No. 2 was led by 
Communist Eugene Bechtold, instructor in 
the communist Chicago "Workers School" 
of revolution. Recommendations were: 
"Present a petition to Congress refusing to 
support militarism in any form. In case 
of war, the students must call a strike in 
all industry and agriculture. But we must 
now join the R.O.T.C., C.M.T.C., Army 
and Navy so we can bore from within to 
cause its downfall. We changed from the 
Feudal system to the Monarchy and from 
the Monarchies to the Capitalist system, 
of which the United States is the bastard 
child. The Communist party calls on all 
the workers and students of the United 
States to overthrow this government and 
set up a Communist state." 

The morning session of Thursday, Dec. 
29, opened with the reading of a "Revo- 
lutionary Greeting" from the communist 
"Chicago Workers School." The first speak- 
er was Donald Henderson, nat. sec. of the 
communist National Student League. He 
said the R.O.T.C. must be penetrated and 
the cadets convinced that they were merely 
being trained for cannon fodder and that 
the students must also fight against the 
economic system and demand that the 
money for military training be given for 
educational purposes instead. A Hyde Park 
High School delegate stated that teachers 
let girls talk to classes for five or ten min- 
utes to get delegates to the Congress. C. 
Jones, colored graduate of Columbia and 
student of a "Wilkins College" in Chicago, 
advocated boring from within and made a 
vicious attack on Christianity which was 
received with great applause. A woman 
delegate from Antioch College, Yellow 
Springs, Ohio, made a viciously revo- 
lutionary talk urging the entire system of 
profit be done away with and that a revo- 
lution was the only way out. A delegate 
from Milwaukee State Teachers College 
attacked the National Guard and military 



230 



The Red Network 



expenses and said his campus was too lib- 
eral to support any R.O.T.C. unit. Jos. 
Cohen presented resolutions on recognition 
of Russia, Student Fight Against Militarism 
in High Schools and Colleges, etc. 

Communist literature was distributed 
including: Student Review (of N.S. Lg.) ; 
the Communist International's "Struggle 
Against Imperialist War and the Task of 
the Communists"; "Is the American Intel- 
lectual?" by Maxim Gorki; "A Warless 
World" by Scott Nearing; "Stop Mu- 
nitions" by C. Bulazel, pub. by R.I.L.U.; 
W.CA.W. pamphlet pub. by its Am. Com. 
for Struggle Against War; Moscow Daily 
News; Lenin's "The Threatening Catas- 
trophe and How to Fight It"; "Socialism 
and War" by G. Zinoviev and V. I. Lenin; 
Intl. Publishers Catalogue; "The Soviets 
Fight for Disarmament" by A. Lunachar- 
sky; Anti-Imperialist Review; "Another 
World War" by Scott Nearing; "The 
World Crisis and War Danger" by N. 
Rudolph, printed in Russia; etc. 

Also distributed were: "Program 1931- 
1932, Women's International League for 
Peace and Freedom"; "Out of a Job 
Why?" by Women's International League 
for Peace and Freedom (headed by Jane 
Addams) ; Application Blank of "Green 
International, a World Movement for the 
Higher Patriotism"; Prospectus of Green 
International; "What Is War Resistance" 
by Jessie Wallace Hughan, issued by War 
Resisters Lg., 171 W. 12th St., N.Y. City; 
"War Resistance" by Wm. Floyd, dir. 
Peace Patriots, issued by Arbitrator Press, 
114 E. 31 St., N.Y. City. 

The "National Committee for the Stu- 
dent Congress Against War" was formed 
by members of the American Committee 
for Struggle Against War (of the World 
Congress Against War at Amsterdam) in 
conjunction with the communist National 
Student League. All of these committees 
and Congresses are under the control and 
direction of Moscow's Intl. Lg. Against 
Imperialism and its leaders. A comparison 
will show that certain leaders serve on the 
various committees. 

The Nat. Com. for the Student Congress 
Against War as printed on the official pro- 
gram is as follows: 

Sherwood Anderson, Henri Barbusse, Eleanor 
Copenhaver (Y.W.C.A.), George S. Counts, Leo 
Gallagher (I.L.D.), Donald Henderson, H. W. L. 
Dana, Corliss Lamont, J. B. Matthews, Herman J. 
Muller. Scott Nearing, Margaret Schlauch, 
Frederick L. Schuman, Thos. Woody, Robt. 
Morss Lovett; Students: Edmund Stevens of 
the N.S. Lg., chmn., Columbia U., N.Y.; Dora 
Zucker, sec., Coll. City of N.Y.; Margaret Bailey, 
treas., N.Y. Univ.; Gregory Bardacke, Syracuse 



Coll., Mass.; Jos. Cohen, Brooklyn Coll., N.Y.; 
Edwin L. Diggs, Lambuth Coll., Tenn.; Henry 
Forblade. Commonwealth Coll., Ark.; Carl Geiser, 
Tenn. Coll., Ohio; Edw. Hartshorne, Jr., Har- 
vard U., Mass.; Richard Lake, State U., Mont.; 
George Perazich, U. of Gal.- Eugene Schaffar- 
man, U. of Mich.; Norman Spitzer, Cornell U., 
N.Y.; Nathaniel Weyl, Columbia U., N.Y.; Ira 
Latimer, LeMoyne Coll., Memphis, Tenn. 

STUDENT LEAGUE 
See National Student League (Commu- 
nist). 

STUDENT OUTLOOK 

Organ of socialist League for Industrial 
Democracy (see) ; pub. by its "Inter- 
collegiate Student Council"; changed name 
from "Revolt"; previously called Inter- 
collegiate Socialist Review; 112 E. 19th 
St., N.Y.C. 

STUDENT REVIEW 
Organ of communist National Student 
League (see) ; staff and contributors affili- 
ated with Revolutionary Writers Fed- 
eration. 

SUIT CASE AND BAG 

WORKERS UNION 
Now the Pocketbook section of the Shoe 
and Leather Workers Industrial Union, a 
communist T.U.U.L. union; under Fred 
Biedenkapp. 

"SURVEY" 

And "Survey Graphic"; intellectual 
socialistic publications; Paul U. Kellogg, 
editor; evidence concerning its favorable 
attitude toward the I.W.W., its "apologetic 
attitude toward extreme radical activities," 
its articles "to encourage the demand for 
the release of so-called 'political prisoners' 
like Debs and Kate Richards O'Hare," is 
printed in the Lusk Report, also that it 
received $13,000 yearly from the Russell 
Sage Foundation; Edward T. Devine, 
Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, Jos. K. 
Hart, Haven Emerson, M.D., Robt. W. 
Bruere, Joanna C. Colcord, are contribut- 
ing editors and Mary Ross, Beulah Amidon, 
Leon Whipple, John Palmer Gavit, Loula 
D. Lasker, Florence Loeb Kellogg, and 
Gertrude Springer, assoc. editors (1933) ; 
Arthur Kellogg is mg. ed. ; Lucius R. East- 
man is pres., Julian W. Mack, Joseph P. 
Chamberlain, John Palmer Gavit are vice 
presidents, Ann Reed Brenner is sec., and 
Arthur Kelloge treas, of Survey Associates, 
Inc., the publishers, 112 E. 19th St., N.Y.C. 

SYNDICALISM 

Means: "The ownership and operation 
of each industry by the workers in that 



Organizations, Etc. 



231 



industry the political state to be abol- 
ished." Anarchists, Communists, I.W.W.'s, 
and Socialists are all in some degree syndi- 
calists ; all favor the abolition of the present 
political state. Hence laws passed against 
seditious, revolutionary activities aimed at 
the overthrow of the state have come to 
be called "syndicalism" laws, the name 
being derived from the foreign name for 
labor unions or "syndicates." 



TASS (CABLE SERVICE) 
Official Soviet cable service; has office 
with the Federated Press in Washington, 
D.C. 

TAXI WORKERS UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

TEACHERS UNION 
Radical-pacifist, anti-national-defense, 
pro-Soviet Teachers Union of N.Y. City; 
received from the red Garland Fund 
"towards the educational campaign for 
the repeal of Lusk Laws, $500," also $6,000 
and $3,172.50 for "operating expenses" and 
"research and publicity work outside of 
regular activities." (The Lusk Laws were 
anti-sedition laws recommended by the 
Lusk Committee of the N.Y. State Legis- 
lature.) Henry R. Linville is president. He 
is also pres. of the radical American Fed- 
eration of Teachers. 

TEXTILE WORKERS INDUSTRIAL 

UNION, NATIONAL 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

TOBACCO WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
A communist T.U.U.L. union; primarily 
organized around Tampa, Fla.; agitated 
strikes involving more than 9,000 workers 
in cigar industry there in 1933; the Com- 
munist Labor Defender, Aug. 1933, exults 
over the freeing of all Tampa prisoners 
by the communist I.L.D.; conducted gen- 
eral strike affecting 40 shops and 4,000 
workers, in N.Y. City, Aug. 1933, from 
hdqts. at 350 E. 31st St., N.Y. City. 

TRADE UNION 
EDUCATIONAL LEAGUE 

Organized Nov. 1920; reorganized as the 
Trade Union Unity League at Cleveland, 
Aug. 1929; headed then and now by Com- 
munist Wm. Z. Foster; it specialized in 
"boring from within" other unions while 
the present organization in addition organ- 



izes Red Unions; received $900 from Gar- 
land Fund, 1925-26. 

TRADE UNION UNITY LEAGUE 
T.U.U.L. 

Communist federation of labor; Amer- 
ican section of the Profintern or Red Inter- 
national of Labor Unions directed by Mos- 
cow; a federation of Communist labor 
unions directing and spreading the Red 
trade union movement and also directing 
Communist members who have bored from 
within A.F. of L. unions to gain control; 
organizes the communist Unemployed 
Councils; membership 1933 is 89,700; 
organized at Cleveland, Aug. 1929; suc- 
ceeded the Trade Union Educational 
League, which specialized on "boring from 
within" regular unions; Wm. Z. Foster is 
nat. sec. and was also head of the former 
Trade Union Educational League; official 
organ is "Labor Unity"; hdqts. 2 W. 15th 
St., N.Y. City. 

TRANSPORTATION WORKERS 

LEAGUE 

A communist T.U.U.L. union; also the 
American section of the International of 
Transportation Workers. 

TUNNEL WORKERS 
INDUSTRIAL UNION 
Communist T.U.U.L. union. 

U 

UKRAINIAN PROLETARIAN 
WRITERS AND WORKER- 
CORRESPONDENTS ASSOCIATION 
Section of communist Revolutionary 
Writers Federation. 

UKRAINIAN WOMENS 
TOILERS ASSOCIATION 
UKRAINIAN WORKERS CLUBS 
Communist Foreign Language Groups 
(see). 

UNEMPLOYED COUNCILS 
Communist Party organizations for 
agitating the unemployed; organized July 
4, 1930 at a Chicago Congress of Commu- 
nist District Organizers; is a section of the 
T.U.U.L.; is controlled by "Party frac- 
tions" and officerships (as are Foreign 
Language Groups); nat. sec. Israel Amter; 
Cook County, 111. sec., Karl Lockner; Chi- 
cago has 71 city branches and local quar- 
ters; HI. State hdqts. 2401 W. Roosevelt 
Road; Cook Co. organ is "The Chicago 



232 



The Red Network 



Hunger Fighter"; agitates in 36 States, 
each State having State as well as local 
hdqts.; nat. hdqts. N.Y. City. 

UNEMPLOYED ORGANIZATIONS 

In order to distinguish the unemployed 
groups of one Party from those of another: 

Unemployed Councils are groups of the 
Communist Party. 

Workers Leagues are those of the Pro- 
letarian Party (Communist). 

Unemployed Unions are those of the 
I.W.W. 

Unemployed Citizens Leagues, often 
called Unemployed Leagues, are those of 
the Conference for Progressive Labor 
Action (left-wing, militant, Socialist, Com- 
munist-cooperating organization led by A. 
J. Muste). 

Associations of Unemployed are those of 
the Communist Party (Opposition) led by 
Jay Lovestone. 

(National) Federation of Unemployed 
Workers Leagues is the Communist-I.W.W. 
dominated united front of all groups, 
organized by Karl Borders. 

Workers Committees on Unemployment 
(of N.Y., Chicago, etc.) are Borders' L.I.D. 
Socialist groups cooperating with all of 
the others. 

UNION OF EAST AND WEST 

See Fellowship of Faiths. 

UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
(AND ST. STEPHENS COLLEGE) 

The notable number of ministerial 
graduates and instructors of Union Theo- 
logical Seminary who are also active agi- 
tators in the Red Socialist-Communist 
movement have helped, no doubt, to popu- 
larize its nickname "The Red Seminary." 
The L.I.D. conference "Guiding the Revo- 
lution" held there Dec. 1931, the activities 
of men like Karl Borders, Harry Ward, 
Reinhold Niebuhr, Arnold Johnson (ar- 
rested for criminal syndicalism), the 
Seminary's advertised recommendation of 
a filthy sex book for the Eugenics Publish- 
ing Co. (fellow publishers of the atheist 
Freethought Press), etc., etc., help this 
reputation along. 

The Lusk Report (p. 1115) states: 
"There are two dangerous centers of Revo- 
lutionary Socialist teaching of a university 
type in ecclesiastical institutions. One is 
the Union Theological Seminary of New 
York, where Christian Ethics are taught 
by Dr. Harry F. Ward; the other is St. 
Stephens College at Annandale, N.Y., where 



the president is the Rev. Iddings-Bell, and 
the professor of economics the Socialist, 
Dr. Edwards. . . . 

"Dr. Ward is the author of 'The New 
Social Order,' in which he shows a decided 
sympathy for Socialist social forms and is 
friendly to Bolshevism in Russia. . . . He 
characterized the cognate I.W.W. 'phil- 
osophy' as the most ideal and practical 
philosophy since the days of Jesus Christ, 
and as expressing the ideas of Christ much 
more closely than any church of the present 
day. 

"... He is chairman of the American 
Civil Liberties Union which champions the 
I.W.W., and presided over the I.W.W. 
meeting of Feb. 9, 1920, held at the Rand 
School, to raise money for the defense of 
the I.W.W. murderers of the four members 
of the American Legion at Centralia. 

"... The pro-Bolshevik articles which 
Dr. Ward contributed to 'The Social Ser- 
vice Bulletin' of the Methodist Federation 
for Social Service were considered partic- 
ularly objectionable because the Bulletin 
was circulated not only by the Methodist 
Church but by the Congregational, North- 
ern Baptist and other organizations. They 
called attention to Dr. Ward's text books 
circulated by the Graded Sunday School 
Syndicate. Dr. Ward is also connected with 
the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A. and the Inter- 
Church World Movement. 

"... Such specialists in Bolshevism as 
Lieutenant Klieforth and Wm. English 
Walling have characterized Dr. Ward's 
statements as downright falsehoods or dis- 
torted facts, and as a kind of Bolshevism 
far worse than the Bolshevism of Russia. 

"The same attempt to swing existing edu- 
cational institutions to the support of the 
atheism and materialism of the I.W.W. and 
Bolshevism is shown in the movement in 
the Episcopal Church of which the nominal 
leader is the Rev. Bernard Iddings Bell. He 
is at the head of St. Stephens College at 
Annandale. . . . The head of the department 
of economics is the Rev. Lyford P. Ed- 
wards, an able expositor of Socialism and 
member of the Socialist Party. He gives 
courses at the college on the I.W.W., on 
Syndicalism, Socialism and Bolshevism. As 
a Socialist ... he teaches these movements 
to the young Episcopalians sympathetically. 

"What the President, Dr. Bell himself, 
thinks, can be judged from his book, 'Right 
and Wrong after the War.' He here bases 
the whole history and character of civil- 
ization on what he calls the two great 
'Urges,' the Hunger Urge and the Sex 
Urge. He accepts, in other words, the low- 



Organizations, Etc. 



233 



est form of the Karl Marx materialistic 
conception of history, in which there is 
absolutely no place for God in the evo- 
lution of the universe. Logically this is 
inescapable atheism. As a corollary he 
states two fundamental articles of faith: (1) 
that private property should be absolutely 
abolished and (2) that interest on invested 
property, rents, savings, etc. is robbery. He 
also condemns, as the Bolsheviki do, the 
present institution of the family, which he 
regards as a purely sexual relation, except 
insofar as it subserves the raising of the 
young. 

"In a sermon delivered on May 23, 
1920, in the Cathedral of St. John the 
Divine, Dr. Bell announced his sympathy 
with the revolutionary element of labor 
which demands the abolishing of the wage 
system and the communistic assumption of 
control." 

UNITED CONFERENCE FOR 
PROGRESSIVE POLITICAL ACTION 

See under Conference for Progressive 
Political Action. 

UNITED COUNCILS OF 

WORKING CLASS HOUSEWIVES 

UNITED COUNCILS OF WORKING 

CLASS WOMEN 

American sections of the Womens Com- 
munist International; very active in pre- 
venting evictions, in unemployed demon- 
strations, in picketing and, in 1932, led 
strikes in N.Y., Chicago, etc., to compel 
reduction of price of bread; the official 
organ is "The Working Woman," "published 
monthly by the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party U.S.A. Section of the 
Communist International, Fifty East 13th 
St., N.Y. City" (price SOc year). The fol- 
lowing groups bought space in the May 
1933 issue to send "Revolutionary Greet- 
ings to the Workers of the Soviet Union": 

Nairjosta, Waukegan, 111.; Scandinavian Work- 
ing Women's Council of Cleveland; Womens 
Councils of Elmwood, 111. and of Albany Park, 
Chicago; Council No. 3 Chicago; Lithuanian 
Working Womens Alliance branch No. 17, Detroit; 
Branch No. 130; Ukrainian Working Women Red 
Star of Dearborn, Mich.; Armenian Working 
Women, Detroit; Womens Council of Stamford, 
Conn.; Fitchburg Womens Club and Secretariat, 
Fitchburg, Mass. 

UNITED FARMERS LEAGUE 

(and Communist Farm Movement) 
Communist Party organization; formerly 
known as the United Farmers Educational 
League. To quote: "As to making the 
U.F.L. a mere propaganda organization I 
want to say we have purposely taken the 



word 'educational' from the name of the 
United Farmers Educational League, to 
indicate that we now abandon our propa- 
ganda stage among the farmers and now 
enter into actual struggles. ..." "The 
leadership in the . . . revolution itself, must 
go to the city proletariat as the really con- 
scious, revolutionary class by virtue of the 
fact that the city proletarians are so situ- 
ated, socially and economically, that they 
can gain control of, and dominate the insti- 
tutions which are of decisive importance 
when it is a question of seizing and hold- 
ing power. Obviously the farmers are not 
so situated. . . . However the city proletariat 
must diligently seek the masses of poor 
farmers as an ally in the Revolution, and 
the consummation of such an alliance, is a 
necessary prerequisite for a successful 
Revolution in America. The revolutionary 
city industrial workers, guided and led by 
the Communist Party, cannot seize and 
hold power without such an alliance." 

"What is the function of the United 
Farmers League ? The Party has set up the 
U.F.L. and its official organ the United 
Farmer, as a means of reaching the poor 
farmers with the revolutionary message, as 
an aid to the Party . . . not in any passive 
or extraneous sense, but quite actively, and 
as a means of actual struggle and combat 
with the capitalists and the capitalist 
authorities." 

"The U.F.L. is not and will not be a 
'dead' organization. That the poor farmers 
will actually do something for themselves 
... is proved by what took place in a 
small town in Wisconsin recently, where 
the farmers objected to the high taxes 
foisted upon them, and took physical action 
against the tax collectors, and also by an 
incident in Arkansas, where a group of 
farmers, who were starving, helped them- 
selves to foodstuffs by stealing it openly." 
"Yes, the poor farmers will fight. Just try 
them out and see!" (From Alfred Knut- 
son's Communist Party treatise "Function 
of the Revolutionary U.F.L.") 

The Communist farmer movement has 
been growing by leaps and bounds. In the 
Western States such as Colorado, Cali- 
fornia, etc., where there are large numbers 
of Japanese, Mexican and Filipino laborers 
in the fruit and vegetable areas, the com- 
munist Agricultural Workers Industrial 
Union of the T.U.U.L. has been operating 
successfully. December 7-10, 1932 at 
Washington, D.C. the communist-controlled 
Farmers National Relief Conference under 
the leadership of Lem Harris formed a 
National Farmers Committee for Action. 



234 



The Red Network 



NATIONAL FARMERS COMMITTEE FOR ACTION 

Typical Red resolutions were adopted 
demanding: recognition of Russia; Negro 
equality; unlimited "free speech" and 
rights to parade; elimination of all appro- 
priations for national defense; "Hands Off" 
Haiti, China, Philippines, or wherever 
revolutionary activities endanger American 
holdings. To quote: "No American investor 
in foreign lands should have any claim on 
our government for the protection of his 
property." 

Lem Harris' executive committee was 
composed of John Marshall (Ohio Com- 
munist executive) ; Fred Chase, New 
Hampshire Communist leader; Lew Bentz- 
ley, for whom the Young Pioneers sawed 
wood (see United Farmers Protective 
Assn.) ; and Philip Smith of New Hope, 
Pa., close associate of Bentzley. The 
organization voted to maintain a permanent 
office at 1622 H St., N.W., Washington, 
D.C. and to publish the Farmers National 
Weekly as its official organ with Robt. H. 
Hall as editor (now combined with United 
Farmers Lg. organ). 

Others elected on the National Commit- 
tee were: 

Chmn., A. O. Rosenberg, vice pres. Nebr. State 
Holiday Assn.; L. B. Stein, Connecticut Valley 
Farmers; George Keith, communist United Farmers 
Lg. of Idaho; Geo. C. Wright of Iowa; W. M. 
Hobby, Mass. Farmers Lg.; Booker T. Thurman, 
Keystone Club of Negro Farmers, Mich.; George 
Casper, communist United Farmers Lg. of Mich.; 
James Flower, Wadena Committee of Action, 
Minn.; Andrew Oja, Farmers Union Local 165; 
Andrew Dahlsten, Nebraska Farmers Holiday Assn. 
(Madison County Plan) (referred to in com- 
munist Henry Puro's article as a leftwing Red 
organization) ; Stephen Negroescu, West New 
Jersey Dairy Union; A. Salo, Spencer Cooperative 
Society, NeW York; Andrew Omholt, Farm Holi- 
day Assn., N.D.; Paul Dale, Finnish Farmers 
Club, Oregon; A. Meyer, Farm Holiday Assn., 
S.D.; P. E. Rhinehart, Va.; Ralph Nelson, com- 
munist United Farmers Lg., Wash.; J. Hetts, 
communist United Farmers Lg., Wis.; Fred C. 
Strong, Wyo. Holiday Assn. 

This National Farmers Committee, a 
subsidiary of the United Farmers League, 
formed State groups. The Iowa group, for 
example, under the leadership of "Mother" 
Ella Reeve Bloor, veteran Communist agi- 
tator, proceeded to stir up violence around 
Sioux City. The State groups penetrated 
the Farmers Holiday Association groups 
that had been organized by Milo Reno 
(himself active in the radical Conference 
for Progressive Political Action movement) 
and seized control of them by placing Com- 
munist leaders at the head. Some time ago 
(summer 1933) when it was claimed that 
the combined membership of the three 
groups numbered 92,000 with 68,000 of this 



number in the Farmers National Committee 
for Action, Advisory Associates Bulletin 
stated: 

"The conservative farmers' organizations, 
such as the American Farm Bureau Fed- 
eration, have consistently refused to recog- 
nize or admit the spread of Communist 
influence in agricultural districts and there- 
fore have been of little service in exposing 
or opposing the advance of Communism. 
92,000 farmers under Communist revo- 
lutionary leadership is a lot of farmers. 
Unite this force with the Communist in- 
dustrial workers and there develops a pic- 
ture that should be startling to even the 
most apathetic citizen." 

I attended one of the sessions of the 
Farmers Second National Conference held 
at the Chicago Coliseum, Nov. 17, 1933. 
The Internationale was sung and the usual 
Communist banners decorated the hall. 
Israel Amter and Ella Reeve Bloor of the 
Communist Party central committee spoke. 
Over 700 delegates from 36 states repre- 
senting organizations with 130,885 members 
were in attendance and a total audience 
of about 3,000 people. 

Ella Reeve Bloor, the clever old agitator 
introduced as having occupied many a jail, 
said: "Last year we stood for a moratorium 
on mortgages. This year we have unani- 
mously voted for cancellation of all mort- 
gages. Next year we will be so strong we 
will seize the power and will confiscate the 
rich property holders lands!" For this she 
was cheered vociferously. She told how in 
certain towns the relief authorities had 
refused relief to farmers who drove auto- 
mobiles and how she and her crowd had 
forced them not only to give relief but to 
buy gasoline for the cars. More cheers. 
Her entire talk was a popularly received 
incitement to violence. 

I glanced around at this crowd of colored 
and white people of the cheering audience 
with their fur-collared, silk-lined coats, 
good shoes and overcoats and with them 
mentally contrasted the many Russians 
whom I had seen carrying their shoes when 
it rained in order to save them, who wear 
rags about their heads, the best of them, 
and I thought of the pitiful millions in 
Russia now being deliberately mercilessly 
liquidated by starvation on the theory that 
they are "bourgeois" class enemies of their 
heartless atheist Communist government. 

Two delegates from one state who are 
acquaintances of mine told me of the wire 
sent by the conference to Moscow express- 
ing solidarity of the American farmers with 
the workers (poor slaves) of Soviet Rus- 



Organizations, Etc. 



235 



sia and of the reply of gratification received 
back from Moscow. Communist Party 
organizers held firm control of every ses- 
sion and it was apparent, they said, that 
every act, every resolution, had been cut 
and dried in advance for the delegates by 
these trained Party organizers. 

A parody to be sung to the tune of "My 
Country Tis of Thee," entitled "Greed's 
Country 'Tis of Thee," was dedicated to 
the Conference by the communist United 
Farmers League and was in part as follows: 

****** 

Bosses of slavery, 
Graft, crime and charity, 
Prepare for tours! 
Our hearts with rapture thrill 
To know that home and hill 
Field, stock, crop and mill 
Will not be yours! 
Etc., etc. 

Another song dedicated to the Conference 
by the same author is entitled "Before the 
Revolution," sung to the tune of "Yankee 
Doodle." 

Nat. hdqts. United Farmers Lg., 1629 Linden 
Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.; nat. sec., Alfred Tiala; 
official organ "Producers News," "published Fri- 
day of each week at Plentywood, Montana, by the 
Peoples Publishing Co., Inc."; Eric Bert, ed.; 
L. M. Lerner, acting ed.; Chas. E. Taylor, mg. 
ed. ; Hans Rasmussen, bus. mgr. ; Jan. 1934 com- 
bined with National Farmers Committee of Action 
"Farmers National Weekly" with hdqts. at 1510 
W. 18th St., Chicago. 

Farmers' National Committee for Action 
Affiliated Organizations (calling Second 
Conference) : 

Alabama: Alabama Farmers' Protective Assn.; 
Cullman County Debt Holiday Assn.; Share 
Croppers' Un.; Arkansas: Farmers' Protective 
Assn. of Arkansas; Hugh Gore, Route 2, Mena, 
State sec.; California: United Farmers' League, 
Carl Patterson, 2546 Inyo St., Fresno, State sec.; 
Colorado: Farm Holiday Assn. of San Juan Basin, 
Enoch Hardaway, Dove Creek, sec.; Connecticut: 
United Farmers of Windham County, Aino Kos- 
kinen, Box 100, Brooklyn, sec.; Florida: Farmers' 
Protective Assn. of Pasco County, Victor Eikeland, 
Route 1, Zephyrhills, sec.; Farmers' and Farm 
Workers' Lg.; Illinois: Westville Branch, Small 
Home and Land Owners' Lg., John F. Sloan, 114 
Illinois St., Westville, sec.; Iowa: Iowa Regional 
Committee for Action, E. R. Bloor, 1117 McDon- 
ald St., Sioux City, sec.; Kentucky: Kentucky 
Farmers' Local Committee for Action, No. 1 ; 
C. W. Button, Hibernia, sec.; Michigan: Mich- 
igan Farmers' League, Clyde U. Smith, Route 1, 
Beulah, sec.; Minnesota: United Farmers' League, 
James Flower, 1629 Linden Ave., Minneapolis, 
State sec., Alfred Tiala, 1629 Linden Ave., Minne- 
apolis, National sec.; Minnesota State Youth Com- 
mittee for Action, Matt Hill, Box 318, Virginia, 
sec.; Montana: United Farmers' League, Rodney 
Salisbury, Plentywood. State sec.; Nebraska: Holi- 
day Assn. of Nebraska (Madison County Plan), 
J. J. Schefcik, Alliance, pres. ; New Jersey: New 
Jersey Farmers' Protective Assn., Harry W. 



Springer, 3rd and Park Aves., Vineland, pres.; 
West New Jersey Farmers' Dairv Un., John F. 
Buggeln, Jutland, sec.; North Dakota: North 
Dakota State Committee for Action, Ashbel Inger- 
son, Flaxton, sec.; United Farmers' Lg., P. J. 
Barrett, Sanish, State sec.; Ohio: Ohio Farmers' 
Lg., John W. Marshall, Route 1, Leetonia, sec.; 
Oklahoma: Oklahoma Farm Debt Holiday Assn., 
Local No. 1, John Phillips, Tuttle, sec.; Okla- 
homa Farm Debt Holiday Assn., Local No. 3, 
W. I. Cecil, Blanchard, sec.; Farmers' Organ- 
ization of Red Hill, J. M. Weeks, Route 1, 
Newalla, sec.; Atowah Farmers' Committee for 
Action, F. W. Avants, Route 1, Noble, sec.; Cole 
Farmers' Committee for Action, E. S. Easley, 
Route 2, Blanchard, sec.; Oregon: Oregon State 
Committee for Action, Paul Dale, Knappa, sec.; 
Farmers' Protective Assn. of Oregon; Pennsylvania: 
United Farmers' Protective Assn., Lewis Bentzley, 
Route 3, Perkasie, pres.; Philadelphia Regional 
Committee for Action, Lillian Gales, care of Bentz- 
ley, Route 3, Perkasie, sec.; Farmers' Protective 
Assn., H. H. Hawbaker, Greencastle, sec.; South 
Dakota: South Dakota State Committee for Action, 
E. L. Bolland, Pierpont, sec.; United Farmers' 
Lg., Julius Walstead, Sisseton, State sec.; Texas: 
Texas Farmers' Protective Assn., Ralph Gillespie, 
Route 2, Center, sec.; Texas Farm Debt Holiday 
Assn., Ben Lauderdale, R.F.D., Breckenridge, sec.; 
Washington: Washington State Committee for 
Action, Ralph Nelson, Route 1, Sedro-Woolley, 
sec., Casey Boskaljon, Route 1, Box 269, Eaton- 
ville, State sec.; Wisconsin: United Farmers' Lg., 
Jchn Hetts, Colby, State sec.; Wyoming: Stock- 
man-Farmers' Holiday & Protective Assn., Mack 
Smith, Yoder, sec. 

UNITED FARMERS 
PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION 
Of the communist United Farmers 
League; exec, sec., Alfred Miller, Dublin, 
Pa.; pres., Lewis C. Bentzley. The organ 
"Organized Farmer" is printed as part of 
the Farmers National Weekly of the Farm- 
ers National Committee of Action. The 
Nov. 10th, 1933, issue tells how the com- 
munist Young Pioneers chopped wood for 
Bentzley when he was sick recently as an 
"act of solidarity." 

UNITED WORKERS 
COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION 
Jewish Communist society operating 
Camp Nitgedaiget (see). 

U.S. CONGRESS AGAINST WAR 
No one can doubt the cooperation 
between "pacifists" and revolutionaries 
after reading a list of committee members 
and supporting organizations of this Con- 
gress (2,700 delegates from 35 states). 

See "World Congress Against War" for 
an idea of these Congresses organized and 
controlled by Moscow's communist Intl. 
League Against Imperialism, also for the 
personnel of its American Committee for 
Struggle Against War, the headquarters 
(104 Fifth Ave., N.Y.C.) and organizer of 
this U.S. Congress Against War held in 
N.Y. City, Sept. 29-Oct. 2, 1933. 



236 



The Red Network 



The communist Daily Worker, Sept. 29, 
1933, described the greeting planned for 
Henri Barbusse, French Communist dock- 
ing that day, coming to address the Con- 
gress, and said: "The principal speakers 
at the opening session will include, besides 
Barbusse, Devere Allen of the War Resisters 
League; Earl Browder, General Secretary, 
Communist Party ; Dr. Alfons Goldschmidt, 
exiled German professor; William Pickens, 
field secretary Nat. Assn. for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People; Prof. Reinhold 
Niebuhr, and others. The same speakers 
will speak at both opening meetings" (Mec- 
ca Temple and St. Nicholas Arena). Com- 
munist Donald Henderson and J. B. 
Matthews of the "pacifist" Fellowship of 
Reconciliation were scheduled as the two 
chairmen. To again quote: "More than 
115 national organizations, with a com- 
bined membership of about 800,000, have 
endorsed the Congress, including the Peo- 
ple's Lobby with John Dewey as president. 
..." "Five delegates have been elected 
by the Pennsylvania branch of the 
Women's International League for Peace 
and Freedom, of which Jane Addams is 
honorary international chairman." (Em- 
phasis supplied.) 

The Daily Worker, Sept. 30, 1933 
reported overflow crowds at both halls, 
2,500 delegates present, and told some- 
thing of the speeches of Communist Henri 
Barbusse, A. J. Muste, and Communist 
Earl Browder. 

Barbusse's formal message through the 
Daily Worker, Sept. 30, "to all American 
workers of hand and brain" was: "I urge 
them to join as one man in a movement 
to which the revolutionaries of all Euro- 
pean countries have already pledged their 
adherence the struggle to the death 
against Fascism and imperialist war." 

Previously, one of the headline speakers 
coming to address this Congress, Tom 
Mann, a notorious veteran English Com- 
munist agitator, had been delayed by the 
U.S. State Dept. in entering the U.S., but 
vigorous protests from Communist, Social- 
ist, "Pacifist" groups, and the Red-aiding 
American Civil Liberties Union, caused the 
bar to be lifted and Mann to be granted a 
special visa to enter the United States to 
give speeches "protesting against war" and 
favoring bloody revolution. Communists 
Barbusse and Mann were booked to 
address a series of Communist mass meet- 
ings following the Congress (Chicago, Oct. 
23, etc.). 

Its call to "every organization to form 
a united front," sent out in leaflet form, 



listed its "Members of the Arrangements 
Committee for the U.S. Congress Against 
War" as follows: 

Donald Henderson, exec. dir. Am. Com. for 
Struggle Against War; Mrs. Annie E. Gray, dir. 
Women's Peace Society; J. B. Matthews, exec, 
sec. Fell. Recon.; Roger Baldwin, exec. dir. A.C. 
L.U.; F. E. Bearce, Marine Workers Unemployed 
Union I.W.W.; Herbert Benjamin, nat. organizer 
Nat. Com. Unemployed Councils; Leroy Bow- 
man, N.Y. Chapter, L.I.D.; A. Davis, sec. A.F. 
of L. Trade Union Com. for Unemp. Insur.; Anna 
N. Davis, treas. War Resisters Lg.; James W 
Ford, Communist T.U.U.L.; Wm. Z Foster 
chmn. Communist Party U.S.A.; Mary Fox, exec, 
sec. L.I.D.; Carl Geiser, nat. sec. Youth Section, 
Amer. Com. for Struggle Against War; Julius 
Gerber, exec, sec., N.Y.C. Socialist Party; Dr. 
Israel Goldstein, chmn. Social Justice Section 
Rabbinical Assembly of Am.; Gilbert Green, nat. 
sec. Young Communist Lg.; Powers Hapgood, nat. 
exec. com. Lg. Against Fascism; J. B. S. Hard- 
man, ed. "The Advance," Amalg. Cloth. Wkrs. of 
Am.; Lem Harris, nat. sec. Farmers Nat. Com 
for Action; Clarence Hathaway, ed. Daily Worker; 
John Herling, Emer. Com. Strik. Rel.; Harold 
Hickerson, Wkrs. Ex-Service Men's Lg ; Roy Hud- 
son, nat. sec. Marine Wkrs. Indust. Un.; Mrs. 
Addie Waite Hunton, hon. pres. Intl. Coun. of 
Women of Darker Races; Abraham Kaufman 
exec. sec. War Resisters Lg.; Dr. Harry Laidler, 
dir. L.I.D.; Edw. Levinson, pub. dir. Socialist 
Party of Am.; Aaron Levinstein, N.Y. sec. Young 
Peoples Socialist Lg.; Lola Maverick Lloyd 
Women's Peace Society; Richard Lovelace, nat. 
treas. Vet. National Rank and File Com.; Robt 
Morss Lovett, pres. L.I.D.; Robt. Minor, cent, 
exec. com. Communist Party; A. J. Muste, nat. 
chmn. Conf. Prog. Lab. Act.; Ray Newton, sec. 
Peace Section, Amer. Friends Serv. Com.; Albert 
G. Sellers, nat. treas. Bonus Expeditionary Forces 
Rank and File Com.; Upton Sinclair, Am. Com. 
for Struggle Against War; Tucker P. Smith, 
Brookwood Lab. Coll.; Chas. Solomon, Socialist 
Party; Jack Stachel, acting sec. T.U.U.L.; Nor- 
man Thomas, nat. exec. com. Socialist Party 
Louise Thompson, I.L.D.; Wm. R. Truax, pres 
Ohio Unemp. Lg.; Gus Tyler, Young Peoples 
Socialist Lg.; Howard Y. Williams, exec. sec. 
L.I.P.A.; Alfred . Wagenknecht, exec. sec. Nat. 
Com. to Aid Victims of German Fascism. 

"Supporting Organizations": 

Am. Com. for Struggle Against War*; A.F. of 
L. Trade Un. Com. for Unemp. Ins.*; Anti- 
Imperialist Lg. of the U.S.*; Bonus Expeditionary 
Forces Rank and File of Am.*; Committees on 
Militarism in Education; Communist Party of 
U.S.A.*; Conf. for Prog. Lab. Act.; Farmers Nat. 
Com. of Action*; Farmers Union Cooperative 
Marketing Assn.; Fell. Recon.; Finnish Workers 
Fed.*; Friends of the Soviet Union*; Icor*; Inter- 
collegiate Council, L.I.D.; Intl. Com for Political 
Prisoners; Intl. Lab. Defense*; Intl. Wkrs. 
Order*; John Reed Clubs of the U.S.*; Labor 
Sports Union*; L.I.D.; Lg. of Professional 
Groups for Foster and Ford*; Lg. Struggle for 



Negro Rights*; Marine Wkrs. Indust. Un.*; Marine 
Transport Ind. Un. I.W.W.; Nat. Com. to 
Aid Victims of German Fascism*; Nat. Farmers 
Holiday Assn.; Nat. Lithuanian Youth Fed.*; 
Nat. Miners Union*; Nat. Student Com. for 
Struggle Against War*; Nat. Student Lg.*; Needle 
Trades Wkrs. Indust. U.*; Ohio Unemployed Lg.; 
Pa. Com. for Total Disarmament; Socialist Party 
of Am.; Steel and Metal Wkrs. Indust. Union*; 
T.U.U.L.*; Unemp. Councils Nat. Com.*; United 
Farmers Lg.*; United Farmers Protective Assn.*; 
Veterans Nat. Rank and File Com.*; War Resisters 



Organizations, Etc. 



237 



Lg.; Wkrs. and Farmers Cooperative Unity 
Alliance*; Wkrs. Ex-Service Men's Lg.*; Wkrs. 
Intl. Relief*; World Peaceways, Inc.; Women's 
Peace Society; Wkrs. Unemp. Union, I.W.W.; 
Young Communist Lg.*; Young Pioneers of Am.*; 
Youth Section Am. Com. for Struggle Against 
War.* 

Formed Am. Lg. Against War and 
Fascism (see). 

*Commumst or Communist-controlled 
organizations. Note the cooperation of 
"peace" societies. 

UTILITY CONSUMERS AND 

INVESTORS LEAGUE 

(OF ILLINOIS) 

A Socialist-controlled organization 
attacking the public utilities of Illinois 
in order to break down public confidence in 
private ownership of utilities. Its Bulletin 
issued Feb. 1933 states that its "Officials, 
Directors, Advisory Committee" are as 
follows: 

Prof. Paul H. Douglas, Chicago, pres.; Senator 
Thos. P. Gunning, Princeton, vice pres.; James H. 
Andrews, Kewanee; Dr. Edward Bowe, Jackson, 
ville; E. A. Branson, Evanston; Prof. A. R. 
Hatton, Evanston; Harold L. Ickes, Chicago; Isaac 
Kuhn, Champaign; Mrs. B. F. Langworthy, 
Winnetka; Dr. Louis L. Mann, Chicago; A. D. 
McLarty, Urbana; W. T. Rawleigh, Freeport; 
Carl Vrooman, Bloomington; Karl Eitel, Chicago; 
Amelia Sears, Chicago; John Fitzpatrick, Chicago; 
Leo Heller, Chicago; Prof. Chas. E. Merriam, 
Chicago; H. R. Mohat, Freeport; Mrs. Laura K. 
Pollak, Highland Park; Donald R. Richberg, Chi- 
cago; Alfred K. Stern, Chicago. 

(Of these Harold Ickes, Paul H. Douglas, 
A. K. Stern, James H. Andrews, and Don- 
ald Richberg are among ' Roosevelt 
appointees). Hdqts. Room 1820, 77 W. 
Washington St., Chicago. 

V 

VANGUARD PRESS 
Founded and financed with $139,453 
(192S-8) by the red Garland Fund; dedi- 
cated to the publication of revolutionary, 
"class-struggle," Communist-Socialist liter- 
ature; 80 Fifth Ave., N.Y. City. 

VOKS 

Soviet govt. organization describing itself 
in 1933 Communist Soviet periodicals as the 
"Society for Cultural Relations with 
Foreign Countries" (the American branch 
is A.S.C.R.R.) and stating that it "1. Gives 
information in foreign countries on all 
questions of Soviet construction and Soviet 
culture. ... 2. Interchanges publications on 
science, literature and art with all coun- 
tries in the world. 3. Organizes exhibitions 
of science and art in foreign countries. 4. 
Helps foreign artists and scientific workers 
coming to the U.S.S.R. and sends Soviet 



workers in art and science abroad. 5. Car- 
ries on cultural work with foreigners arriv- 
ing in the U.S.S.R. 6. Arranges meetings 
and lectures ... in the U.S.S.R. and abroad. 
7. Publishes . . . many publications in three 
languages (English, German and French)." 
Hdqts. V.O.K.S., Moscow 69, Trubnikooski 
Pereulok, 17. 

W 

WAR RESISTERS INTERNATIONAL 
W.R. Intl. 

Plainly called "a communist organization" 
by "The Patriot" (Boswell Pub. Co., Lon- 
don, Aug. 31, 1933 issue) ; the initiator of 
the War Resisters International Council 
(see below), of which it is a part; held 
its first international conference at Bilt- 
hoven, Holland, 1921; its International 
Conference at Sonntagsberg, Austria, as 
reported in the War Resister, Oct. 1928 
issue, regretted "the absence of friends 
from Moscow," while the conference dis- 
cussions centered around "War Resistance 
and Revolution," and the report said "The 
discussion of War Resistance and Revo- 
lution revealed the deep sympathy of those 
present with all those who struggle for a 
new social order, and the recognition that 
we, the members of the War Resisters 
International, have to be within this strug- 
gle." Delegates from the International 
Fellowship of Reconcilation, International 
Anti-Militarist Bureau, International Co- 
operative Movement, Friends Committee 
for International Service, International 
Bahai Movement, World League of Cath- 
olic Youth, International Movement for 
Christian Communism, among whom were 
Free Thinkers, Liberals, Socialists, and 
Anarchists, composed this conference. 

Among the sections of the W.R. Intl. 
are the Union of Anarcho-Socialists of 
Austria, the Womens Intl. League (for 
Peace and Freedom) of Australia and Ire- 
land, the Fellowship of Reconciliation, 
Women's Peace Society, Women's Peace 
Union, The Movement for Christian Com- 
munism, the Young Anti-Militarists, the 
Holland Union of Religious Anarcho-Com- 
munists, the Nat. Peace Council, etc. (three 
of them openly anarchistic-communistic 
organizations) . 

The beliefs and objectives of the War 
Resisters International are officially ad- 
mitted ("War Resistance a Practical Policy," 
p. 7) in part as follows: "Out of the 
present chaos the War Resisters Inter- 
national believes a new social order can 
and will be established. ... It believes 
these changes may be accomplished by 



238 



The Red Network 



revolutionary uprisings. . . . Every war 
resister desires to take part in the struggle 
confident in the ultimate triumph of the 
forces which make for a new social order." 
And p. 22: "We have made representations 
to the various governments. . . . These 
representations are not sent direct from the 
International, but in this we have always 
had the willing help of men of eminence, 
such as Prof. Einstein." 

The "Statement of Principles" of the 
War Resisters International declares against 
"wars to preserve the existing order of 
society," but concerning "wars on behalf 
of the oppressed proletariat, whether for 
its liberation or defense" says: "To refuse 
to take up arms for this purpose, is most 
difficult. (1) Because the proletarian 
regime, and even more the enraged masses, 
in time of revolution, would regard as a 
traitor any one who would refuse to sup- 
port the new order, by force. (2) Because 
our instinctive love for the suffering and 
the oppressed would tempt us to use vio- 
lence on their behalf." In other words, 
open resistance to defense of existing gov- 
ernments is urged, while the idea is ad- 
vanced that it would be considered 
traitorous to refuse to support revolution- 
aries in overthrowing these governments. 
"And this is called 'pacifism* not 'com- 
munism'!", says the National Republic, 
April, 1933, issue. 

Einstein, whose communistic work is 
regarded so highly by Moscow, is a War 
Resisters International leader, and the 
founder of its Einstein War Resisters 
Fund. He asks that contributions to the 
Fund be sent to the War Resisters Inter- 
national headquarters, at Middlesex, Eng- 
land, to aid militant war resisters who get 
into trouble with their governments. He 
is also author of the "2 per cent" slogan 
which agitates that if only two per cent 
of the population will militantly refuse all 
war service in defense of their government, 
the jails will not be large enough to hold 
them all, and they can effectively cripple 
their government in the prosecution of any 
war. Lenin's slogan "Turn an imperialist 
war into a civil war in all countries!" is 
along the same line, only Lenin frankly 
termed this Red Revolution, not pacifism. 
After Hitler's anti-communist regime came 
into power, Einstein recommended war 
against Germany. 

WAR RESISTERS 
INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 
W.R. Intl. Coun. 
Initiated by the War Resisters Inter- 



national, and composed of the War 
Resisters International and its sections, of 
the Friends Service Council and the Friends 
Peace Committee, The Woman's Inter- 
national League for Peace and Freedom, 
International Fellowship of Reconciliation, 
International Womens Cooperative Guild, 
International Anti-Militarist Bureau, Syn- 
dicalist International, International Union 
of Anti-Militarist Ministers and Clergymen. 
These, according to the War Resisters 
International bulletins, are international 
Anti-Militarist organizations, having their 
first meetings in Holland, and all the move- 
ments are linked together "working for the 
supercession of capitalism and imperialism, 
by the establishment of a new social and 
international order, based on the principle 
of cooperation for the common good." 
(War Resister, August 1927 issue, p. 6). 

The international chairman of the War 
Resisters International Council is A. Fen- 
ner Brockway, who is also national chair- 
man of the very red Independent Labour 
Party of Great Britain. He said, in a 
recent issue of the International War 
Resister, concerning the supposed present 
breakdown of capitalism, that this crisis 
is "likely to make the government rock" 
and that "It is the duty of Socialists to 
speed the rocking, until it brings down, not 
only the government, but the system of 
which the government is an expression." 
He toured the United States in 1932, under 
League for Industrial Democracy auspices. 
(See Independent Labour Party.) 

WAR RESISTERS LEAGUE 
W.R. Lg. 

American affiliate of the War Resisters 
International (see) ; Einstein became its 
honorary chairman in Feb. 1933; its 
organ is the Socialist-Pacifist magazine 
"The World Tomorrow," so well financed 
by the communistic Garland Fund; the 
League sent out a so-called "Peace Letter 
to the President of the United States" 
around Armistice Day, announcing the 
peacetime treason, which in wartime would 
become actual treason, that its members 
"declared deliberate intention to refuse to 
support war measures or to render war 
service," in case our government should 
resort to arms; it sent out a questionnaire 
asking in part "is it necessary to change 
the economic system before we get rid of 
war?" with the answer "No, we must 
attack both problems at once" (D.A.R. 
bulletins 1930-1); the slacker pledge 
required for enrollment in this league is: 



Organizations, Etc. 



239 



"I declare it to be my intention never to 
take part in war, offensive or defensive, 
international or civil, whether it be by 
bearing arms, making or handling mu- 
nitions, voluntarily subscribing to war 
loans, or using my labor for the purpose 
of setting others free for war service." 

(1933) Albert Einstein, hon. chmn.; Devere 
Allen, chmn.; exec, com.: Devere Allen, Edmund 
B. Chaffee, Frank Olmstead, Sidney E. Goldstein, 
chmn.; Beatrice Greenfield and Jessie Wallace 
Hughan, secretaries; Anna N. Davis, treas.; 
Abraham Kaufman, asst. treas.; Ellen Chater, Mrs. 
J. Sergeant Cram, Kedar N. Das Gupta, Anna N. 
Davis, Dorothy Detzer, Mary Fox, Annie E. Gray, 
Jessie Wallace Hughan, Edwin C. Johnson, Leon 
Rosser Land, Frados Langer Lazarus, Mary B. 
Orr, John Nevin Sayre, Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, 
Tucker P. Smith. National Committee: Roy E. 
Burt, Kath. Duffield, Adelaide Case, Allan Chal- 
mers, Bernard Clausen, Bruce Curry, Edwin Fair- 
ley, Wm. Floyd, Eliz. Gilman, Alvin C. Goddard, 
Francis Henson, Clarence V. Howell, Evelyn 
West Hughan, Edw. L. Israel, Paul Jones, John 
Rowland Lathrop, Paul Limbert, Darwin J. 
Meserole, Francis J. McConnell, Henry Neumann, 
Harry A. Overstreet Kirby Page, Edw. C. M. 
Richards, Clarence Senior, Olivia Dunbar Law- 
rence, Truda J. Weil, Lydia G. Wentworth, Wayne 
White, Mary Winsor, Winnifred Wygal, Hdqts.; 
Devere Allen, 40 W. 68th St., N.Y. City. 

WOMEN'S COUNCIL 

A term used for United Council of 
Working Class Women (see). 

WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE 

FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM 
W.I.L.P.F. 

Formed, and headed continuously as 
international president, by Jane Addams. 
Communists Wm. Z. Foster, Scott Nearing, 
Benj. Gitlow, Eliz. Gurley Flynn and their 
close associates, Robt. Morss Lovett (who 
lives at Hull House), Roger N. Baldwin, 
Sidney Hillman, Morris L. Ernst, Lewis S. 
Gannett, Clinton S. Golden, Freda Kirch- 
wey, Norman Thomas, and James Weldon 
Johnson, etc., the Board of Directors of 
the Garland Fund, voted to this approved 
"peace" and "total disarmament" society, 
which also agitated for recognition of 
Soviet Russia, the following sums: (1924- 
25 Report, page 22) "Women's Inter- 
national League for Peace and Freedom, 
New York City. For traveling expenses of 
speakers on imperialism to Senate Com- 
mittee hearing and to Chicago conference, 
(Mar. 4th and May 22nd) $543.17"; (same 
Report, p. 33) "For general expenses, 6 
months (Oct. 22nd) $1,000"; (1925-26 
Report, p. 12) "For publication of monthly 
bulletin Tax' $2,400"; (1926-27 Report, 
p. 28) "For publication of monthly bulle- 
tin Tax' $1,200"; (1927-28 Report, p. 37) 



"For publication of monthly bulletin Tax' 
$1,200." 

How many people reading these loving 
peace and total disarmament "Peace" 
bulletins and hearing the anti-imperialist 
"Peace" speakers on the "Pax Special" 
realized that Moscow's Communist leaders 
for bloody revolution helped to vote funds 
to pay for both? Jane Addams, in plain- 
tive and characteristically dulcet style, says 
in her book, "Second Twenty Years at 
Hull House" (p. 173) concerning the W.L 
L.P.F. Congress held in Wash., D.C., 1924: 
"We found the newspapers, the patriotic 
societies and the military making a charge 
against us of 'internationalism' as if that 
in itself were altogether damaging. . . . The 
Congress of the W.I.L. was followed by a 
two week summer school in Chicago, where 
no difficulties were encountered, although 
some arose in connection with a private 
car, the Pax Special which carried twenty- 
five of the delegates to and from Chicago, 
making an opportunity for them to be 
heard in many cities of the United States 
and Canada. On the journey westward in 
certain of the cities meetings and receptions 
were cancelled because of propaganda based 
not only on misunderstandings but on 
deliberate misrepresentation which had 
first made itself felt in Washington." 

The "Woman Patriot," May 1, 1922, 
states: "Frequent changes of name as 
advised by Nicolai Lenin are resorted to 
by the International feminist-pacifist bloc 
as often as necessary, but the entire move- 
ment originates with the International 
Woman's Suffrage Alliance. The work is 
divided up like an army's artillery, cavalry 
and infantry into three mobile divisions: 
the political under Mrs. Catt and her 
International Woman Suffrage Alliance 
and League of Women Voters. The pacifist 
under Miss Jane Addams and her W.L 
L.P.F. The industrial under Mrs. Raymond 
Robins and her International League of 
Working Women and Womens Trade Union 
League" (also Garland Fund-supported). 
"The three branches are employed pre- 
cisely as a wise general would engage 
artillery, cavalry or infantry ; using all three 
together whenever necessary, each one alone 
for special objectives." 

Said Whitney's "Reds in America" in 
1924, p. 181: "That the W.I.LP.F. is 
closely aligned with the Third Inter- 
national in interest and objective is clearly 
shown in an advertisement which recently 
appeared in the 'World Tomorrow' and 
cited by the 'Woman Patriot' in which it 
is stated that Miss Jane Addams of Hull 



240 



The Red Network 



House, Chicago, is listed as a stockholder 
in the Russian-American Industrial Cor- 
poration (Sidney Hillman) along with 
Nicolai Lenin, Eugene V. Debs, Charles P. 
Steinmetz and Congressman La Guardia. 
The Woman Patriot also quotes the Fed- 
erated Press Bulletin as stating that Anna 
Louise Strong, for many years Moscow 
correspondent of the Federated Press, and 
for the official American Communist 
organ 'The Worker,' expects to fill numerous 
lecture engagements during the winter and 
can be reached at Hull House, No. 800 S. 
Halsted St., Chicago, 111." 

The International Entente against the 
Third International (hdqts. Geneva, Swit- 
zerland), in a 1932 report on Communist 
activities, said of India: its "North west 
frontier is infested by the Red Shirts of 
Abdul Gafar, a revolutionary organization 
in relations with Moscow and which also 
appears to be similarly connected with the 
Hindu National Congress. It has no doubt 
been remarked that Mahatma Gandhi 
recalled in haste by this Congress, never- 
theless found time to pay a visit to Romain 
Rolland and to speak at Geneva under the 
auspices of the Women's International 
League for Peace and Freedom ... the 
secretary-general of the French section of 
the W.I.L.P.F." (which recently published 
an appeal to all Frenchmen to defend the 
U.S.S.R. against its enemies), "Mme. 
Duchene, is at the same time a member of 
the executive committee of the Anti-Im- 
perialist League directed by the German 
Communist Muenzenberg." 

The W.I.L.P.F. was formed in 1915 at 
The Hague after "peace" agitations in the 
United States led by Jane Addams, Social- 
ist Louis P. Lochner (afterward head of 
the Communists' Federated Press), Rosika 
Schwimmer ("first Bolshevik Ambassador 
from Hungary to Switzerland in 1919" 
under the Hungarian Communist regime), 
and Mrs. Pethwick Lawrence, a British 
radical. Jane Addams sailed with Lochner 
and Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, April 
1915, for The Hague where they joined 
Rosika Schwimmer and delegates from 18 
countries and formed there the Women's 
International Committee for Permanent 
Peace, since 1919 called the W.I.L.P.F. 
Jane Addams became and has remained 
its international president. 

The British section, Oct. 1, 1915, took 
the name of Women's International League. 
They ran a Peace Crusade organized by 
Mrs. Helen Crawfurd (later a member of 
the British Communist Party) and also 



supported the notorious Moscow-inspired 
Leeds Conference of June 3, 1917, which 
congratulated the people of Russia on the 
success of their revolution and appointed 
a committee to set up Soviets in England 
which would cause a revolution that would 
end war. (See "English Reds.") Mrs. Peth- 
wick Lawrence was honorary secretary of 
the British section and the executive com- 
mittee included Miss Margaret Bondfield 
(who spoke in 1933 in Chicago at the Intl. 
Council of Women with Jane Addams; a 
member of the very Red Ind. Labor Party 
and 1917 Club "combining Pacifism with 
definitely revolutionary aims") ; Maud 
Royden of the same 1917 Club; Mrs. Philip 
Snowden (wife of Ind. Labour Party leader 
and a radical) ; Mrs. Despard (of the Com- 
munist W.I.R. British section), etc. 

Francis Ralston Welsh in a published 
report refers to the W.I.L.P.F. as "virtually 
a feminine branch of the A.C.L.U.," Jane 
Addams, Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, Mrs. 
Henry Goddard Leach, Eliz. Glendower 
Evans, Kate Crane Gratz, having served 
with Communists Wm. Z. Foster, Scott 
Nearing, Robt. W. Dunn, Eliz. Gurley 
Flynn and Max Eastman, etc. on the nat. 
com. of the A.C.L.U., as well as in active 
W.I.L.P.F. positions, and many other 
W.I.L.P.F. leaders such as Fanny Bixby 
Spencer, Miss Mary Winsor, Miss Sophia 
Dulles, etc., having served on local A.C. 
L.U. committees. He says: "Some mem- 
bers of the W.I.LP.F. have been members 
and promoters of openly Communist organ- 
izations" (Charlotte Anita Whitney, who 
was aided by Jane Addams, being one). 
"The communist Daily Worker of July 1, 
1923 lists the W.I.L.P.F. as one of the 
organizations that cooperated with the 
Communists in organizing the so-called 
Farmer Labor Party, a radical organization 
gotten up by the American Civil Liberties 
Union crowd. They sent a delegation to 
Washington" (Jan. 1920) "to protest 
against deportation 'of those designated as 
Reds.' " He refers to the W.I.L.P.F.'s nick- 
name as "Women's International League 
for Civil War and Communism" on account 
of its tendencies. Marvin, in "Ye Shall 
Know the Truth," states: "In December, 
1922, the fourth international conference 
was held at The Hague, Miss Addams, 
among others from the United States, 
attending. Among other resolutions adopted 
was one 'in regard to the release of the 
American political prisoners before Christ- 
mas.' It will be noted that in this matter 
of so-called 'political prisoners,' as in prac- 
tically all other matters the W.I.L.P.F. 



Organizations, Etc. 



241 



adopted the same position as the Com- 
munists and Socialists." 

Madeleine Z. Doty, wife of Roger Bald- 
win (director of both Garland Fund and 
American Civil Liberties Union), for a long 
time was international secretary of the 
W.I.L.P.F., with hdqts. at Geneva, Swit- 
zerland, and is still editor of its bulletin 
"Pax." 

The W.I.L.P.F., which in 1930 claimed 
sections in 26 countries and a total mem- 
bership of 50,000 members, is a section of 
the War Resisters International Council, 
which is "working for the supercession of 
capitalism and imperialism by the estab- 
lishment of a new social and international 
order" (War Resister, Feb. 1927). The 
Vienna W.I.LP.F. congress recommended 
that "they support law looking to the grad- 
ual abolition of property privileges," which 
is simply Communism (Wash., D.C., April 
1923 release of WJ.L.P.F. on its "Program 
and International Aims"). 

The 1931 W.I.L.P.F. letterhead lists: 

Meta Berger (widow of the revolutionary Victor 
Berger) as chmn. of Publicity; Mildred Scott 
Olmstead (wife of Allen S.), Organization; Amy 
Woods, Literature; Dorothy Detzer, Legislative; 
Addie W. Hunton, Inter-Racial; Clara S. Laddey, 
Finance; Helen Everett of Madison, Wis., Edu- 
cation; pres., Emily Greene Balch; chmn., Hanna 
Clothier Hull; treas., Florence G. Taussig; asst. 
treas., Juliet C. Patten; rec. sec., Margaret Loring 
Thomas; regional director Pacific Coast states, 
Anne Martin; exec. sec. Dorothy Detzer; Chair- 
men of State Branches: Margaret Long, Colo.; 
Ethelwyn Mills, Cal.; Gertrude Scott Straub, 
Hawaii; Alice Boynton, 111.; Lena C. Van Bibber, 
Md.; Martha Helen Elliott, Mass.; Lillian Holt, 
Mich.; Maud C. Stockwell, Minn.; Amelia B. 
Moorfield, Wis.; Lucy J. M. Taylor, N.M.; Grace 
Hoffman White, N.Y.; Emily B. Harvey, Pa.; 
National Board: the officers, chmn. of standing 
committees, state chmn., and Zonia Baber, 111.; 
Katherine D. Blake, N.Y.; Zona Gale, Wis.; 
Kathleen McGraW Hendrie, Mich.; Alice Marion 
Holmes, Mass.; Bessie Kind, Pa.; Lucy Biddle 
Lewis, Pa.; Kathleen Jennison Lowrie, Mich.; Em- 
ma Guffey Miller, Pa.; Esther Morton Smith, D.C.; 
Lillian D. Wald, N.Y.; Carrie S. Weyl, Pa.; Jane 
Addams, Honorary International President. 

WOMEN'S PEACE PARTY 

Cooperated during the war with the 
Socialist Party in the Emergency Peace 
Federation (1917) and with the American 
Union Against Militarism, whose Civil 
Liberties Bureaus defending radicals call- 
ing themselves "conscientious objectors" 
became the American Civil Liberties Union 
("Red-aid Society"). A letter from Rosika 
Schwimmer to Louis Lochner on Women's 
Peace Party stationery is reproduced in 
the Lusk Report. Jane Addams was nat. 
chmn. ; Mrs. Amos Pinchot, chmn. N.Y. 
City branch; Mrs. Louis D. Brandeis, a 
vice chmn.; Carrie Chapman Catt was a 



leader, as was Mrs. Henry Villard; other 
active workers were: Eliz. Glendower 
Evans, Lucia Ames Mead, Crystal East- 
man, Mrs. James Warbasse, Madeleine 
Doty, Mary Austin, Mrs. Frederic Howe, 
Mrs. Florence Kelley, Mary Shaw, Lillian 
D. Wald, Anna Strunsky Walling, Margaret 
Lane, Agnes Brown Leach, etc., etc. (Lusk 
Report). 

WOMEN'S PEACE SOCIETY 
See "Who's Who" for affiliations of 
Annie E. Gray, its exec. sec. "Founded by 
the late Fanny Garrison Villard" (mother 
of the radical Oswald Garrison Villard) ; 
a radical pacifist "International Non- 
Resistant Organization" claiming members 
"in every state in the U.S.A. and in Austria, 
Canada, Cuba, England, France, Ireland, 
Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey"; 
affiliated with the ultra-radical War 
Resisters International (see), which is 
"working for the supercession of capitalism 
and imperialism by the establishment of a 
new social and international order." (War 
Resister, Aug. 1927, p. 6). Annie E. Gray 
is sec. and a speaker for such Communist 
meetings as the U.S. Congress Against War 
(see), World Congress of Youth (see), etc. 
(Daily Worker, Sept. 15, Oct. 2, 1933). 
She says: "Our method is educational 
through such channels as the radio; the 
publication of a News Letter and other 
literature, which is distributed by mail 
and at indoor and outdoor meetings on 
appropriate occasions such as Good Will 
Day, Memorial Day, Armistice Day, etc. 
and throughout the summer, thereby reach- 
ing great masses of people who could not 
otherwise be reached." Its membership 
pledge is: "I declare it to be my intention 
never to aid in or sanction war, offensive 
or defensive, international or civil, in any 
way, whether by making or handling mu- 
nitions, subscribing to war loans, using my 
labor for the purpose of setting others free 
for war service, helping by money or work 
any relief organization which supports or 
condones war." Hdqts. 20 Vesey St., New 
York City. Supporting organization com- 
munist U.S. Cong. Ag. War. 

WOMEN'S PEACE UNION 
Affiliated with the radical War Resisters 
International (see), which is presided over 
by the very red Ind. Labour Party leader, 
Fenner Brockway; a sponsor of the Green 
International; organized 1920; circulates 
leaflets attacking the Boy Scouts as "mili- 
taristic" and ridiculing the Star Spangled 
Banner. One called "Militarism" by Fan- 



242 



The Red Network 



nie Bixby Spencer says: "If you or I 
salute the flag or stand up to the tune of 
that barbaric war whoop called the Star 
Spangled Banner, we are complying with 
the demands of militarism, sinister mental 
militarism which is driving us headlong 
into another World War for the magnificent 
destruction of civilization." Another 
pamphlet called "Idols" is circulated, which 
says of the U.S. flag: "Upon every ros- 
trum, pulpit and altar in the land this 
fetish is given the place of honor. This idol 
which stands for the glorification of war, 
hate, violence, the fostering of nationalism, 
which represents all that is contrary to the 
laws of God, is openly worshipped in the 
house of God. ... It is an important part 
of the present curriculum of the public 
schools that the children be forced daily 
to bow to and worship the idol," etc. 

With Jane Addams' W.I.L.P.F., Fellow- 
ship of Reconciliation, and War Resisters 
League, it formed a Fenner Brockway 
Luncheon Committee which invited a large 
audience to welcome him in Wash., D.C. 
Its skillful organizers send representatives 
to War Resisters meetings in the United 
States and abroad where suggestions are 
offered looking toward the "establishment 
of a new social and international order." 
Claims a "nation-wide membership." 
Hdqts. 4 Stone St., N.Y. City. 

WORKERS AND FARMERS 
COOPERATIVE UNITY ALLIANCE 
Section of the communist T.U.U.L.; 
official publication Workers and Farmers 
Cooperative Bulletin, Box, 571, Superior, 
Wis. 

WORKERS CULTURAL 
FEDERATION 

(of at least 130 Societies) 
Wkrs. Cult. Fed. 

Amalgamation of Communist revo- 
lutionary cultural groups; slogan is 
"Toward an American Revolution"; Mid- 
west Workers Cultural Federation is a 
section; formed by the John Reed Club 
delegates to the 2nd Conference of the 
International Union (or Assn.) of Revo- 
lutionary Writers, held at Kharkov, Rus- 
sia, Nov. IS, 1930. They were given their 
instructions to form, on their return to the 
U.S.A., a national organization of revo- 
lutionary writers and artists (Daily Worker, 
Dec. 6, 1930). These delegates were: 

Fred Ellis, Michael Gold, Wm. Cropper, Joshua 
Kunitz, A. B. Magil, Harry Alan Potamkin. 
Accordingly, a conference held in N.Y. City, June 
14, 1931 formed the Workers Cultural Federation 



and elected as Honorary Presidium: Maxim 
Gorki, and N. Krupskaya (Lenin's widow) of the 
U.S.S.R.; Ludwig Renn of Germany; Henri Bar- 
busse of France; Tomas of Hungary; Lo Hsun 
of China; and Theodore Dreiser, John Dos Passes, 
Upton Sinclair, Wm. Z. Foster of the United States. 
An active presidium was elected also consisting of: 
Wm. Cropper, Alex. Trachtenberg, R. B. Glass- 
ford, Michael Gold, K. Marmor, J. Shafer, A. B. 
Magil, Harry Alan Potamkin, T. H. Li (Chinese 
Communist held for deportation). 

Hdqts. were established at 63 W. ISth 
St., N.Y. City with the John Reed Club 
and New Masses magazine, called by the 
New Masses "the first American revo- 
lutionary center." 

A cablegram from Moscow was read at 
this conference saying in part: "Inter- 
national Union Revolutionary Writers Wel- 
comes Launching of Federation Workers 
Cultural Organizations America Stop. . . . 
Before Federation Stands Task of Creating 
Proletarian Culture in Womb of Capitalist 
System Stop Launching Federation Is 
Most Signicant Event in History Amer- 
ican Revolutionary Culture," etc. 

Groups represented consisted of 19 dra- 
matic, 12 literary, 2 Esperanto, 31 edu- 
cational, 6 sports, 10 large choral societies, 
8 instrumental music societies, 2 photo and 
film groups and 40 miscellaneous organ- 
izations as follows: (Note: "W.C." stands 
for "Workers' Club" and "I.W.O." for 
"International Workers Order.") 

"A.I.D.L.D.; Aida Chorus; American Culture 
Center; Arbeiterbund; Artef; A.S.D.S.D.; B.B. 
W. C.; B.G.T.W.O.; Boro Park W.C.; Bronx Hun- 
garian W.C.; Brownsville Youth Center; Chelsea 
Open Forum; Chernishisky Society; Chorus Pir- 
myn; Clove Dramatic Club; Co-operative Colony; 
Council of Working Class Women; Cuban W.C.; 
Daily Worker Worker's Correspondents; D.T W. 
Club; E.N.Y.W.C.; East Side W.C.; Educational 
W.L. ; Elore Hungarian Dramatic Club; Estonian 
W.C.; Federation of Workers Choruses; Finnish 
W.C.; Flatbush Forum of Ethiopian Culture; 
Food Workers Industrial Union; Freemont W.C.; 
Freiheit Gesang Verein; Freiheit Mandolin 
Orchestra; Friedrich Engels I.W.O. ; Golden's 
Bridge Co-operative Colony; Hal Shal; Harlem 
School; Harlem Women's Educational Club; Hun- 
garian Writers Group; Hungarian Literature Group; 
Hungarian Singing Society; Hungarian Workers 
Correspondents; Hungarian Workers Home; Hun- 
garian Workingmen's Sick Benefit Educational 
Federation; Icor; Italian Worker's Center; Ivan 
Frank Society; City Committee I.W.O.; Br. No 
3 I.W.O. School; Br. 146; Br. 91; Br 521- Br 
10; Br. 11; I.W.O. Children's School; Br.' 37; 
I.W.O. Youth Section: Br. 122; Br. 91, 22. 116, 
137, 127, 215; I.W.O. School 14; National 
Executive of I.W.O. Schools; Jack London Club; 
Jewish Children High School I.W.O.; Jewish 
Workers University; Jewish Workers Musical 
Alliance; John Reed Club; Jugoslav W.C.; Rus- 
sian Children's School; Labor Research Assn.; 
Labor Sports Union; League of Struggle for Negro 
Rights; Lithuanian Assn.; Lithuanian Literature 
Society; Lithuanian Physical Culture; Lithuanian 
Workers' Literary Society: Lithuanian Working 
Woman; Lyra; Mapleton W.C.; M.B.O.S.Z.; Mid- 
dle Bronx W.C.; Serp i Molot; Momarts; Natur 



Organizations, Etc. 



243 



Freunde; New Negro Art Theatre; New Pioneer; 
N.Y. Br. of Chinese Anti-Imperialists; N.T.M.N. 
Brass Band; Peasant Society; Proletart; Prolet 
Buhne; iroletcult Progressive Russian School; 
Proletpen; Prospect W.C.; Rebel Poets; Red 
Dancers; Red Spark A.C.; Russian N.M.M.S.; 
Russian Proletarian Art School; Russian Prolet 
Writers; R.U.W. Ch. Col.; Scandinavian W.C.; 
School 12; School 7; Sietyno Chorus; Social Prob- 
lems Club N.Y. Univ.; Ukr. W.C.; Spanish W.C.; 
Spartacus A.C.; Student's League; Syras Chorus; 
Thule; Tietynos; T.U.U.L.; Ukrainian Labor Club; 
Ukrainian Toilers of A.; Ukrainian E.W.S.; 
Ukrainian Women's Club; Unemployed Council 
Mad. Sq. Br.; Un. W. Club, Harlem; Vanguard 
Community Center; Will Work Club; W.I.R.: 
Brass Band, Symphony Orchestra. Co-op House, 
English Chorus, Scouts; World Cinema League; 
W. C. Brighton Beach; W-C. Bronx; W.C. Brook- 
lyn; Workers School; Workers Defense Club; 
Workers Esperanto Group; Workers Film and 
Photo League; Workers Gymnastic and Sport 
Alliance; Workers Lab. Theatre; Workers Music 
School; Workers Youth Club; Working Women 
Br. I; Young Finlanders Society; Young Pioneers 
Orchestra; Y.W.A.D. Club; N.M. Orchestra; Let- 
tish W.C. 

WORKERS DANCE LEAGUE 

Affiliate of the communist Proletarian 
Dramatic Assn. of Am. 

WORKER'S EX-SERVICE 

MEN'S LEAGUE 

Communist; agitates Bonus Marches to 
Washington and hatred of the American 
government among American veterans; it 
masks itself as "Veterans Provisional Liaison 
Committees," "Veterans Expeditionary For- 
ces," etc., etc. in order that loyal veterans 
may not readily realize they are being agi- 
tated to become traitors to the flag they 
fought for. It has largely taken over the 
work of the communist Defense Corps in 
protecting Communist speakers from the 
police, etc. 

WORKERS FILM AND 
PHOTO LEAGUE 

A section of the communist Workers 
International Relief; secures photos for 
the Communist Party of U.S. A. 

WORKERS INTERNATIONAL RELIEF 
W.I.R. 

Communist propaganda relief organ- 
ization ministering to Red strikers, hunger 
marchers, etc.; reed, money from Garland 
Fund; its June 1933 letterhead says 
"Organized Ten Years 18 Million Mem- 
bers Internationally 25 Million Dollars 
Collected for Workers Relief" and states it 
is leading campaigns of "Protest and relief 
in behalf of victims of German Fascism 
. . . and the struggle for immediate urgent 
demands in all localities. . . . Relief to Help 
Win the Struggles of Striking and Unem- 



ployed Workers on the Basis of Solidarity 
Not Charity" (see its Nat. Com. to Aid 
Victims of German Fascism) ; is American 
section of Moscow's International Red 
Aid; runs Young Pioneer Camps (see) all 
over the U.S.; formed Workers Laboratory 
Theatre, etc.; its eighth congress held in 
Berlin, Oct. 9-15, 1931, had "several hun- 
dred delegates from about 40 countries 
present including a number representing 
Socialist, anarchist, pacifist and similar 
organizations" (Am. Labor Year Book) ; 
U.S. section is headed by Communist, athe- 
ist "Bishop" Wm. Montgomery Brown, 
author of anti-religious books for children; 
in 1929 in soliciting subscriptions it sent 
out under the heading "Workers Inter- 
national Relief Camp Dept." a facsimile of 
Albert Einstein's endorsement written in 
his own hand writing, in German, with the 
following translation: "All honor to the 
Workers International Relief (Internazion- 
ale Arbeiter Hilfe) for the work it has 
done! All hand and brain workers should 
realize the importance of this organization 
and seek to strengthen it. A. Einstein." 
Below this was added: "Theodore Dreiser 
endorses W.I.R. Camps for Workers chil- 
dren. Henri Barbusse endorses the W.I.R." 
and then the typically deceptive Red state- 
ment: "Non Political, Non Sectarian, Non 
Partisan, but Always for the Workers. Rose 
Pastor Stokes, National Camp Director, One 
Union Square, New York City." Einstein is 
a member of other Communist organiza- 
tions. A letter head of the "Workers Inter- 
national Relief, Department of Cultural 
Activities, Childrens Camp Department, 949 
Broadway, Room 512, New York" lists: 

"Bishop" Wm. M. Brown as nat. chmn.; Lud- 
wig Landy, exec, sec.; Emjo Basshe, director; 
"Endorsed by Henri Barbusse, Theodore Dreiser, 
Prof. Albert Einstein, Upton Sinclair"; "National 
Committee: Arthur Bodanski, Heywood Broun, 
John Dos Passos, Wm. Cropper, Harold Hickerson, 
Serge Koussevitsky, Eva LeGallienne, Louis Lozo- 
wick, Kenneth MacGowan, Clarina Michelson, 
Eugene Nigob, Harry Alan Potamkin, Leopold 
Stokowski, Edmund Wilson." 

WORKERS LABORATORY THEATRE 

(WORKERS THEATRE SCHOOL) 
(WORKERS THEATRE MAGAZINE) 

The Workers Laboratory Theatre of the 
communist Workers International Relief 
(Agit-Prop section) formed in 1933 a 
Workers Theatre school to teach dramatic 
art, voice training, etc. to performers in 
Communist dramatics (also a Puppet group 
and children's Agit-Prop troupe) ; it 
organized the Workers Theatre magazine, 
name changed Aug. 1933 to New Theatre, 



244 



The Red Network 



organ of the communist League of Workers 
Theatres; N.Y. hdqts. 42 E. 12th St. 

The Chicago branch of the Workers 
Laboratory Theatre meets 1932-33 at 
Abraham Lincoln Center. To quote the 
Daily Worker, Oct. 27, 1933: "The Theatre 
Council of the Midwest Workers Cultural 
Federation sponsors the Workers Labor- 
atory Theatre School, which opened Oct. 
25, at Lincoln Center, 700 E. Oakwood 
Blvd. The school offers three courses to 
workers and students who are interested: 
"1. History and Principles of the Marxian 
Theatre, led by Leon Hess every Monday 
evening. 2. Stage Technique, Voice Dic- 
tion, led by Louise Hamburger, every 
Wednesday evening. 3. Working Class Play- 
writing, led by Bill Andrews, every Friday 
evening. 

"The entire work of this school will be 
directed toward writing, rehearsing and 
producing effective revolutionary plays to 
be presented before working class audiences. 
The use of a fine stage at Lincoln Center 
is one of the features of the school. Any- 
one interested in taking these courses is 
urged to register at once by sending name 
and address to Workers Laboratory 
Theatre, 700 East Oakwood Blvd., Chi- 
cago." 

How the Communist revolutionaries must 
chuckle at the capitalistic "saps" who pro- 
vide them with this stage and meeting 
place! 

WORKERS LIBRARY PUBLISHERS 

Communist Party publishers; SO E. 13th 
St., P.O. Box 148, Sta. D, New York City; 
rec'd. money from Garland Fund; pub- 
lishes Party pamphlets by Max Bedacht, 
Alex. Bittleman, Lloyd Brown, Earl Brow- 
der, Sam Don, Dave Doran, Wm. F. Dunne, 
Harrison George, George Padmore, Helen 
Stassova, Walter Trumbull, Sadie Van 
Veen, Israel Amter, etc. 

WORKERS MUSIC LEAGUE 

Recently formed American section of the 
International Music Bureau of Moscow 
(Communist). "Under the management of 
Frances Strauss this outfit staged a Workers 
Music Olympiad in the auditorium of City 
College of N.Y., May 21, 1933. Proletarian 
music of the United States and Russia was 
featured on the program." (Advisory 
Associates.) 

WORKERS PHILATELIC SOCIETY 

Communist stamp collectors society. 



WORKERS SCHOOLS 
(N.Y., CHICAGO, ETC.) 

Communist schools to train leaders for 
the revolutionary overthrow of the U.S. 
government (Permitted to exist and flour- 
ish in defiance of sedition laws through the 
negligence of American citizens who, per- 
haps, will awaken and blame their own 
laxity only when approaching fascism or 
Communism knocks on their very own 
doors). On the stationery of the main and 
governing New York School (which rec'd 
over $12,000 from the Garland Fund) 
appears the quotation from Lenin: "With- 
out revolutionary theory there can be no 
revolutionary practise." (Hence the Red 
howls for "free speech"). The Am. Labor 
Year Book states it had 1,063 students for 
the fall term of 1931 (the Communist press 
reported 1,600 for the fall of 1932) and 
that: "The School has established Sec- 
tions in the various parts of Greater New 
York. It also guides the educational work 
of many unions, workers' clubs and fra- 
ternal organizations. It conducts a corres- 
pondence course in the Fundamentals of 
Communism, with students in all parts of 
the United States, Canada, Mexico, Aus- 
tralia and elsewhere. The school holds a 
Forum every Sunday night where, it is 
claimed, there is an average attendance 
between 500 and 600. It also supervises 
the activities of its branches in Chicago, 
San Francisco, Detroit, Cleveland, Balti- 
more, Philadelphia, Boston, Kansas City, 
St. Paul, Minneapolis and other cities. In 
addition it has a full time training group, 
the students of which are sent by the 
unions and party divisions for intensive 
preparation for work in the movement. 
The executive committee of the Workers 
School consists of R. Baker, Max Bedacht, 
Wm. Z. Foster, M. James, A. Markoff, G. 
Siskind, Alexander Trachtenberg and W. 
W. Weinstone." Esperanto, as well as 
Russian, English and Spanish, is taught. 
Hdqts. 35 East 12th St., N.Y.C. 

Chicago Workers School, located at 2822 
S. Michigan Ave., states that it is affiliated 
with the N.Y. School and its Fall 1932-33 
announcement contained the following: 
"The Chicago Workers School is the cen- 
tral school of the revolutionary working 
class organizations of the middle west. Its 
object is to train leaders for the growing 
mass struggles against the capitalist offen- 
sive and for the revolutionary way out 
of the crisis of capitalism." The slogan is 
"Training for the Class Struggle." D. E. 
Earley was listed as director, Lydia Beidel, 



Organizations, Etc. 



245 



sec. Advisory Committee: Lydia Beidel, 
Wm. E. Browder, D. E. Earley, Romania 
Ferguson, Albert Goldman, Carl Haessler 
(also a teacher there), Vladimir R. Jano- 
wicz. Among Courses listed were: Prin- 
cip